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Bloat is any abnormal gas swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain and is sometimes accompanied by increased stomach growling, or more seriously, the total lack of it.

Pains that are due to bloating will feel sharp and cause the stomach to cramp. These pains may occur anywhere in the body and can change locations quickly.They are so painful that they are sometimes mistaken for heart pains when they develop on the upper left side of the chest. Pains on the right side are often confused with problems in the appendix or the gallbladder.

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Abdominal pain is a common symptom associated with non-serious and serious causes.

Common causes of pain in the abdomen include gastroenteritis and irritable bowel syndrome. In a third of cases the exact cause is unclear. About 10% of people have a more serious underlying condition such as appendicitis, leaking or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, diverticulitis, or ectopic pregnancy.Determining the cause can be difficult, because many diseases can cause this symptom.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, vomiting, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth. Complications include esophagitis, esophageal strictures, and Barrett's esophagus.

Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatus hernia, and taking certain medicines. Medications involved include antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, antidepressants, and sleeping medication. It is due to poor closure of the lower esophageal sphincter (the junction between the stomach and the esophagus).Diagnosis among those who do not improve with simpler measures may involve gastroscopy, upper GI series, esophageal pH monitoring, or esophageal manometry.

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Acidity or Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic symptom of mucosal damage that is caused due to entry of acid from stomach into the esophagus. The esophagus is a long tube of muscle that runs from mouth to the stomach. Normally once the food is chewed, it goes from mouth to the esophagus and then into the stomach, where it is mixed with the acidic gastric juice for digestion. The esophagus and the stomach are separated by a sphincter (lower esophageal sphincter), which is a band of muscular fibers that close the valve in order to prevent the food or gastric acids from going back to the esophagus.
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Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. It primarily affects areas of the skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back. The resulting appearance can lead to anxiety, reduced self-esteem and, in extreme cases, depression or thoughts of suicide.

Genetics is thought to be the primary cause of acne in 80% of cases. The role of diet and cigarette smoking is unclear, and neither cleanliness nor exposure to sunlight appear to play a part. During puberty, in both sexes, acne is often brought on by an increase in hormones such as testosterone. A frequent factor is excessive growth of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is normally present on the skin.

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Acupressure [from Latin acus "needle" (see acuity) + pressure (n.)] is an alternative medicine technique similar in principle to acupuncture. It is based on the concept of life energy which flows through "meridians" in the body. In treatment, physical pressure is applied to acupuncture points with the aim of clearing blockages in these meridians. Pressure may be applied by hand, by elbow, or with various devices.

Some medical studies have suggested that acupressure may be effective at helping manage nausea and vomiting, for helping lower back pain, tension headaches, stomach ache, among other things, although such studies have been found to have a high likelihood of bias. Like many alternative medicines, it may benefit from a placebo effect.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders. ADHD is a broad term, and the condition can vary from person to person. There are an estimated 6.4 million diagnosed children in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.This condition is sometimes called attention deficit disorder (ADD), but this is an outdated term. The term was once used to refer to someone who had trouble focusing but was not hyperactive. The American Psychiatric Association released the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in May 2013. The DSM-5 changed the criteria to diagnose someone with ADHD.


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AIDS is caused by human immnodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV kills or damages the body's immune system cells.
There are two types of HIV. Type I and Type II. Type I is more common in India.

AIDS is generally caused by unprotected sex with an infected partner. It may also spread through the use of infected syringes of HIV infected people and blood transfusions.

The first sign of AIDS is influenza (flu) like symptoms or may be swollen glands, but at times, symptoms might not appear. Symptoms may appear after two or three months. Generally, blood test is done to confirm the diagnosis. There is no cure, but there are many medicines to fight/ control HIV infection

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex among others.Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system.This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, an irregular heart beat, liver failure, and an increase in the risk of cancer, among other diseases Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Generally women are more sensitive to alcohol's harmful physical and mental effects than men

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.

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Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes. The fluid from the nose is usually clear. Symptom onset is often within minutes following exposure and they can affect sleep, the ability to work, and the ability to concentrate at school. Those whose symptoms are due to pollen typically develop symptoms during specific times of the year. Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, or atopic dermatitis.
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What Is an Allergy?

This article explains the basics of an allergic reaction. Learn what happens when your immune system goes on high alert.

Who Gets Allergies?

Anyone can get them, at any age. You could develop them as a child, or you might not have any symptoms until you’re an adult.

What Causes an Allergic Reaction?

While your problem may seem to start in the nose or the eyes, allergies actually come from an immune system run wild.

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare group of neurological diseases that mainly involve the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement. Voluntary muscles produce movements like chewing, walking, breathing and talking. The disease is progressive, meaning the symptoms get worse over time. Currently, there is no cure for ALS and no effective treatment to halt, or reverse, the progression of the disease.


ALS belongs to a wider group of disorders known as motor neuron diseases, which are caused by gradual deterioration (degeneration) and death of motor neurons. Motor neurons are nerve cells that extend from the brain to the spinal cord and to muscles throughout the body. These motor neurons initiate and provide vital communication links between the brain and the voluntary muscles.


Messages from motor neurons in the brain (called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to motor neurons in the spinal cord and to motor nuclei of brain (called lower motor neurons) and from the spinal cord and motor nuclei of brain to a particular muscle or muscles.


In ALS, both the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons degenerate or die, and stop sending messages to the muscles. Unable to function, the muscles gradually weaken, start to twitch (called fasciculations), and waste away (atrophy). Eventually, the brain loses its ability to initiate and control voluntary movements.


Early symptoms of ALS usually include muscle weakness or stiffness. Gradually all muscles under voluntary control are affected, and individuals lose their strength and the ability to speak, eat, move, and even breathe.


Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure, usually within 3 to 5 years from when the symptoms first appear. However, about 10 percent of people with ALS survive for 10 or more years.


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Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions. At first, someone with Alzheimer's disease may notice mild confusion and difficulty remembering. Eventually, people with the disease may even forget important people in their lives and undergo dramatic personality changes.


Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia — a group of brain disorders that cause the loss of intellectual and social skills. In Alzheimer's disease, the brain cells degenerate and die, causing a steady decline in memory and mental function.


Current Alzheimer's disease medications and management strategies may temporarily improve symptoms. This can sometimes help people with Alzheimer's disease maximize function and maintain independence for a little while longer. But because there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease, it's important to seek supportive services and tap into your support network as early as possible.

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Pruritus ani is the irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, causing the desire to scratch. The intensity of anal itching increases from moisture, pressure, and rubbing caused by clothing and sitting. At worst, anal itching causes intolerable discomfort that often is accompanied by burning and soreness. It is estimated that up to 5% of the population of the United States experiences this type of discomfort daily

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.[5] When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise.[1] Anemia that comes on quickly often has greater symptoms, which may include confusion, feeling like one is going to pass out, loss of consciousness, or increased thirst. Anemia must be significant before a person becomes noticeably pale. Additional symptoms may occur depending on the underlying cause

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Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction. Many people with anorexia see themselves as overweight even though they are in fact underweight. If asked they usually deny they have a problem with low weight. Often they weigh themselves frequently, eat only small amounts, and only eat certain foods. Some will exercise excessively, force themselves to vomit, or use laxatives to produce weight loss. Complications may include osteoporosis, infertility and heart damage, among others. Women will often stop having menstrual periods.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety is the expectation of future threat.[3] Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. It is often accompanied by muscular tension,[3] restlessness, fatigue and problems in concentration. Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder.

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Aplastic anemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged. This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types (pancytopenia): red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). Aplastic refers to inability of the stem cells to generate mature blood cells.

It is most prevalent in people in their teens and twenties, but is also common among the elderly. It can be caused by heredity, immune disease, or exposure to chemicals, drugs, or radiation. However, in about half the cases, the cause is unknown.

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Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. Symptoms commonly include right lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. However, approximately 40% of people do not have these typical symptoms. Severe complications of a ruptured appendix include widespread, painful inflammation of the inner lining of the abdominal wall and sepsis.

Appendicitis is caused by a blockage of the hollow portion of the appendix. This is most commonly due to a calcified "stone" made of feces. Inflamed lymphoid tissue from a viral infection, parasites, gallstone, or tumors may also cause the blockage. This blockage leads to increased pressures in the appendix, decreased blood flow to the tissues of the appendix, and bacterial growth inside the appendix causing inflammation. The combination of inflammation, reduced blood flow to the appendix and distention of the appendix causes tissue injury and tissue death.[12] If this process is left untreated, the appendix may burst, releasing bacteria into the abdominal cavity, leading to increased complications.

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An armpit lump usually refers to the enlargement of at least one of the lymph nodes under your arm. Lymph nodes are small, oval-shaped glands that are located throughout the body. They play an important role in your body’s immune system. The lump may feel small. In other cases, it may be extremely noticeable. Armpit lumps may be caused by cysts, infection, or irritation due to shaving or antiperspirant use. However, these lumps may also indicate a serious underlying health condition. 

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Arthritis includes more than 100 diseases and conditions that affect joints, the tissues that surround the joint, and other connective tissue. Symptoms vary depending on the specific form of the disease, but typically include pain and stiffness in and around one or more joints.  Some rheumatic conditions can also involve the immune system and various internal organs of the body.


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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints. Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In some types other organs are also affected. Onset can be gradual or sudden.

There are over 100 types of arthritis. The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis usually occurs with age and affects the fingers, knees, and hips. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that often affects the hands and feet.

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Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing. During an asthma attack, the lining of the bronchial tubes (airways) swells, causing the airways to narrow, turn more sensitive to irritants in the environment, and thus reducing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. The causes of asthma are not completely understood.

However, risk factors for developing asthma include inhaling asthma “triggers”, such as allergens (some common to all and some individualized), tobacco smoke and chemical irritants. Several patients with asthma may also have allergic rhinitis which is characterized by sneezing and “runny” nose. It can start at any age. About half of all people with asthma tend to have their first symptoms by the age of ten years, and many children with asthma have had their first asthma attack before the age of six. Asthma cannot be cured, but appropriate management can control the disorder and enable people to enjoy a good quality of life.

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Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal infection that usually begins between the toes. It commonly occurs in people whose feet have become very sweaty while confined within tightfitting shoes.Signs and symptoms of athlete's foot include a scaly rash that usually causes itching, stinging and burning. Athlete's foot is contagious and can be spread via contaminated floors, towels or clothing.Athlete's foot is closely related to other fungal infections such as ringworm and jock itch. It can be treated with over-the-counter antifungal medications, but the infection often recurs. Prescription medications also are available.

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.

Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. Symptoms sometimes lessen with age. However, some people never completely outgrow their ADHD symptoms. But they can learn strategies to be successful.

While treatment won't cure ADHD, it can help a great deal with symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications and behavioral interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can make a big difference in outcom


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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability  that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. There is often nothing about how people with ASD look that sets them apart from other people, but people with ASD may communicate, interact, behave, and learn in ways that are different from most other people. The learning, thinking, and problem-solving abilities of people with ASD can range from gifted to severely challenged. Some people with ASD need a lot of help in their daily lives; others need less.


