A Complete Heart Attack Guide 2022: Heart Attack Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cost

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A Complete Heart Attack Guide 2022: Heart Attack Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cost
heart attack, signs of heart attack, heart attack treatment
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The latest survey from a popular news agency states that around 40% of the population suffers from heart attacks. Only a few people are capable of making it out alive. Another report states that the death rate from cardiovascular disease, popularly known as cardiac arrest, has been increasing to a 53% of extent. So, what is a heart attack? How does it directly take a toll on an individual life? The article is a complete guide on heart attack, causes, treatment, etc. Read all the details carefully. 

What Is A Heart Attack or Cardiac Arrest?

We have grown up witnessing people losing lives of some sudden heart dysfunction. The disease is known as cardiovascular disease, and nowadays, a person who is 35 and above age can suffer from it. So, what is a cardiac arrest?

The answer is when the blood flow to the heart stops or is blocked due to any health condition is known as cardiac arrest. The blockages are primarily created by a buildup of fat, cholesterol, and other substances. It builds plaque in the arteries restricting them from bringing blood to the heart. 

Many studies believe that the plaque sometimes gets raptures and forms a clot that restricts sufficient blood flow. Heart attack is also known as myocardial infarction. So this was the definition of a heart attack. 

What Are The Common Types of Heart Attacks In Men & Women?

Heart attacks or cardiac arrest are categorized into three main categories. All three categories are prone to death or can cause severe health issues for a lifetime. Following are the three main categories:

  • ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)

  • Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)

  • Coronary artery spasm (CAS), Silent attack, or unstable angina 

What is the ST segment?

ST-segment is the pattern reflecting on an electrocardiogram which is a telecast of your heartbeat. Only the ST segment known as the STEMI can show the elevated segment.  

STEMI (Severe Cardiac Arrest)

These are the scientific terms that physicians or doctors often utilize. An ordinary man cannot understand these types. The coronary artery becomes wholly blocked, or a significant portion of it gets blocked. The artery then stops receiving the blood. The STEMI attacks are series one that can be life-taking or cause severe damage to the human body. 

What Are The Symptoms Of STEMI?

A STEMI attack comes with severe chest pain at the center. It sometimes feels like pressure or discomfort or tightness despite sharp shooting pain in the chest. According to a survey, people have also experienced STEMI attacks by having pain in both arms, back or neck, or jaw. The other symptoms include:

  • Nausea

  • Shortness of breath 

  • Anxiety 

  • Lightheadedness

  • Breaking out in a cold sweat etc. 

NSTEMI Heart Attacks 

NSTEMI is quite different from STEMI attacks. Here the coronary artery is partially blocked. It will not show any changes in the ST segment on the electrocardiogram. Furthermore, coronary angiography will telecast the degree to which the blockage occurs. 

A blood test will also show extended troponin protein levels. There might be minor heart damage in this condition, but NSTEMI Attacks are among the serious ones. 

Silent Heart Attacks

The coronary artery spasm (CAS) is also termed coronary spasm, unstable angina, or popularly silent heart attack. The symptoms remain the same, just like the stemi attack. People are usually mistaken for the symptoms of muscle pain, indigestion, and many other things. 

It happens when the artery gets completely tight and reduces the amount of blood to the heart or blocks it. In such circumstances, only a blood test or an imaging test can show you whether you have a silent attack or not. 

These might not be considered harmful to the health, but in many cases, it has taken people's lives or given the risk of following cardiac arrest. 

How Many Lives Were Taken By Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Each Year?

The present world is full of tension, stress, and anxiety. It has led to many chronic mental illnesses and health issues in the entire world. A recent survey states that 17.9 million people die because of CVD (Cardiovascular disease). It represents horrifying statistics which indicate 32% of global deaths. 

That too 85% were dead only due to heart attacks and stroke. The deaths were recorded mainly in the low to middle-income nations. Another statistic shows that since 2019, 17 million deaths have been premature under the age of 65 years. Out of these, 38% is dedicated to CVDs. Another statistic shows that 1 out of 5 attacks are in coronary artery spasm, which is known as silent cardiac arrest. 

