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Edema refers to swelling and puffiness in different areas of the body.
It most often occurs in the skin, especially on the hands, arms, ankles, legs, and feet. However, it can also affect the muscles, bowels, lungs, eyes, and brain.
The condition mainly occurs in older adults and women who are pregnant, but anyone can experience edema.
A person with edema may notice:

swollen, stretched, and shiny skin
skin that retains a dimple after being pressed for a few seconds
puffiness of the ankles, face, or eyes
aching body parts and stiff joints
weight gain or loss
fuller hand and neck veins
higher pulse rate and blood pressure
abdominal pain
changes in bowel habits
nausea and vomiting
confusion and lethargy
visual abnormalities
Edema occurs when tiny blood vessels in your body (capillaries) leak fluid. The fluid builds up in surrounding tissues, leading to swelling.

Mild cases of edema may result from:

Sitting or staying in one position for too long
Eating too much salty food
Having premenstrual signs and symptoms
Being pregnant
Edema can also be a side effect of some medications, including:

High blood pressure medications
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Steroid drugs
Certain diabetes medications called thiazolidinediones