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Back pain is a common reason for absence from work and doctor visits. Although back pain may be painful and uncomfortable, it is not usually serious.

Even though back pain can affect people of any age, it is significantly more common among adults aged between 35 and 55 years. Experts say that back pain is associated with the way our bones, muscles and ligaments in our backs work and connect together.

Pain in the lower back may be linked to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, lower back muscles, abdomen and pelvic internal organs, and the skin around the lumbar area. Pain in the upper back may be due to disorders of the aorta, tumors in the chest, and spine inflammation.

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Defination

Bacterial vaginosis also is referred to as nonspecific vaginitis, is a vaginal condition that can produce vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of certain kinds of bacteria in the vagina. In the past, the condition was called Gardnerella vaginitis, after the bacteria that were thought to cause the condition. However, the newer name, bacterial vaginosis, reflects the fact that there are a number of species of bacteria that naturally live in the vaginal area and may grow to excess, rather than a true infection with foreign bacteria, such as occurs with many sexually-transmitted disease

Facts & Symptoms


Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina. It is not a true bacterial infection but rather an imbalance of the bacteria that are normally present in the vagina.
Bacterial vaginosis is not dangerous, but it can cause disturbing symptoms.
Most women do not experience symptoms of bacterial vaginosis, but when they do they are:

    vaginal discharge, and
    vaginal odor.

In diagnosing bacterial vaginosis, it is important to exclude other serious vaginal infections, such as the STDs gonorrhea and Chlamydia.
Treatment options for relief of bacterial vaginosis include prescription oral antibiotics and vaginal gels. Metronidazole (Flagyl) is one option for treating bacterial vaginosis.
Serious complications of bacterial vaginosis can occur during pregnancy, and recurrence is possible even after


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Bad breath, also known as halitosis or fetor oris, affects an estimated 25% of people, globally. There are a number of potential causes of halitosis but the vast majority come down to oral hygiene.

Halitosis can cause significant worry, embarrassment and anxiety but, generally, it is relatively easy to remedy.

In this article, we will discuss the potential origins of bad breath, diagnosis and how to treat it.
   

Fast facts on bad breath

Here are some key points about bad breath. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

    Bad breath is estimated to affect 1 in 4 people globally
    The most common cause of halitosis is bad oral hygiene
    If particles of food are left in the mouth, their breakdown by bacteria produces sulfur compounds
    There are a number of common causes of bad breath, including smoking, tooth decay and alcohol consumption
    Keeping the mouth hydrated can reduce mouth odor
    Bad breath in children is often due to a trapped item in the nasal cavity
    Rarer causes of bad breath include bowel obstruction, ketoacidosis and aspiration pneumonia
    The best treatment for bad breath is regular brushing, flossing and hydration
    Crash diets can cause bad breath because of the build-up of ketones.

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1. The Golden Rule

Do: Make sure you always (and we mean always) remove your makeup before hitting the sheets. The skin needs to breathe overnight. And makeup prevents that, as leaving it on overnight clogs the pores which may cause blemishes and/or blackheads. Don’t possess a makeup remover? Just put some olive oil on a cotton pad and gently massage the oil onto your face to get rid of the makeup and dirt.
Don’t: Forget that exfoliation is indispensable. At least once or twice a week, exfoliate your skin to remove the layers of dead skin, sure to leave you with a more healthy glow and brighter skin. You can also apply a paste of walnut in powder form with yogurt to exfoliate your skin, as the antioxidants present in walnuts help remove dirt and promote radiant skin.
 

Never forget to exfoliate your skin and remove the makeup before calling it a night.

2. Sun and Skin

Do: Apply sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 that blocks both UVA and UVB rays. Since a lifetime of sun exposure can cause wrinkles, age spots and other skin problems, you have to protect your skin from the sun. Make sure the label reads ‘noncomedogenic’ or ‘nonacnegenic’ so that the product does not tend to block pores.  

Don’t: Skip the sunscreen, whether it's cloudy or cold outside (no excuses). If you’re heading to a beach or around reflective surfaces like snow or ice, lather your skin up with some more sunscreen with SPF of at least 30.
 

Sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 that blocks both UVA and UVB rays.

3. You are What You Eat

Do: Keep a note of what you put on your plate. Eat fresh fruits, greens, sufficient protein and vitamins. A diet rich in vitamin C and low in fats and sugar promotes radiant skin. Consider a low-sugar diet, which can keep insulin levels down, allowing cells to maintain a healthy balance.

"Don’t: Eat spicy and fermented foods, salt, citrus fruits, fried food. Instead favour blander foods such as rice, oatmeal and applesauce”, advises American author and Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad, in The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies.


Fresh fruits and greens is what healthy skin needs.

4. Sweat It Out!

Do: Exercise regularly. Running, jogging and yoga will give your body the necessary blood circulation, and also accelerate the cleansing process of your entire body. You will notice a glow on your face after working out. Racing against time? Just take a brisk walk around the block.

Don’t: Skip skincare before and after a workout. Apply a toner to help minimize oil production before heading out. Exfoliate after, and then apply shea butter or olive oil to moisturize the skin.
 
Running, jogging and yoga will accelerate the cleaning process of your body.

5. Beauty Sleep

Do: Try to sleep at least 8 hours every night. If you don’t get enough shut eye, your skin gets tired just like you - it sags and you get bags. So don’t risk it. You can also apply honey on your face twice or thrice a week to naturally soothe and heal your skin.

“Don’t: Forget to wash and moisturize your face before going to bed”, recommends Dr. Rahul Nagar, Dermatologist, Max Hospitals. “For dry skin, use milder cleansers that are free from alcohol. Apply lots of moisturizer, and avoid hot water as it dries out the skin excessively.”
 

Never forget to wash your face before sleeping and moisturize well.

6. H2O to The Rescue

Do: Hydrate yourself. Drink lots of water daily, at least 8 glasses if not more. Also, eats fruits and vegetables that have a high water content such as watermelon, cucumber, orange, strawberry, grapefruit and cantaloupe. Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad recommends to “drink water from a blue coloured bottle”, since it has a cooling effect.

Don’t: Ignore rose water. It helps prevent and reduce eye puffiness in the morning, maintains pH balance and naturally hydrates your skin if you spritz it on during the day.
 
Rose water maintains pH balance and  naturally hydrates the skin.

7. Goodbye Acne

“Do: Wash your face with warm water, three times a day, and gently massage your face in circular motions, ensuring that the cleanser contains alpha hydroxyl acid or beta hydroxyl acid. Face packs that contain multani mitti (fuller’s earth) work really well too. After cleansing, pat dry and apply a lotion which contains benzoyl peroxide”, suggests Dr. Zaheer Ahmed, Dermatologist, Max Hospitals. Benzoyl peroxide appears to be effective due to its antibacterial actions.

Don’t: Pop pimples because it can lead to more swelling, redness, and even scarring. Feel a pimple is on its way? Just clean the area with rose water, and place a chilled green tea bag for 10 minutes. Also, if you wear glasses or sunglasses, make sure you clean them frequently to keep oil from clogging the pores around your eyes and nose.
 
Never pop your pimples. Use rose water or chilled green tea bags.

8. Go Back to Your Roots

Do: Use Ayurvedic scrubs to nourish the skin, and help it breathe better. Luckily for you, everything you need is already in your kitchen. 2 tbsp chickpea flour, ½ tsp turmeric powder, a pinch of camphor and sandalwood with some rose water/milk/water is your perfect skincare pack. Yes, the secrets of beauty lies in ancient Ayurveda.

Don’t: Neglect the basics. Make Sudarshan Kriya your beauty mantra. Yes, it’s that easy. Just breathing right could rid you of spots and pimples. Nidhi Gureja, Art of Living, says “Sudarshan Kriya is a breathing technique which incorporates specific natural rhythms of the breath that harmonize the body, mind and emotions. This helps releasing accumulated stresses, and each individual’s experience is different.”
 
Sudarshan Kriya is a breathing technique which incorporates specific natural rhythms that helps in releasing accumulated stresses.

9. Spa Day Everyday?

Do: Have a regular skin care regimen. “For dry skin, use a fresh cherry mask. Apply the pulp of fresh cherries on your face before going to bed. Leave for 15 minutes and wash with lukewarm water”, adds American author Vasant Lad.

Don’t: Forget to pamper yourself. A gentle facial massage with oils could work wonders. Depending on your skin type, choose oils from mustard, coconut, almond or Kumkadi as they are excellent nourishing agents which help to get glowing skin. Better still – switch on some soothing instrumental music. After 20 minutes, what do you have? Beautiful skin and a relaxed you.

Pamper yourself occasionally with spa treatments.

10. Healthy Habits

Do: Take out time for yourself, and try to avoid stress as much as possible. Have you ever noticed that when you are stressed, you tend to break out more? This is because stress causes your body to produce cortisol and other hormones, making the skin more oily. Practice stress management techniques like breathing exercises, yoga and meditation. The more you meditate, the more you radiate.

Don’t: Neglect your jawline and facial muscles. For just 5 minutes a day, perform a few facial exercises. You can jut out your lower lip in such a way that wrinkles are created on the chin, then lower your chin to your chest. Another exercise that works wonders is to look up towards the ceiling and pout. It stretches out the muscles making the skin more firm. “18 till I die”, why not?
 
The more you meditate, the more you radiate.

You’re dressed to perfection, yet you need something to complete the look. Your smile! While we spend so much time and energy on honing our bodies and looks, we forget to express our inner joy and happiness. “Keeping a smile on your face will help maintain the tone of your facial muscles and skin. People may say you look 10 years younger than you are!”, adds the Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad.
   

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Don’t let the bed bugs bite

Despite their role in an adorable bedtime proverb, bed bugs are pesky little pests. They sneak into your bed, your furniture, even your carpet, and while you sleep or watch TV, they bite you. The next morning, you’re left wondering why you’re red and itchy.


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What are bed bugs?

Bed bugs are small, flat, oval-shaped insects. They do not have wings and rely on humans to carry them from one place to the next. Bed bugs are a reddish-brown color and can be between 1 and 7 millimeters. They feed on blood from humans or animals, and they’re most active at night, feeding on their victims while they sleep.

What do bed bug bites look like?

Some people will not experience a reaction to a bed bug bite at all. Those that do experience symptoms of a bite are likely to experience one or more of the following:


    a bite with a red, swollen area and a dark red center
    bites in a line or grouped together in a small area
    blisters or hives at the bite site


Bites can happen anywhere on the body. Most commonly they occur on areas of skin that are exposed while sleeping, such as the face, arms, legs, and hands.


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Can you treat and eliminate the bed bugs on your own? Bed bugs are challenging pests to get rid of, since they hide so well and reproduce so quickly. In addition, the egg stage is resistant to many forms of treatment, so a single attempt may not be sufficient to complete the job.

Treating bed bugs is complex. Your likelihood of success depends on many factors, including:
Person inspecting furniture for pest infestation

    Extent of the infestation.
    Site-specific challenges.
        Clutter.
        Neighbors with infestations.
        Ability of all of the residents to participate.