An Indian survey indicates that people ranging from 35 to 65 years in India die of a heart attack. It is a very concerning situation for everyone. The government is also trying to make necessary arrangements like health policies, health campaigns, cardiovascular disease awareness programs, etc., to educate people on heart attack and treatment

What Are The Best Possible Heart Attack Diagnosis Given In Hospitals?

When it comes to diagnosing the root cause of your cardiovascular disease, the cardiologist may perform some major screenings or tests. It will include several questions from the patient and a few tests. 

a. Questions From Patients 

The doctor or cardiologist will ask about past health happenings like any suffocation, feeling dizzy, having pain in the chest or hands, etc. Moreover, the doctor can ask about the diet and sleep patterns, stress levels, mental insecurity, etc. 

b. Initial Health Statistics

A cardiologist will also make queries regarding your previous health conditions like Blood Pressure (high or low), Sugar levels, cholesterol, any previous heart problems, etc. You need to describe all such conditions for better diagnosis and treatment precisely. 

c. ECG (Electrocardiogram)

It is the initial and most required diagnostic test for ascertaining the severity of cardiac arrest. The tool sends electronic signals to the heart to check the blockage and blood flow. It holds some sticky patches which are attached to the chest and limbs. 

The signals then transmit the information through electrical waves on a monitor or printed on paper. ECG helps diagnose the injured heart muscles as these are not capable of conducting electrical impulses. 

d. Blood Test

Blood test reports also depict a heart attack by showing specific heart proteins in the blood when heart muscles have been injured. The emergency room attendants will take a sample of your blood to check protein or enzymes. 

Heart Attack Treatment In Hospitals 

Firstly, if a patient is hospitalized due to cardiac arrest, they should be given immediate treatment. There are various initial procedures and methods provided to the heart attack patient. These includes:

1. Immediate Treatment

If your cardiologist notices a cardiac arrest, they will immediately jump on the following processes:

  • Aspirin to stop blood clotting 

  • Nitroglycerin to reduce chest pain and improve blood flow. 

  • Oxygen therapy

  • Some medications or, if needed, then surgery. 

2. General Treatment

Several procedures are executed based on the severity of the treatment. It includes the following methods:

  • Angioplasty

  • Angioplasty, Laser

  • Artificial heart valve surgery

  • Atherectomy

  • Bypass surgery

  • Cardiomyoplasty

  • Heart transplant

  • Minimally invasive heart surgery

  • Radiofrequency ablation

  • Stent procedure

  • Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR)

What Are The Best Heart Attack (Cardiac Arrest) Medication?

The procedure mentioned above is followed with some necessary medications. These are necessary medicine that one has to take to get a speedy recovery. The medications include:

  • Anticoagulant

  • Antiplatelet agent

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

  • Angiotensin II receptor blocker

  • Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor

  • Beta-blocker

  • Combined alpha and beta-blocker

  • Calcium channel blocker

  • Cholesterol-lowering medications

  • Digitalis preparation

  • Diuretics

  • Vasodilator

What Is The Heart Attack Treatment Cost?

According to an estimation presented by the leading health agencies, diseases like cardiovascular and cancer may cost any Indian around $6.2 trillion during 2012-2030. In a private hospital in India, the patient might be charged with Rs 1.75 lac to 4.25 lac. 

Coronary angiography will cost around 10,000 to Rs 15000. Valve surgery will cost around 2.5 lac to 4 lac. It depends upon the type of procedure, medication, and after-care suggested to the patient by the cardiologist. 

Food To Induce Quick Heart Attack Recovery 

A patient who wishes to recover quickly after a severe heart attack can add these foods to their diet. These supplements prevent heart muscles from any further damage and make a speedy recovery. 

  • lots of fruits and vegetables

  • lean meats

  • skinless poultry

  • nuts, beans, and legumes

  • fish

  • whole grains

  • plant-based oils, such as olive oil

  • low-fat dairy products

  • eggs (you can eat up to six per week)

These food contain saturated fat in a particular quantity. Another most important tip is to have your plate full of green veggies and various meals every day. Fish is an excellent source to recover from a severe heart attack. But keep in mind, moderation is the key here. Have everything in moderation to get the desired results. 


So was a complete heart attack guide 2022. People who do not want to suffer from cardiovascular activities and remain fit should read this article as a guide. It provides enough knowledge on how you can track any cardiac dysfunction or save other people's lives.