(A) Aerobic Exercise:-
Mode:- Walking, Cycling, aquatic exercises (exercises in the swimming pool).
Intensity:- 40% to 70% of HRR (Heart Rate Reserve).
Frequency:- 3 to 5 days a week.
Duration:- 20 to 60 minutes, continuous or intermittent.
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(B) Resistance Training:-
Weight training for all the major joints as well as affected bones should be done for twice or thrice a week. Two to three sets of each exercise and 8 to 10 repetitions for every set are recommended. Intensity will vary between individuals and their respective case history.
Specific exercises focusing on balance and coordination should also be included. Functional exercises that mimic activities of daily living (chair sit and stand vigorous walking) should be performed for two to five days a week.
(C) Flexibility Training:-
Stretching exercises should be performed 5 to 7 days a week. Static stretches (holding a position gently) are recommended.
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(D) Special Considerations:-
Explosive movements and high impact loading exercises such as jumping, sprinting, running, jogging should not be performed.
Patients severely limited by pain should not exercise and must consult a doctor.
Excessive forward bending and twisting of the spine are contraindicated as it increases the risk of spinal fracture.
Daily activities such as sitting and bending forward to pick up objects can lead to spinal fractures in advanced osteoporosis.