Achieving complete control can take weeks to months, depending on the nature and extent of the infestation, and everyone will need to cooperate and do their part.

Before starting, you should lay out all of the steps on a calendar. The following steps will help you begin:

    Identify the problem
    Develop a strategy
    Keep the infestation from expanding
    Prepare for treatment
    Kill the bed bugs
    Evaluate and prevent


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What causes pressure sores?

Things that cause pressure sores include:

    Pressure on the skin and tissues. This is the most common cause.
    Sliding down in a bed or chair, which can cause the skin to fold over itself (shear force).
    Being pulled across bed sheets or other surfaces, which can cause friction burns.
    Excess moisture, such as from sweat, urine, or feces. Skin that is often wet is more likely to break down and form pressure sores.

    
    
What increases the risk of getting pressure sores?

Things that make a person more likely to get pressure sores include:

    Not being able to move easily. This often happens because of a spinal injury, paralysis, coma, or surgery.
    Poor bladder or bowel control.
    Poor nutrition. A diet that doesn't have enough protein can lead to unhealthy skin and slow healing.
    Decreased alertness, which may be due to a health problem or taking certain medicines. People who are not alert may not take the steps to prevent pressure sores or understand why prevention is important.
    Aging. As people age, their skin becomes thinner, drier, and less elastic, so it is more easily injured.
    Smoking. Smoking dries out the skin and reduces blood flow to the skin.
    Having a health problem that interferes with healing, such as diabetes.

    
Caring for a Pressure Sore

Stage I or II sores will heal if cared for carefully. Stage III and IV sores are harder to treat and may take a long time to heal. Here's how to care for a pressure sore at home.

Relieve the pressure on the area.

    Use special pillows, foam cushions, booties, or mattress pads to reduce the pressure. Some pads are water- or air-filled to help support and cushion the area. What type of cushion you use depends on your wound and whether you are in bed or in a wheelchair. Talk with your doctor about what choices would be best for you, including what shapes and types of material.
    Change positions often. If you are in a wheelchair, try to change your position every 15 minutes. If you are in bed, you should be moved about every 2 hours.

Care for the sore as directed by your health care provider. Keep the wound clean to prevent infection. Clean the sore every time you change a dressing.

    For a stage I sore, you can wash the area gently with mild soap and water. If needed, use a moisture barrier to protect the area from bodily fluids. Ask your provider what type of moisturizer to use.
    Stage II pressure sores should be cleaned with a salt water (saline) rinse to remove loose, dead tissue. Or, your provider may recommend a specific cleanser.
    DO NOT use hydrogen peroxide or iodine cleansers. They can damage skin.
    Keep the sore covered with a special dressing. This protects against infection and helps keep the sore moist so it can heal.
    Talk with your provider about what type of dressing to use. Depending on the size and stage of the sore, you may use a film, gauze, gel, foam, or other type of dressing.
    Most stage III and IV sores will be treated by your provider. Ask about any special instructions for home care.

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Bedwetting, or nocturnal enuresis, refers to the unintentional passage of urine during sleep. Enuresis is the medical term for wetting, whether in the clothing during the day or in bed at night. Another name for enuresis is urinary incontinence.

For infants and young children, urination is involuntary. Wetting is normal for them. Most children achieve some degree of bladder control by 4 years of age. Daytime control is usually achieved first, while nighttime control comes later.

The age at which bladder control is expected varies considerably.

    Some parents expect dryness at a very early age, while others not until much later. Such a time line may reflect the culture and attitudes of the parents and caregivers.
    Factors that affect the age at which wetting is considered a problem include the following:
        The child's gender: Bedwetting is more common in boys.
        The child's development and maturity
        The child's overall physical and emotional health. Chronic illness and/or emotional and physical abuse may predispose to bedwetting.

Bedwetting is a very common problem.

    Parents must realize that enuresis is involuntary. The child who wets the bed needs parental support and reassurance.

Bedwetting is a treatable condition.

    While children with this embarrassing problem and their parents once had few choices except waiting to "grow out of it," there are now treatments that work for many children.
    Several devices, treatments, and techniques have been developed to help these children stay dry at night.

What Causes Bedwetting?

While bedwetting can be a symptom of an underlying disease, the large majority of children who wet the bed have no underlying illness. In fact, a true organic cause is identified in only a small percentage of children who wet the bed. However, this does not mean that the child who wets the bed can control it or is doing it on purpose. Children who wet the bed are not lazy, willful, or disobedient.

There are two types of bedwetting: primary and secondary. Primary bedwetting refers to bedwetting that has been ongoing since early childhood without a break. A child with primary bedwetting has never been dry at night for any significant length of time. Secondary bedwetting is bedwetting that starts again after the child has been dry at night for a significant period of time (at least six months).

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Dirt, bacteria, fungus, and other germs can get trapped inside your belly button and start to multiply. This can cause an infection. You might notice white, yellow, brown, or bloody discharge seeping out of your belly button. That discharge might also have an unpleasant smell. Here are a few of the causes of belly button discharge, and how to treat them.


Causes of belly button discharge include infections, surgery, and cysts.

Bacterial infection

The average belly button is home to nearly 70 different types of bacteria. If you don’t clean the area well, these bacteria could cause an infection. Piercings in your navel can also get infected.

Bacterial infections cause a yellow or green, foul-smelling discharge. You can also have swelling, pain, and a scab around your belly button.


Yeast infection

Candidiasis is a yeast infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast that typically grows in damp, dark areas of the body. It can occur between skin folds, such as in your groin area and under your arms. Yeast can also take up residence in your belly button, especially if you don’t keep it clean and dry.

Candidiasis in your belly button causes a red, itchy rash on your navel and may also cause a thick, white discharge.
Diabetes

People with diabetes are more likely to get yeast infections. This is because yeast feeds on sugar, and high blood sugar is a hallmark of poorly treated diabetes. A study of Brazilian woman showed that women with diabetes were more prone to vaginal yeast infections than women who didn’t have diabetes.

Other studies suggest that other forms of yeast infections, including yeast infections in the belly button, may be more common among people with diabetes.


Surgery

If you’ve recently had abdominal surgery, such as hernia repair, you might notice pus draining from your belly button. If this happens, call your doctor. It could be a sign of an infection that needs to be treated.

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate. The prostate goes through two main growth periods as a man ages. The first occurs early in puberty, when the prostate doubles in size. The second phase of growth begins around age 25 and continues during most of a man's life. As you age, your prostate may get larger. Benign prostatic hyperplasia often occurs with the second growth phase.


As the prostate enlarges, it can then squeeze down on your urethra. The bladder wall becomes thicker. Eventually, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty completely, leaving some urine in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and urinary retention--the inability to empty the bladder completely--cause many of the problems associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. BPH is benign. This means it is not cancer. It does not cause nor lead to cancer. But BPH and cancer can happen at the same time.

BPH is common in aging men. About half of all men between the ages of 51 and 60 have BPH. Up to 90% of men over age 80 have BPH.
The Prostate


The prostate is part of the male reproductive system. It is about the size of a walnut and weighs about an ounce. The prostate is below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The prostate goes all the way around a tube called the urethra. The urethra carries urine from the bladder out through the penis. The main job of the prostate is to make fluid for semen. During ejaculation, sperm made in the testicles moves to the urethra. At the same time, fluid from the prostate and the seminal vesicles also moves into the urethra. This mixture-semen-goes through the urethra and out the penis.


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    More than 5 million people in the United States have bipolar disorder.
    People with bipolar disorder typically have mood swings that range from highs called mania, to lows called depression.
    Unless you have severe mania, bipolar disorder can be difficult to diagnose.

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness marked by extreme mood swings from high to low, and from low to high. Highs are periods of mania, while lows are periods of depression. The mood swings may even become mixed, so you might feel elated and depressed at the same time.

Bipolar disorder isn’t a rare diagnosis. A 2005 study found that 2.6 percent of the U.S. population, or more than 5 million people, are living with some form of bipolar disorder. Symptoms tend to appear in a person’s late teens or early adult years, but they can occur in children as well. Women are more likely to receive bipolar diagnoses than men, though the reason for this remains unclear.

Bipolar disorder can be hard to diagnose, but there are warning signs or symptoms that you can look for.


7 signs of mania

Mania can cause other symptoms as well, but seven of the key signs of this phase of bipolar disorder are:

    feeling overly happy or “high” for long periods of time
    having a decreased need for sleep
    talking very fast, often with racing thoughts
    feeling extremely restless or impulsive
    becoming easily distracted
    having overconfidence in your abilities
    engaging in risky behavior, such as having impulsive sex, gambling with life savings, or going on big spending sprees


    
    7 signs of depression

Like mania, depression can cause other symptoms as well, but here are seven of the key signs of depression from bipolar disorder:

    feeling sad or hopeless for long periods of time
    withdrawing from friends and family
    losing interest in activities that you once enjoyed
    having a significant change in appetite
    feeling severe fatigue or lack of energy
    having problems with memory, concentration, and decision making
    thinking about or attempting suicide, or having a preoccupation with death


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 Bipolar I disorder (pronounced "bipolar one" and also known as manic-depressive disorder or manic depression) is a form of mental illness. A person affected by bipolar I disorder has had at least one manic episode in his or her life. A manic episode is a period of abnormally elevated mood and high energy, accompanied by abnormal behavior that disrupts life.

Most people with bipolar I disorder also suffer from episodes of depression. Often, there is a pattern of cycling between mania and depression. This is where the term "manic depression" comes from. In between episodes of mania and depression, many people with bipolar I disorder can live normal lives.


Who Is at Risk for Bipolar I Disorder?

Virtually anyone can develop bipolar I disorder. About 2.5% of the U.S. population suffers from bipolar disorder -- almost 6 million people.

Most people are in their teens or early 20s when symptoms of bipolar disorder first appear. Nearly everyone with bipolar I disorder develops it before age 50. People with an immediate family member who has bipolar are at higher risk.
What Are the Symptoms of Bipolar I Disorder?

During a manic episode in someone with bipolar disorder, elevated mood can manifest itself as either euphoria (feeling "high") or as irritability.

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 Bipolar II disorder (pronounced "bipolar two") is a form of mental illness. Bipolar II is similar to bipolar I disorder, with moods cycling between high and low over time.

However, in bipolar II disorder, the "up" moods never reach full-blown mania. The less-intense elevated moods in bipolar II disorder are called hypomanic episodes, or hypomania.

A person affected by bipolar II disorder has had at least one hypomanic episode in his or her life. Most people with bipolar II disorder suffer more often from episodes of depression. This is where the term "manic depression" comes from.

In between episodes of hypomania and depression, many people with bipolar II disorder typically live normal lives.


Who Is at Risk for Bipolar II Disorder?

Virtually anyone can develop bipolar II disorder. About 2.5% of the U.S. population suffers from some form of bipolar disorder - nearly 6 million people.
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Both women and men wish to have control over when to become parents. Making choices about birth control methods isn’t easy.

There are many types of birth control methods, also referred to as contraception and fertility control, to prevent pregnancy.

