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Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.[1] It may occur as a short episode or may be of a long duration.[1] There may be no symptoms but, when symptoms are present, the most common is upper abdominal pain.[1] Other possible symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating, loss of appetite and heartburn.[1][2] Complications may include bleeding, stomach ulcers, and stomach tumors.[1] When due to autoimmune problems, low red blood cells due to not enough vitamin B12 may occur, a condition known as pernicious anemia.[3]

Common causes include infection with Helicobacter pylori and use of NSAIDs.[1] Less common causes include alcohol, smoking, cocaine, severe illness, autoimmune problems, radiation therapy and Crohn's disease.[1][6] Endoscopy, a type of X-ray known as an upper gastrointestinal series, blood tests, and stool tests may help with diagnosis.[1] The symptoms of gastritis may be a presentation of a myocardial infarction.[2] Other conditions with similar symptoms include inflammation of the pancreas, gallbladder problems, and peptic ulcer disease.[2]

Many people with gastritis experience no symptoms at all. However, upper central abdominal pain is the most common symptom; the pain may be dull, vague, burning, aching, gnawing, sore, or sharp.[11] Pain is usually located in the upper central portion of the abdomen,[12] but it may occur anywhere from the upper left portion of the abdomen around to the back.


Other signs and symptoms may include the following:


Nausea

Vomiting (if present, may be clear, green or yellow, blood-streaked, or completely bloody, depending on the severity of the stomach inflammation)

Belching (if present, usually does not relieve the pain much)

Bloating

Early satiety[11]

Loss of appetite

Unexplained weight loss

The following can irritate the lining of your stomach and lead to chronic gastritis:

.long-term use of certain medications, such as aspirin and ibuprofen
.excessive alcohol consumption
.the presence of H. pylori bacteria
.certain illnesses, such as diabetes or kidney failure
.a weakened immune system
.persistent, intense stress that also affects the immune system
.bile flowing into the stomach, or bile reflux

Treatment for gastritis is dependent on several factors. These include the cause of the condition and whether the presentation of gastritis is acute or chronic.

Treatment options for gastritis involve a range of medications, such as:

. Antibiotic medications: A 10-to-14-day course of antibiotics can directly attack H. pylori. Regimens  may include clarithromycin and metronidazole.
. Proton pump inhibitors: These include omeprazole and lansoprazole. Proton pump inhibitors block the production of acid and aid healing.
. Histamine (H-2) blockers: Histamine blockers, such as ranitidine and famotidine, can decrease acid production.
. Antacids: These can neutralize stomach acid.
. Coating agents: Sucralfate or misoprostol can coat and protect the stomach lining.
. Anti-nausea medications: This type of medication can reduce sickness symptoms.
. The treatment depends on the cause. For example, if the cause of gastritis is not bacterial, antibiotics will have no effect.

Combining these treatments with the recommended dietary changes is the surest way to tackle gastritis.
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