Cystitis- Overview, Symptoms, Causes and Preventions,


Cystitis is the inflammation of the bladder. The inflammation is most frequently caused by a bacterial infection, and is called a urinary tract infection (UTI). A bladder infection can be both painful and irritating, and if the infection spreads to the kidneys it can become a serious health problem.

Less generally, cystitis can occur as a reaction to certain medications, radiation therapy, or possible irritants, like feminine hygiene spray, spermicidal jellies, or long-term catheter use. Cystitis can also occur as a complication of another disease.


Symptoms of cystitis may include:

  • Heavy, constant urination
  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Blood in urine
  • Heavy-smelling urine
  • Pelvic problem
  • Pressure in the lower abdomen
  • Low-grade fever

New episodes of accidental daytime wetting can also be a symptom of a urinary tract infection (UTI) in young children. Bed-wetting in the night by itself is not would be correlated with a UTI.

When to see a doctor

Take the medical help if you have signs and symptoms common to a kidney infection, including:

  • Back or side pain
  • Fever and chills
  • Nausea and vomiting

Call your doctor if you experience severe, regular, or painful urination that lasts for many hours or longer, or if you find blood in your urine. When you have already been diagnosed with UTI and you experience symptoms that resemble a previous UTI, call your doctor.

Contact your doctor again if signs of cystitis return after you have completed an antibiotic course. A specific form of medication may be required.

If your child starts wetting accidents during the daytime, contact your paediatrician.

Cystitis is uncommon in otherwise healthy people and should be checked by your doctor.


The urinary system involves kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. All play a part in eliminating waste from your body. Your kidneys pair of bean-shaped organs located to the back of your upper abdomen remove waste from your blood and control concentrations of other substances. Tubes called ureters to carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, where it is processed until it leaves your body by the urethra.

Bacterial cystitis   

Women may experience bacterial bladder infections as a result of sexual intercourse. Even girls and women who are sexually inactive are susceptible to urinary tract infections since the female genital region still harbours bacteria that can cause cystitis.

Noninfectious cystitis

While bacterial infections are the most common cause of cystitis, the bladder can often become inflamed by a variety of noninfectious factors. Examples include:

Interstitial cystitis: This is unknown what is the reason for this chronic bladder inflammation, also called painful bladder syndrome. In women, most cases are diagnosed. The disorder can be difficult to diagnose and treat.

Drug-induced cystitis: Some drugs, particularly the chemotherapy drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, can cause inflammation of bladder as the drug’s broken-down components exit your body.

Radiation cystitis: Pelvic area radiation therapy can cause inflammatory changes in tissue in the bladder.

Foreign-body cystitis: Long-term catheter use can predispose you to bacterial infections and tissue damage which can cause inflammation.

Risk factors

Many individuals are more likely to experience infections in the bladder than others. Such a community is women. The main reason is physical anatomy. Women have a shorter urethra which travels to enter the bladder by cutting down on the distance bacteria.

Women at highest risk of UTIs that include:

Are sexually active: Sexual intercourse may cause bacteria to get into the urethra.

Use certain types of birth control: Women who use diaphragms have an increased risk of developing a UTI. Diaphragms containing spermicidal agents raise risk even more.

You are pregnant. Hormonal changes can increase the risk of bladder infection during pregnancy.

You Have experienced menopause: Altered hormone levels are frequently associated with UTIs in postmenopausal women.

Other risk factors for males and females include:

Interference with urine flow: This can happen in conditions such as a bladder stone or, in men, an enlarged prostate.

Changes in the immune system: It can happen under some circumstances, like diabetes, HIV etc. The risk of bacterial and, in some cases, viral bladder infections is increased by a weakened immune system.


Complications can include:

Kidney infection: Untreated infection of the bladder may cause a kidney infection, called pyelonephritis. Kidney infections can cause kidneys damage.

Blood in the urine: You can have blood cells in your urine with cystitis which can be seen with a microscope, and typically improves with care. If blood cells remain after treatment, the doctor can recommend that a specialist determine the cause.


Cranberry juice or proanthocyanidin-containing tablets are also prescribed to help minimize certain women’s risk of persistent bladder infections. However, indicate it’s less effective than previously believed. Some smaller studies showed a small advantage but larger studies found no substantial advantage.

Stop cranberry juice as a home remedy if you are taking warfarin (Coumadin), a blood-thinning drug. That result in bleeding due to potential interactions between cranberry juice and warfarin.

Although if these self-care prevention steps are not well researched, sometimes doctors prescribe the following for repeated bladder infections:

Drink plenty of fluids, especially water: Drinking loads of fluids is particularly important if you get chemotherapy or radiation therapy, especially on days of treatment.

Urinate frequently: Should not miss using the toilet if you have to need to urinate.

Wipe from front to back after a bowel movement: That prevents the spread of bacteria to the vagina and urethra in the anal region.

Take showers instead of tub baths: If you’re susceptible to infection, it may help keep them from showering rather than bathing.

Gently wash the skin around the vagina and anus. Do this every day just doesn’t use rough soaps or wash too vigorously. The delicate skin can get irritated around those areas.

Empty your bladder as soon as possible after intercourse: Drink a full glass of water to help in bacteria flush.

Evite the use of deodorant sprays or feminine genital goods: These products can cause urethra and bladder irritation.

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