Some common options are abstinence, natural family planning or the rhythm method, barrier methods like female or male condoms, hormonal methods like oral contraceptives, implantable devices and emergency contraception, such as the ‘morning after pill’. Those who do not want to have children may opt for a permanent sterilization solution.


1. Queen Anne’s Lace

wild carrot

Another herb that is used as a natural birth control is Queen Anne’s Lace, also known as wild carrot. Mainly the seeds collected from the flower head of this herb work as a contraceptive. The seeds block progesterone synthesis, disrupting implantation, and are most effective as emergency contraception.

Several studies on wild carrot seeds as effective birth control have been encouraging. The extracts of the seeds disrupt the implantation process, and a fertilized egg will find implantation very difficult.

Some people may experience mild side effects like constipation for a few days when using Queen Anne’s Lace. Plus, it may not be suitable for those with a history of kidney or gallstones.

    Take one teaspoon of wild carrot seeds within eight hours of being exposed to sperm and continue once daily for another seven days. Chew the seeds for maximum effectiveness.
    Queen Anne’s Lace can also be used in tincture or tea form.
    

    
2. Blue Cohosh

blue cohosh root

The root of the blue cohosh plant is used as an effective natural birth control. Blue cohosh contains two uterine-contracting substances, one that mimics the hormone oxytocin, and the other a saponin called Caulosaponin. In case you are not using any protective measures, drink some tea made from blue cohosh soon after.

    Add one teaspoon of blue cohosh to one quart of boiling water.
    Steep for five minutes.
    Sip this tea slowly, no more than three times per day (or no more than 300 to 400 mg daily) until your menstrual period starts.

Note: Blue cohosh has some side effects, so it is best to use this herb under the guidance of an herbalist.

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Black eye facts

    A black eye often results from injury to the face or the head, and is caused when blood and other fluids collect in the space around the eye. Swelling and dark discoloration result in a "black eye."
    Most black eyes are relatively minor injuries. Many heal on their own in a few days, but they may signify a more serious injury.
    The most common cause of a black eye is a blow to the eye, nose, or forehead.
    Pain and swelling are the most common signs and symptoms of a black eye.
    Call a doctor if the injured individual has changes in vision, severe pain, or swelling that does not go away, the swelling around the eyes is not related to an injury, there are signs of infection (for example, fever, warmth, redness, pus-like drainage), if the person has behavioral changes, forgetfulness or lethargy, nausea, vomiting and/or dizziness, loss of vision (especially double vision), or an inability to move the eye itself (i.e., unable to look in different directions).
    Home remedies for black eye include rest and ice applied early after the injury help to decrease swelling and pain. Do not use raw meat on an eye injury, this creates potential for infection.
    Avoid a black eye with basic injury prevention. Wear the appropriate protective gear for any athletic or work-related activity.
    Complications include traumatic iritis and uveitis, hyphema, glaucoma, orbital floor fracture (blowout fracture), and retinal detachment.

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A dark spot refers to a hyper-pigmentation of the skin commonly occurring in middle aged women. Dark spots, aka pigmentations, occur when a localized patch of melanin produced accumulates on a specific area on the skin. It can be located on the forehead, face or cheek bone area. Some dark spots could mean serious skin problems and thus you should consult a dermatologist if you become suspicious. 

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Blackheads are small bumps that appear on your skin due to clogged hair follicles. These bumps are called blackheads because the surface looks dark or black. Blackheads are a mild type of acne that usually form on the face, but they can also appear on the following body parts:


back

chest

neck

arms

shoulders

Acne affects nearly 50 million Americans and is the most common skin disorder in the United States, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.

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The cause of a blemish is the clogging of pores with dead skin cells and excessive oil, which results in acne. When this happens in the upper layers of the epidermis, we get whiteheads and blackheads.

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As one of the trickiest, painful and most annoying skin issues, dealing with acne and breakouts is no easy feat. But before you go slathering on all of the spot treatments you can find, it's important to understand how your breakouts form and what can cause them.

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Blisters is very painful to experience blister over the tongue as this does not allow us to have our food in a comfortable way. Even it becomes very hard to get the taste of every food we intake as the pain becomes intolerable. The burning sensation can develop if you have unmindfully eaten up a hot food or a hot drink that imperatively have affected the outer layer of the tongue.

The first thing which you should do is spilt away the food or drink which you have taken inside your mouth unmindfully. Since it is burning of a portion of your body, it is important to go ahead with some simple and common first aid before going for a deeper treatment.

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Stomach bloating is so common these days it’s been called an “epidemic.” With most people’s poor diets, high levels of stress, need for daily medications and exposure to various pollutants, it’s no wonder they’re suffering some sort of bloating more days than not.

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A blood blister is a type of blister that forms when subdermal tissues and blood vessels are damaged without piercing the skin. It consists of a pool of lymph, blood and other body fluids trapped beneath the skin. If punctured, it suppurates a dark fluid. Sometimes the fluids are cut off from the rest of the body and dry up, leaving behind dead cell material inside the blister with a texture like putty. Some blood blisters can be extremely painful due to bruising where the blister occurred.

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Have you ever felt your fingers and toes going numb? Most of us face this problem once in a while, but if this numbness becomes an everyday thing for you, you need help. Blood serves several important functions in the body. It provides oxygen and nutrients to every cell and organ in the body. It balances body temperature, providing warmth to the fingers, nose and toes.

Poor blood circulation is much more unpleasant than it sounds. It occurs when the blood flow becomes restricted to certain parts of the body like heart, legs, hands, toes, feet and fingers. In mild situations, poor blood circulation causes only discomfort. But if not handled in time, it can lead to several other serious health conditions. The health problems caused due to poor blood circulation include varicose veins, kidney issue and other blood restriction difficulties.

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A test called a urinalysis can detect whether there is blood in your urine. A urinalysis checks a sample of your urine for different cells, chemicals, and other substances, including blood. Most causes of blood in your urine are not serious, But sometimes red or white blood cells in your urine can mean that you have a medical condition that needs treatment, such as a kidney diseaseurinary tract infection, or liver disease.

Other names: microscopic urine analysis, microscopic examination of urine, urine test, urine analysis, UA

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Hyperthyroidism occurs when your thyroid produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. ... An excess of this hormone can cause your body's metabolism to increase, which leads to a rising body temperature. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism

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Body odour is the unpleasant smell produced by bacteria on the skin that break down the acids in your sweat. The medical term is bromhidrosis. Anyone who has reached puberty can produce body odour, as this is when the apocrine sweat glands develop, which produce the sweat that bacteria can quickly break down.

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A boil is a localized infection in the skin that begins as a reddened, tender area. Over time, the area becomes firm, hard, and increasingly tender. Eventually, the center of the boil softens and becomes filled with infection-fighting white blood cells from the bloodstream to eradicate the infection. This collection of white blood cells, bacteria, and proteins is known as pus. Finally, the pus "forms a head," which can be surgically opened or may spontaneously drain out through the surface of the skin. Pus enclosed within tissue is referred to as an abscess. A boil is also referred to as a skin abscess. Boils can occur anywhere on the body, including the trunk, extremities, buttocks, groin, or other areas.

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A boil is often caused by an infection within a hair follicle or oil gland. They're usually caused by staph bacteria, which are naturally present on your skin. Boils can develop anywhere on your body, but are commonly found in places on the body where there is friction.A boil is often caused by an infection within a hair follicle or oil gland. They're usually caused by staph bacteria, which are naturally present on your skin. Boils can develop anywhere on your body, but are commonly found in places on the body where there is friction.

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A bone spur (osteophyte) is a bony growth formed on normal bone. Most people think of something sharp when they think of a "spur," but a bone spur is just extra bone. It's usually smooth, but it can cause wear and tear or pain if it presses or rubs on other bones or soft tissues such as ligaments, tendons, or nerves in the body. Common places for bone spurs include the spine, shoulders, hands, hips, knees, and feet.

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Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get breast cancer, too.

Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other areas. To learn more about cancer and how all cancers start and spread, see Cancer Basics.

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Breast enlargement is the enlargement of the breasts. It may occur naturally as in mammoplasia or may occur artificially through active intervention. Many women regard their breasts, which are female secondary sex characteristics, as important to their sexual attractiveness, as a sign of femininity that is important to their sense of self. Due to this, when a woman considers her breasts deficient in some respect, she might choose to engage in some activity intended to enhance them

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A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby's mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis.A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby's mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis.

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Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child. Milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, either exclusively or in combination with other foods from around six months of age when solid foods may be introduced.

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Breast pain is any discomfort, tenderness, or pain in the breast or underarm region, and it may occur for a number of reasons. Generally, breast pain is not a sign of breast cancer.Breast pain is any discomfort, tenderness, or pain in the breast or underarm region, and it may occur for a number of reasons. Generally, breast pain is not a sign of breast cancer.

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Breasts develop from embryological tissues, and the high estrogen level in females during puberty causes breasts to start growing bigger.

Breasts are mammary glands composed of layers of different types of tissue, including adipose, glandular and connective tissues. As these tissues have hormone receptors, there is often fluctuation in breast sizes and volumes based on hormonal changes in the body.

As breasts are considered a sign of femininity and beauty, women want their breasts to be perfectly shaped and sized. However, at times the breasts become larger in size, which can be due to several factors including genetics, obesity, pregnancy, breastfeeding, hormonal changes in the body and side effects of certain drugs.

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Onychoschizia or splitting of the fingernails is a common problem seen by dermatologists. The term onychoschizia includes splitting, brittle, soft or thin nails. Onychoschizia is more common in women. Only very rarely are internal disease or vitamin deficiencies the reason (iron deficiency is the most common).

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Age spots are the result of an excess production of melanin, or skin pigment. Doctors don't always know why age spots develop. Skin aging, sun exposure, or other forms of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, such as tanning beds, are all possible causes.

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Bruises often induce pain, but small bruises are not normally dangerous alone. Sometimes bruises can be serious, leading to other more life-threatening forms of hematoma, such as when associated with serious injuries, including fractures and more severe internal bleeding. The likelihood and severity of bruising depends on many factors, including type and healthiness of affected tissues. Minor bruises may be easily recognized in people with light skin color by characteristic blue or purple appearance (idiomatically described as "black and blue") in the days following the injury.

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 Burns are a serious public health problem. A burn is defined as an injury to the skin or other organic tissue primarily caused by heat or due to radiation, radioactivity, electricity, friction or contact with chemicals.

Heat burns occur when some or all of the different layers of cells in the skin are destroyed by a hot liquid (scald), a hot solid (contact burn) or a flame (flame burn). Skin injuries due to ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals, as well as respiratory damage resulting from smoke inhalation, are also considered as burns.

According to WHO estimates about 265 000 deaths occur each year from fires alone globally, with more deaths from scalds, electrical burns, and other forms of burns for which data are not available. The majority of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, with almost half occur in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

In India around 7 million people suffer from burn injuries each year with 1.4 lakh deaths and 2.4 lakh people suffer with disability. Burn death rates have been decreasing in high income countries.

Females and males show similar rates for burns in contrast to other injury patterns where rates of injury are higher in males than females. The higher risk for females is associated with open fire cooking, or unsafe cook stoves, loose clothing. Self-directed or interpersonal violence is also a factor for burn injuries.

Along with adult females, children are also vulnerable to burns. Out of 5 burn victims 4 are women and children. Burns are the fifth most common cause of non-fatal childhood injuries and 11th leading cause of death of children aged 1-9 years. Among all people globally, infants have the highest death rates from burns.

Burns are also a leading cause of morbidity; millions who survive suffer from lifelong disability and disfigurements with resulting emotional trauma and stigma.

Burns are preventable. Increased efforts in prevention and care would lead to significant reduction in burn-related morbidity, mortality and disability.

The National Programme for Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation of Burn Injuries (NPPMRBI) is an initiative by the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India to strengthen the preventive, curative and rehabilitative services for burn victims.

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A burning sensation in your feet may be caused by nerve damage in the legs, also called neuropathy. Although many medical conditions can cause burning feet, diabetes is the most common. Most burning feet treatments focus on preventing further nerve damage and reducing pain.

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A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Most burns are due to heat from hot liquids, solids, or fire. While rates are similar for males and females the underlying causes often differ. Among women in some areas, risk is related to use of open cooking fires or unsafe cook stoves. Amongong men, risk is related to the work environments. Alcoholism and smoking are other risk factors. Burns can also occur as a result of self harm or violence between people.

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Calluses are hard and rough-feeling areas of skin that can develop on hands, feet or anywhere there is repeated friction - even on a violinist's chin. Like corns, calluses have several variants. The common callus usually occurs when there has been a lot of rubbing against the hands or feet. A plantar callus is found on the bottom of the foot.Calluses are hard and rough-feeling areas of skin that can develop on hands, feet or anywhere there is repeated friction - even on a violinist's chin. Like corns, calluses have several variants. The common callus usually occurs when there has been a lot of rubbing against the hands or feet. A plantar callus is found on the bottom of the foot.

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 Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division that leads to abnormal tissue growth. Many a times, people often use the terms cancer and tumor synonymously. But all tumours are not cancerous.

There are two main types of tumors: malignant tumours and benign tumours:-

Malignant tumours: These are the cancerous cells that can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs. The cancer can spread to distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumours are cancerous.

Benign tumours:  These types of tumours do not grow uncontrollably or do not invade neighboring tissues. They do not spread throughout the body.

There are over 200 different known cancers that affect humans. Most of the cancers are named from where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Most treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy.


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A fungus is a microscopic organism that typically lives harmlessly in people. However, if your inner ecosystem is out of balance and your immunity is weakened, you are at risk for a fungal infection, like Candida (also known as a yeast infection).

A single-cell organism, Candida reproduces asexually and thrives on some of the body's byproducts: dead tissue and sugars from food. Unless its environment is altered and its source of food is eliminated, it quickly monopolizes entire body systems, such as the digestive tract, and causes moderate to severe symptoms.

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Canker sores, also called aphthous ulcers, are small, shallow lesions that develop on the soft tissues in your mouth or at the base of your gums. Unlike cold sores, canker sores don't occur on the surface of your lips and they aren't contagious. They can be painful, however, and can make eating and talking difficult.

Most canker sores go away on their own in a week or two. Check with your doctor or dentist if you have unusually large or painful canker sores or canker sores that don't seem to heal.

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Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle. It affects any age group and is a serious lifelong condition.

Cardiomyopathy means your heart is unable to pump an adequate supply of blood around the body. 

As cardiomyopathy progresses your heart becomes weaker. 

Some types of cardiomyopathy can cause an irregular heart beat, because the heart muscle becomes stretched.

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Cannabidiol—CBD—is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “stoned” and can actually counteract the psychoactivity of THC. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive or less psychoactive than THC-dominant strains makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, anxiety, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and other conditions without disconcerting feelings of lethargy or dysphoria.

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Cellulite affects about 80% of all women. A poor diet, lack of physical activity, hormone changes, genetics and overall body fat are the main reasons for the ugly dimples. Women typically store this excess fat in the buttocks and hip area. Fortunately, there are many things you can do to get rid of it.

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Cellulitis (sel-u-LIE-tis) is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. Cellulitis appears as a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender. It can spread rapidly to other parts of the body. Cellulitis isn't usually spread from person to person.

Skin on lower legs is most commonly affected, though cellulitis can occur anywhere on your body or face. Cellulitis might affect only your skin's surface. Or it might also affect tissues underlying your skin and can spread to your lymph nodes and bloodstream.

Left untreated, the spreading infection can rapidly turn life-threatening. It's important to seek immediate medical attention if cellulitis symptoms occur.

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Cervical spondylosis is a general term for age-related wear and tear affecting the spinal disks in your neck. As the disks dehydrate and shrink, signs of osteoarthritis develop, including bony projections along the edges of bones (bone spurs).

Cervical spondylosis is very common and worsens with age. More than 85 percent of people older than age 60 are affected by cervical spondylosis.

Most people experience no symptoms from these problems. When symptoms do occur, nonsurgical treatments often are effective.

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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder characterized by extreme fatigue or tiredness that doesn’t go away with rest and can’t be explained by an underlying medical condition. CFS can also be referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID).

The causes of CFS aren’t well-understood. Some theories include viral infection, psychological stress, or a combination of factors. Because no single cause has been identified, and because many other illnesses produce similar symptoms, CFS can be difficult to diagnose. There are no tests for CFS, so your doctor will have to rule out other causes for your fatigue.

While CFS has in the past been a controversial diagnosis, it’s now widely accepted as a real medical condition. CFS can affect anyone, though it’s most common among women in their 40s and 50s. There is currently no cure, so treatment for CFS focuses on relieving your symptoms.

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A chalazion is a swollen bump on the eyelid. It happens when the eyelid’s oil gland clogs up. It may start as an internal hordeolum (stye). At first, you might not know you have a chalazion as there is little or no pain. But as it grows, your eyelid may get red, swollen, and sometimes tender to touch. If the chalazion gets large, it can press on your eye and cause blurry vision. Rarely, the whole eyelid might swell.

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Chapped lips occur when the skin on the lips becomes very dry. The lips may hurt, crack, and even bleed in severe cases. According to the Mayo Clinic, exposure to sun, wind, and cold, dry air can cause chapped lips. Other causes include breathing with your mouth open, frequently licking your lips, sensitivity to skin-care products, and dehydration. You can heal chapped lips quickly, usually in less than a week, by moisturizing your lips and protecting them from additional dryness.

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When you breathe, you inhale particles that are floating around in the air, like dust, allergens, bacteria or viruses. Usually these particles are trapped in the mucus that covers the mucus membranes of your nose and airways. Then tiny hairs called cilia transport the mucus (with the trapped particles) toward the throat. From there it can either be coughed out (also called “expectorating”) or swallowed.

But sometimes, particles like dust can irritate your mucus membranes or a virus or bacteria can cause an infection. This causes inflammation and results in extra mucus in your airways. This extra mucus is one of the ways your body tries to remove an irritant.

When there’s more (and thicker) mucus in your airways, your body may not be able to get rid of it in the usual ways (i.e. coughing it up or swallowing it). This is why you may start coughing more. Coughing is a way for your body to get rid of irritants in your airways or an accumulation of extra mucus that’s stuck inside your lungs.

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Chest pain. The first thing you may think of is heart attack. Certainly chest pain is not something to ignore. But you should know that it has many possible causes. In fact, as much as a quarter of the U.S. population experiences chest pain that is not related to the heart. Chest pain may also be caused by problems in your lungs, esophagus, muscles, ribs, or nerves, for example. Some of these conditions are serious and life threatening. Others are not. If you have unexplained chest pain, the only way to confirm its cause is to have a doctor evaluate you.

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Angina is a form of chest pain or discomfort as a result of reduced blood supply to heart muscles. This reduced blood supply results in reduced oxygen supply to heart muscles and as a result deficient waste removal from heart muscles leading to chest pain or discomfort. The most usual reason for this is some form of obstruction of coronary arteries due to medical conditions like atherosclerosis which hampers blood supply to heart muscles resulting in ischemia.

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Chickenpox, also called varicella, is characterized by itchy red blisters that appear all over the body. A virus causes this condition. It often affects children, and was so common it was considered a childhood rite of passage.

It’s very rare to have the chickenpox infection more than once. And since the chickenpox vaccine was introduced in the mid-1990s, cases have declined.

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Chilblains are small, itchy swellings on the skin that occur as a reaction to cold temperatures.

They most often affect the body's extremities, such as the toes, fingers, heels, ears and nose.

Chilblains can be uncomfortable, but rarely cause any permanent damage. They normally heal within a few weeks if further exposure to the cold is avoided.

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The term “chills” refers to a feeling of being cold without an apparent cause. You get this feeling when your muscles repeatedly expand and contract. Chills can occur with a fever and cause shivering or shaking.

Your body chills can be constant. Each episode can last for as long as an hour. Your chills can also occur periodically and last for several minutes.

Some chills occur after exposure to a cold environment. They can also occur as a response to a bacterial or viral infection that causes a fever.

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Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.

The disease is most common in places with poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine. Common locations include parts of Africa, south Asia, and Latin America. If you are traveling to one of those areas, knowing the following cholera facts can help protect you and your family.

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Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

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Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

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Chubby Cheeks is a nursery rhyme about rosy lips, curly hair and lovely blue eyes... But who is this beauty? Sing the song (or read the lyrics below) to find out!

Chubby Cheeks can be used with both boys and girls, but it actually a typical "girlish" nursery rhyme. Why not use it as a mother-daughter-thing? Try to sing "Chubby Cheek" loud next time you are driving car with your daughter? Or sing it and dance next time you are hoime alone? Good luck - and enjoy!

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Dirt or any sort of foreign object in your eyes can aggravate your eyes and cause you to tear up. Your eyes may become painful,and your vision blurry. If you have gotten something in your eye, it is important to know the best and safest ways to get it out, as well as knowing when to see a medical professional for further assistance.

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Your skin care regimen and lifestyle habits are the primary predictors of your skin’s health. Some of the leading factors that take a toll on the quality and texture of your skin are stress, lack of sleep, poor nutrition, pollution, damage from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, excessive smoking and drinking alcohol.

There are thousands of skin and beauty care products that promise to give you clear and glowing skin. Instead of relying on these products, you can try some simple and easy home remedies to improve the overall health and appearance of your skin.

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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a cancer that affects a type of white blood cell called a "lymphocyte."

Lymphocytes help your body fight infection. They're made in the soft center of your bones, called the marrow. If you have CLL, your body makes an abnormally high number of lymphocytes that aren't working right.

More adults get CLL than any other type of leukemia. It usually grows slowly, so you may not have symptoms for years.

Some people never need treatment, but if you do, it can slow the disease and ease symptoms. People who get medical care live longer today, because doctors are diagnosing CLL earlier.

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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a typically slow-growing cancer which begins in lymphocytes in the bone marrow and extends into the blood. It can also spread to lymph nodes and organs such as the liver and spleen. CLL develops when too many abnormal lymphocytes grow, crowding out normal blood cells and making it difficult for the body to fight infection.

The term "chronic" means that the disease develops slowly. The abnormal lymphocytes take longer to develop and multiply. A disease like CLL, therefore, may take several years before it becomes serious. Comparatively, the progression of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is very quick. ALL may advance in a much shorter period.

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Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood rich in oxygen throughout your body. They go to your brain as well as to the tips of your toes. Healthy arteries have smooth inner walls and blood flows through them easily. Some people, however, develop clogged arteries. Clogged arteries result from a buildup of a substance called plaque on the inner walls of the arteries. Arterial plaque can reduce blood flow or, in some instances, block it altogether.

Clogged arteries greatly increase the likelihood of heart attack, stroke, and even death. Because of these dangers, it is important to be aware, no matter how old you are, of the causes of artery plaque and treatment strategies to prevent serious consequences.

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Even though a clogged ear may not cause pain or discomfort, muffled sounds and straining to hear can be a real nuisance. Your ear may unblock on its own within hours or days. But several home remedies and medications can provide fast relief.

As you treat a clogged ear, it’s also helpful to identify possible causes of the blockage. By doing so, you and your doctor can determine the best way to treat the clog and prevent future problems.

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your skin is battling sweat, pollution, and pore-clogging face makeup. If you have oily or acne-prone skin, keeping your pores spick and span is especially hard work. After all, in daily life, are so many things trying to congest your pores, including many skincare ingredients and your body’s natural oil production. See, a pore (or follicle) is “a duct in the skin that is attached to the sebaceous glands that produce sebum,” explains esthetician Renée Rouleau. Oily skin types are more prone to experience blockages in their pores, which causes bacteria to thrive, leading to whiteheads, blackheads, and papules

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Cold sores, also called fever blisters, can show up anywhere on your body. They're most likely to appear on the outside of your mouth and lips, but you can also find them on your nose, cheeks, or fingers.

After the blisters form, you may notice that they break and ooze. A yellow crust or a scab builds up and eventually falls off, revealing new skin underneath.

The sores usually last 7 to 10 days and can spread to other people until they crust over completely.

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Colic is uncontrollable crying in an otherwise healthy baby. Your baby is considered colicky if he’s younger than 5 months old and cries for more than three hours in a row on three or more days a week for at least three weeks (phew!). Colic isn't a disease and won't cause your baby any long-term harm, but it's a tough thing to go through for babies and their parents.

If your baby is colicky, find more than 20 sanity-saving tips to help you deal with it in our article about coping with colic.

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Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased.

Some forms of colon hydrotherapy use tubes to inject water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Oral cleaning regimens use dietary fiber, herbs, dietary supplements, or laxatives. People who practice colon cleansing believe that accumulations of putrefied feces line the walls of the large intestine and that these accumulations harbor parasites or pathogenic gut flora, causing nonspecific symptoms and general ill-health. This "auto-intoxication" hypothesis is based on medical beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks and was discredited in the early 20th century.

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The cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from secretions, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex consists of three phases:
  • An inhalation
  • A forced exhalation against a closed glottis
  • A violent release of air from the lungs following the opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.
  • Cough can be either voluntary or involuntary. Frequent coughing usually indicates the presence of a disease. Coughing can be due to respiratory tract infection and can also be triggered by:
  • Choking
  • Smoking
  • Air pollution
  • Asthma
  • Gastro esophageal reflux disease(GERD)
  • Post-nasal drip
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • lung tumors
  • Heart failure and medications such as ACE inhibitors.
Types:
  • Acute cough: It begins suddenly and can be caused due to sinus, flu or sinus infection.
  • Sub acute cough: It lasts for 3-8 weeks
  • Chronic Cough: It lasts longer than 8 weeks.
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Some couples are almost desperate to conceive a baby of one particular gender. Fathers especially, can be eager to have a boy but there are also mothers who long for a son. Most couples however, are happy with either a boy or a girl baby, as long as it is healthy and strong. But if you are keen to try to sway the odds of having a boy then there is no harm in trying. Just remember that there are no guarantees and the odds of conceiving a boy or a girl are almost exactly the same for each and every pregnancy.

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Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) – Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) (Cardiovascular) pipeline landscape.

Heart failure is also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump out enough oxygen-rich blood. Symptoms include cough, fatigue, weakness, faintness, loss of appetite, swollen (enlarged) liver or abdomen, swollen feet and ankles and weight gain. The predisposing factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, alcohol use and irregular heartbeats. Treatment includes surgery, vasodilator, beta blockers and diuretics.

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Inability to completely evacuate the bowels or passing very hard stools is known as Constipation or Vibandh in Ayurveda. This prevalent problem is due to an incorrect lifestyle and poor eating patterns. Although constipation is often looked upon as a common problem, if not treated or if treatment is delayed, it can lead to further problems such as fissures, fistulas, piles, lack of appetite and indigestion.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.

Many people mistake their increased breathlessness and coughing as a normal part of aging. In the early stages of the disease, you may not notice the symptoms. COPD can develop for years without noticeable shortness of breath. You begin to see the symptoms in the more developed stages of the disease. 

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Foot corns are hardened layers of skin that develop from your skin’s response to friction and pressure. You may have foot corns if you experience the following symptoms on the tips and the sides of your toes:

rough, tough, yellowing patch of lumpy or bumpy skin

skin that’s sensitive to touch

pain when wearing shoes

Foot corns can be safely treated, and you can even prevent future ones. Keep reading to learn tips on how you can manage existing corns and minimize your chances of developing new ones.

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.[14] It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart.


Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction. In adults who go to the emergency department with an unclear cause of pain, about 30% have pain due to coronary artery disease

How Does Coronary Artery Disease Develop?


From a young age, plaque can start to go into your blood vessel walls. As you get older, the plaque builds up. 

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A cough is a common reflex action that clears the throat of mucus or foreign irritants. Coughing to clear the throat is typically an infrequent action, although a number of conditions can cause more frequent bouts of coughing.


In general, a cough that lasts for less than three weeks is an acute cough.


A cough that lasts between 3 and 8 weeks, improving by the end of that period, is a subacute cough.


A persistent cough that lasts more than eight weeks is a chronic cough.


Most cough episodes will clear up, or at least significantly improve, within two weeks. If you cough up blood or have a “barking” cough, talk to your doctor. Any cough that hasn’t improved after a few weeks may be serious, and you should see a doctor.

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Think of your feet as your physical base; they're what keep you up and running. So if you're like most people, and don't think your feet need consistent care, think again. Cracked heels are one of the most common foot issues that can arise if you don't pay proper attention. But don't despair, baby soft foot skin is just one article away. Read on to learn more about how to get rid of annoying cracked skin around the heels.

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Cradle cap causes crusty or oily scaly patches on a baby's scalp. The condition isn't painful or itchy. But it can cause thick white or yellow scales that aren't easy to remove.


Cradle cap usually clears up on its own in a few months. Home-care measures include washing your baby's scalp daily with a mild shampoo. This can help loosen and remove the scales. Don't scratch cradle cap.


If cradle cap persists or seems severe, your doctor may suggest a medicated shampoo, lotion or other 

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Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism.

Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles.

Approximately 2% of the body's creatine is converted to creatinine every day.

Creatinine is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and dispose of it in the urine.

Because the muscle mass in the body is relatively constant from day to day, the creatinine production normally remains essentially unchanged on a daily basis.

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Crohn's disease (sometimes called Crohn disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the physician who described the disease in 1932. It also is called granulomatous enteritis or colitis, regional enteritis, ileitis, or terminal ileitis.


Crohn's disease is related closely to another chronic inflammatory condition that involves only the colon called ulcerative colitis. Together, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are frequently referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have no medical cure. Once the diseases begin, they tend to fluctuate between periods of inactivity (remission) and activity (relapse).


 Men and women are affected equally by inflammatory bowel disease. Americans of Jewish European descent are more likely to develop IBD than the general population. IBD has historically been considered predominately disease of Caucasians, but there has been an increase in reported cases in African Americans suffering from IBD. The prevalence appears to be lower among Hispanic and Asian populations. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood (usually between the ages of 15 and 35). There is a small second peak of newly-diagnosed cases after age 50. The number of new cases (incidence) and number of cases (prevalence) of Crohn's disease in the United States are rising, although the reason for this is not completely understood.

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Crohn's disease (sometimes called Crohn disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the physician who described the disease in 1932. It also is called granulomatous enteritis or colitis, regional enteritis, ileitis, or terminal ileitis.


Crohn's disease is related closely to another chronic inflammatory condition that involves only the colon called ulcerative colitis. Together, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are frequently referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have no medical cure. Once the diseases begin, they tend to fluctuate between periods of inactivity (remission) and activity (relapse).


 Men and women are affected equally by inflammatory bowel disease. Americans of Jewish European descent are more likely to develop IBD than the general population. IBD has historically been considered predominately disease of Caucasians, but there has been an increase in reported cases in African Americans suffering from IBD. The prevalence appears to be lower among Hispanic and Asian populations. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood (usually between the ages of 15 and 35). There is a small second peak of newly-diagnosed cases after age 50. The number of new cases (incidence) and number of cases (prevalence) of Crohn's disease in the United States are rising, although the reason for this is not completely understood.


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Oh, what a beautiful smile you have there. Every time you smile, your eyes light up. Ah, those crinkles at the corners of the eyes make you look prettier still.


Crow’s feet may or may not look charming, but if I’m guessing right, you would still want to iron them out. Want to know the best treatment for crows feet? Worry not! Have a look at these remedies I’ve gathered, and you can have your wish come true in no time.

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Each strand of hair is made up of the medulla, cortex, and cuticle.[4] The innermost region, the medulla, is not always present and is an open, unstructured region.[5] The highly structural and organized cortex, or middle layer of the hair, is the primary source of mechanical strength and water uptake. The cortex contains melanin, which colors the fiber based on the number, distribution and types of melanin granules. The shape of the follicle determines the shape of the cortex, and the shape of the fiber is related to how straight or curly the hair is. People with straight hair have round hair fibers. Oval and other shaped fibers are generally more wavy or curly. The cuticle is the outer covering. Its complex structure slides as the hair swells and is covered with a single molecular layer of lipid that makes the hair repel water.[4] The diameter of human hair varies from 0.017 to 0.18 millimeters (0.00067 to 0.00709 in).[6] There are two million small, tubular glands and sweat glands that produce watery fluids that cool the body by evaporation. The glands at the opening of the hair produce a fatty secretion that lubricates the hair.[7]


Hair growth begins inside the hair follicle. The only "living" portion of the hair is found in the follicle. The hair that is visible is the hair shaft, which exhibits no biochemical activity and is considered "dead". The base of a hair's root (the "bulb") contains the cells that produce the hair shaft.[8] Other structures of the hair follicle include the oil producing sebaceous gland which lubricates the hair and the arrector pili muscles, which are responsible for causing hairs to stand up. In humans with little body hair, the effect results in goose bumps.

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Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs, digestive system and other organs in the body.


Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery. But in people with cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes the secretions to become sticky and thick. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas.


Although cystic fibrosis requires daily care, people with the condition are usually able to attend school and work, and often have a better quality of life than people with cystic fibrosis had in previous decades. Improvements in screening and treatments mean people with cystic fibrosis now may live into their mid- to late 30s, on average, and some are living into their 40s and 50s.

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Does your hair feel brittle and stiff? Dyeing, bleaching, straightening or blowing out your hair a lot can damage it over time. These processes dry out your hair and leave it prone to breakage and split ends. Once your hair is damaged, the best way to restore it is to give it time to grow back in healthy and strong. Use deep conditioning treatments to help bring back its luster, and be healthy from the inside out to promote the growth of new healthy hair.

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Dandruff is a skin condition that affects mainly the scalp. Symptoms include flaking and sometimes mild itchiness.It can result in social or self-esteem problems. A more severe form of the condition, which includes inflammation of the skin, is known as seborrheic dermatitis.


The cause is unclear but believed to involve a number of genetic and environmental factors. The condition may worsen in the winter.It is not due to poor hygiene. The underlying mechanism involves the over growth of skin cells.Diagnosis is based on symptoms.


There is no known cure.The typical treatment is with antifungal cream such as ketoconazole. Dandruff affects about half of adults. Onset is usually at puberty. Males are more often affected than females.Rates decrease after the age of 50.


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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.

Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.


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Have you ever noticed how the skin on your elbows and knees is often darker than the rest of the skin on your arms and legs? It's a bit funny-looking, isn't it? Some people think it's the result of dirt (and sometimes it is), but you'd be surprised to find that dirt often has nothing to do with the dark spots on your elbows and knees.

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To lighten your dark lips, it is essential to know first what causes dark lips. If you can identify the reasons for your dark lips, you can easily treat your lips.

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Black neck is a term used to describe a condition in which the skin on your neck is noticeably darker than the surrounding skin, also referred to as “dark neck.” The change in color may be alarming and make you self-conscience, however, in most cases it isn’t cause for concern nor is it contagious.

In some cases, however, this skin darkening may be a warning sign of something more serious, so it’s important to see a doctor to determine the cause and begin any necessary treatment. Read on to learn more about black neck, what causes it, and how to treat it

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Dark underarms can be defined as the dark coloration of skin in the underarm region compared to the rest of the body. It is a problem many individuals find embarrassing. Ascertaining the reason can help to alleviate the problem effectively. 

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Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that cause vomiting or diarrhea may lead to dehydration. There are a number of other causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, kidney disease, and medications that cause voiding (diuretics).

One clue to dehydration is a rapid drop in weight. A loss of over 10% (15 pounds in a person weighing 150 pounds) is considered severe.

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 Dysthymia, sometimes referred to as mild, chronic depression, is less severe and has fewer symptoms than major depression. With dysthymia, the depression symptoms can linger for a long period of time, often two years or longer. Those who suffer from dysthymia can also experience periods of major depression--sometimes called "double depression." In modern diagnostic classification systems, dysthymia and chronic depression are now both referred to as 'persistent depressive disorders.
 

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Inflammation of the skin, either due to an inherent skin defect, direct contact with an irritating substance, or to an allergic reaction. Symptoms of dermatitis include redness, itching, and in some cases blistering.

Eczema can be particularly severe and difficult to treat once it is established. Treatment is two-fold. People who suffer from dermatitis must identify and avoid substances that cause attacks. During attacks they may use topical treatments, such as steroid creams.

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Detoxification is one of the more widely used treatments and concepts in alternative medicine. It is based on the principle that illnesses can be caused by the accumulation of toxic substances (toxins) in the body. Eliminating existing toxins and avoiding new toxins are essential parts of the healing process. Detoxification utilizes a variety of tests and techniques.

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Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child. It does not progress at the same rate and each stage is affected by the preceding developmental experiences. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation,[1] or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment.


There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending. Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (ages 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6 years); school-aged child (ages 6–12 years); adolescent (ages 13–18).[2]


Promoting child development through parental training, among other factors, promotes excellent rates of child development.[3] Parents play a large role in a child's life, socialization, and development. Having multiple parents can add stability to the child's life and therefore encourage healthy development.[4] Another influential factor in a child's development is the quality of their care. Child care programs present a critical opportunity for the promotion of child development.


The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. There are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child developmen

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Diabetes mellitus is caused due to lack or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin and is characterised by hyperglycaemia.

There are two broad types:-

Type I: This is known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). It is characterised by insulin deficiency. Usually it has juvenile onset but may occur at any age. Patients are prone to ketoacidosis and weight loss.
Type II: This is known as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or maturity onset diabetes mellitus. It occurs in middle aged/ older people who are often obese. There is impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance. Patients may be managed with oral hypoglycaemic agents (drugs which lower blood sugar level). Patients may eventually need insulin especially those with ketonuria or dehydration. This does not mean that IDDM has developed.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is characterised by changes in retinal blood vessels that occur in patients with diabetes mellitus. DR is a retinal microangiopathy affecting arterioles, capillaries and the venules. However, larger vessels may be involved as well.

Central retina or macular area is located between main superior and inferior retinal artery and vein. The area beyond these main vessels is the peripheral retina.

Retinopathy has features of both micro-vascular occlusion and micro-vascular leakage of plasma constituents due to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier. Micro-vascular occlusion leads to arteriovenous shunts with capillary blockage and neovascularisation (new vessel formation). Micro-vascular leakage may cause haemorrhage and diffuse or localised retinal oedema. This disease can affect vision.

Diabetic retinopathy is broadly divided as:-

Background Diabetic retinopathy.
Pre-proliferative Diabetic retinopathy.
Proliferative Diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
 
 

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Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel.


With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level.

More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.


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Diaper rash: An inflammatory reaction localized to the area of skin usually covered by the diaper. It can have many causes, including infections (yeast, bacterial, or viral), friction irritation, chemical allergies (perfumes, soaps), sweat, decomposed urine, and plugged sweat glands. Most diaper rash problems can be solved by cleansing the skin with nonperfumed, gentle products; changing diapers frequently; and exposing the affected skin area to air. Commercially available diaper rash ointments may be helpful for prevention but may actually cause further irritation if used on the inflamed areas. Also called diaper dermatitis.

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As per WHO,  Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day (or more frequent passage than is normal for the individual). Frequent passing of formed stools is not diarrhoea, nor is the passing of loose, "pasty" stools by breastfed babies.

It is usually the symptom of gastrointestinal infection, which can be caused by a variety of viral, parasitic and bacteria organisms.As per UNICEF report, diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly 1.3 million deaths a year among children under-five years of age making them the second most common cause of child deaths worldwide. Over half of the deaths occur in just five countries: India, Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Ethiopia. It is both preventable and treatable. Severe diarrhoea leads to fluid loss and may be life-threatening particularly in young children and people who are malnourished or have impaired immunity. Infection is spread through contaminated food or drinking-water or from person to person as a result of poor hygiene. Diarrhoea caused by contaminated food or water while travelling is often known as traveller’s diarrhoea.

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The best way to understand the way that skin discoloration occurs is to understand how the skin gets and maintains its color. The epidermis, the outer layer of your skin, contains a bunch of cells called melanocytes. These cells have many functions, but one of their main jobs is to protect the skin. When it comes to protecting the skin from the sun, the melanocytes do so by darkening it with a pigment called melanin.


Melanin is responsible for making the skin look darker when you are exposed to the sun, but the body, for some reason, will either stop producing melanin in specific areas of the skin, or put its production into overdrive. Sometimes the skin discoloration can affect the entire body, a specific part of the body, or it can occur in just a few random places on the skin

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The colon is a long tube-like structure approximately 6 feet in length that stores and then eliminates waste material left over after digestion of food in the small intestine takes place. It is thought that pressure within the colon causes bulging pockets of tissue (sacs) that push out from the colonic walls as a person ages. A small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall is called a diverticulum. More than one bulging sac is referred to in the plural as diverticula. Diverticula can occur throughout the colon but are most common near the end of the left colon, referred to as the sigmoid colon, in Western countries. In Asia, the diverticula occur mostly on the right side of the colon. The condition of having these diverticula in the colon is called diverticulosis.


Diverticula are common in the Western world but are rare in areas such as Asia and Africa. Diverticula increase with age. They are uncommon before the age of 40, but are seen in more than 74% of people over the age of 80 years in the U.S. A person with diverticulosis usually has few or no symptoms. The most common symptoms associated with diverticulosis are abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. In some of these patients the symptoms may be due to the concomitant presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or abnormalities in the function of the muscles of the sigmoid colon (in which case it is referred to as diverticular disease); simple diverticula should cause no symptoms. Occasionally, bleeding originates from a diverticulum, and it is referred to as diverticular bleeding.

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Dizziness: Painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of vision, the brain, balance (vestibular) system of the inner ear, and gastrointestinal system. Dizziness is a medically indistinct term which laypersons use to describe a variety of conditions ranging from lightheadedness, unsteadiness to vertigo.

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A fold of fat that some people have under their chin and that looks like a second chin

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Down syndrome is a set of physical and mental traits caused by a gene problem that happens before birth. Children who have Down syndrome tend to have certain features, such as a flat face and a short neck. They also have some degree of intellectual disability. This varies from person to person. But in most cases it is mild to moderate.


Down syndrome is a lifelong condition. But with care and support, children who have Down syndrome can grow up to have healthy, happy, productive lives.

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Drug addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the drug addict and those around them. Drug addiction is a brain disease because the abuse of drugs leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain. Although it is true that for most people the initial decision to take drugs is voluntary, over time the changes in the brain caused by repeated drug abuse can impair a person's self-control and ability to make sound decisions, and at the same time create an intense impulse to take drugs.


It is because of these changes in the brain that it is so challenging for a person to stop abusing drugs. Fortunately, there are treatments that help people to counteract addiction's powerful disruptive effects and regain control of their lives. Research shows that combining addiction treatment medications, when appropriate, with behavioral therapy is the best way to ensure success for most patients. Treatment approaches that are tailored to each patient's drug abuse patterns and any concurrent medical, psychiatric, and social problems can help achieve  sustained recovery and a life without drugs.


As with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, drug addiction can be managed effectively. Yet, it is not uncommon for a person to relapse and begin abusing drugs again. Relapse does not signal failure; rather, it indicates that treatment should be reinstated or adjusted, or that alternate treatment is needed to help the person regain control and recover.

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Dry hair develops when your hair doesn't get or retain enough moisture. This reduces its sheen and can make it appear frizzy, lifeless, and dull. ... If your hair is healthy, natural oils in the outer layer help protect the inner layers. They also reflect light, making your hair appear shiny.

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Dry mouth: The condition of not having enough saliva to keep the mouth wet. This is due to inadequate function of the salivary glands. Everyone has dry mouth once in a while when they are nervous, upset or under stress. But if someone has a dry mouth most all of the time, it can be uncomfortable and lead to serious health problems.
Dry mouth can cause difficulties in tasting, chewing, swallowing, and speaking. If it goes untreated, severe dry mouth can also lead to increased levels of tooth decay and infections of the mouth such as thrush. Severe dry mouth is not a normal part of aging. It can be a clue to systemic diseases such as Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and hypothyroidism. Some medications can also cause dry mouth.

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Dry skin: Abnormally dry skin. Can be caused by a dry climate, winter weather, severe deficiency of vitamin A, systemic illness, overexposure to sunlight, or medication. The skin loses moisture. It may crack and peel. Or it may become irritated, inflamed, and itch. Bathing frequently, especially with soaps, can contribute to dry skin.
With dry skin, it can help to keep baths or showers short in warm water with as little soap as possible, drying the skin gently -- pat without rubbing. Dry skin can also usually be addressed by the use of over-the-counter (OTC) topical preparations for dry skin. If these products do not relieve the condition, see a dermatologist for more specific remedies.

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Dysthymia: A type of depression involving long-term, chronic symptoms that are not disabling, but keep a person from functioning at "full steam" or from feeling good. Dysthymia is a less severe type of depression than what is accorded the diagnosis of major depression. However, people with dysthymia may also sometimes experience major depressive episodes, suggesting that there is a continuum between dysthymia and major depression.
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Pain in the ear. This can occur because of conditions within the ear itself, the ear canal, or the visible external portion of the ear. Acute infection of the middle ear, medically called acute otitis media (AOM), is inflammation of the middle ear and is the most frequent diagnosis in sick children in the US. The eustachian tube is shorter in children than adults which allows easy entry of bacteria and viruses into the middle ear, resulting in acute otitis media in childhood. Infection of the ear canal (otitis externa) is also called swimmer's ear. Otitis externa is typically caused by bacterial infection. Earache can also be due to pain and inflammation of the outer portion of the ear

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An ear infection, or otitis media, is the most common cause of earaches. Although this condition is a frequent cause of infant distress and is often associated with children, it can also affect adults.

The infection in the middle ear (the space behind the eardrum where tiny bones pick up vibrations and pass them along to the inner ear) very often accompanies a common cold, the flu, or other types of respiratory infections. This is because the middle ear is connected to the upper respiratory tract by a tiny channel known as the Eustachian tube. Germs that are growing in the nose or sinus cavities can climb up the Eustachian tube and enter the middle ear to start growing.

Most parents are frustratingly familiar with ear infections. Except for wellness baby visits, ear infections are the most common reason for trips to the pediatrician, accounting for approximately 30 million doctor visits a year in the U.S.
 
 
 

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A natural wax-like substance secreted by special glands in the skin on the outer part of the ear canal. It repels water, and traps material such as dust and sand particles. Usually a small amount of wax accumulates, and then dries up and falls out of the ear canal carrying with it unwanted particles. Ear wax is helpful in normal amounts and serves to coat the skin of the ear canal where it acts as a temporary water repellent. The absence of ear wax may result in dry, itchy ears, and even infection.

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Pica is the persistent eating of substances such as dirt or paint that have no nutritional value.

The Handbook of Clinical Child Psychologycurrently estimates that prevalence rates of pica range from 4%-26% among institutionalized populations. Research among non-institutionalized populations takes the form of individual case studies, making prevalence rates difficult to estimate.
 
 
 

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Eczema is a common skin condition marked by itchy and inflamed patches of skin. It’s also known as atopic dermatitis. It is more common in babies and young children, and often occurs on the faces of infants. It also often appears inside the elbows and behind the knees of children, teenagers, and adults.
In rare cases, atopic dermatitis can first appear during puberty or adulthood. It affects males and females equally.

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Eczema is a condition where patches of skin become inflamed, itchy, red, cracked, and rough. Blisters may sometimes occur.Different stages and types of eczema affect 31.6 percent of people in the United States.The word "eczema" is also used specifically to talk about atopic dermatitis, the most common type of eczema.

Atopic" refers to a collection of diseases involving the immune system, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever. Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin.Some people outgrow the condition, while others will continue to have it throughout adulthood.This MNT Knowledge Center article will explain what eczema is and discuss the symptoms, causes, treatments, and types.


Fast facts on eczema

Here are some key points about eczema. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

Certain foods can trigger symptoms, such as nuts and dairy.

Symptoms vary according to the age of the person with eczema, but they often include scaly, itchy patches of skin.

Eczema can also be triggered by environmental factors like smoke and pollen. However, eczema is not a curable condition.

Treatment focuses on healing damaged skin and alleviating symptoms. There is not yet a full cure for eczema, but symptoms can be managed.

Eczema is not a contagious condition.


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ifferent stages and types of eczema affect 31.6 percent of people in the United States.


The word "eczema" is also used specifically to talk about atopic dermatitis, the most common type of eczema.

"Atopic" refers to a collection of diseases involving the immune system, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever. Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin.

Some people outgrow the condition, while others will continue to have it throughout adulthood.

This MNT Knowledge Center article will explain what eczema is and discuss the symptoms, causes, treatments, and types.

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Eczema is a skin condition in which the skin of a person becomes dry, itchy, cracked and reddened. This chronic condition affects both males and females and mainly affects children. It is also known as atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis.  About 30 % of the skin diseases diagnosed will be eczema. Atopic eczema means inherited eczema.  It can occur in any part of the body and it is a long term disease. The intensity of the disease increases at some stages in the life and it needs intense treatment. Eczema can be triggered as an allergic response to various substances and situations.


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Edema refers to swelling and puffiness in different areas of the body.
It most often occurs in the skin, especially on the hands, arms, ankles, legs, and feet. However, it can also affect the muscles, bowels, lungs, eyes, and brain.
The condition mainly occurs in older adults and women who are pregnant, but anyone can experience edema.
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Emphysema is a chronic lung disease caused by damage to the alveoli, the tiny air sacs in the lung where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. With emphysema, damage to the alveoli results in air becoming trapped, causing them to expand and rupture.

Damage to alveoli, and the resultant compromise in air exchange results in a decreased level of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia) combined with an increased level of carbon dioxide in the blood (hypercapnia).

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Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the bloodstream through which they travel to affect distant organs. The endocrine sites include the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, heart (which makes atrial-natriuretic peptide), the stomach and intestines, islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, the adrenal glands, the kidney (which makes renin, erythropoietin, and calcitriol), fat cells (which make leptin). the testes, the ovarian follicle (estrogens) and the corpus luteum in the ovary). Endocrine is as opposed to exocrine. (The exocrine glands include the salivary glands, sweat glands and glands within the gastrointestinal tract.)

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The presence of tissue that normally grows inside the uterus (womb) in an abnormal anatomical location. Endometriosis is very common and may not produce symptoms, or it may lead to painful menstruation. It has also been associated with infertility. Endometriosis occurs most commonly within the Fallopian tubes and on the outside of the tubes and ovaries, the outer surface of the uterus and intestines, and anywhere on the surface of the pelvic cavity. It can also be found, less often, on the surface of the liver, in old surgery scars or, very rarely, in the lung or brain.

Endometriosis occurs in the reproductive years. The average age at diagnosis is 25-30.Endometriosis may be suspected by during a physical examination; it is confirmed by surgery, usually laparoscopy; available treatments include medication for pain, hormone therapy, and surgery.

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Most prostatic enlargement is due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a problem that bothers men increasingly with advancing age. The process of BPH generally begins in a man's 30s, evolves very slowly and usually causes symptoms only after he has passed the half-century mark.

In BPH the normal elements of the prostate gland grow in size and number. Their sheer bulk may compress the urethra which courses through the center of the prostate and impedes the flow of urine through the urethra from the bladder to the outside. The urethral compression leads to urine retention and the need for frequent urination. If severe enough, complete blockage can occur.
BPH is very common. Half of all men over 50 develop symptoms of PBH, but only 10% need medical or surgical intervention.
BPH is completely benign. It is not a precursor (a forerunner) to prostate cancer.
Treatment of BPH is usually reserved for men with significant symptoms. Watchful waiting with medical monitoring once a year is appropriate for most men with BPH.
The medical therapy of BPH includes medication. The prostate enlargement in BPH is directly dependent on dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the principal androgen hormone in the prostate, certain medication blocks the enzyme needed to make DHT and so lowers blood and tissue DHT levels and helps reduce the size of the prostate. Other medication belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-1 blockers which relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and the bladder neck. Relaxing these muscles helps relieve the urinary obstruction caused by the enlarged prostate
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When nerve cells in the brain fire electrical impulses at a rate of up to four times higher than normal, this causes a sort of electrical storm in the brain, known as a seizure. A pattern of repeated seizures is referred to as epilepsy. Known causes include head injuries, brain tumors, lead poisoning, maldevelopment of the brain, genetic and infectious illnesses. But in fully half of cases, no cause can be found. Medication controls seizures for the majority of patients.

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 A consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Commonly known as impotence. Medically, the term erectile dysfunction is used to properly differentiate this form of impotence from other problems that interfere with sexual intercourse, such as disease, injury, drug side effects, or a disorder that impairs the nerve supply or the blood flow to the penis. Other forms of impotence include lack of sexual desire and problems with ejaculation and orgasm. Erectile dysfunction is treatable in all age groups, and treatment includes using medication (notably Viagra) and penile implants. Abbreviated ED.

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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It’s also sometimes referred to as impotence.


Occasional ED isn’t uncommon. Many men experience it during times of stress. Frequent ED can be a sign of health problems that need treatment. It can also be a sign of emotional or relationship difficulties that may need to be addressed by a professional.


Not all male sexual problems are caused by ED. Other types of male sexual dysfunction include:

premature ejaculation

delayed or absent ejaculation

lack of interest in sex

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A chalazion usually appears as a painless lump or swelling on your upper or lower eyelid. Chalazia may affect both upper and lower lids and can occur in both eyes at the same time. Depending on the size and location of the chalazion, it may blur or block vision.

Although not as common, a chalazion may be red, swollen, and painful if an infection is present.

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Eyestrain is a common condition that occurs when your eyes get tired from intense use, such as while driving long distances or staring at computer screens and other digital devices.

Eyestrain can be annoying. But it usually isn't serious and goes away once you rest your eyes or take other steps to reduce your eye discomfort. In some cases, signs and symptoms of eyestrain can indicate an underlying eye condition that needs treatment.


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A sty is a red, painful lump near the edge of your eyelid that may look like a boil or a pimple. Sties are often filled with pus. A sty usually forms on the outside of your eyelid. But sometimes it can form on the inner part of your eyelid.

In most cases, a sty will begin to disappear on its own in a couple days. In the meantime, you may be able to relieve the pain or discomfort of a sty by applying a warm washcloth to your eyelid.

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ENT physicians must complete about 15 years of education and training, including a 4-year undergraduate program, 4-year medical program, at least 5 years of specialty training and a 1- to 2-year residency program (e.g., General Surgery). Then, physicians must undergo peer evaluations and pass oral and written examinations administered by the American Board of Otolaryngology.

After attaining board certification, otolaryngologists may pursue a one- or two- year fellowship for extensive training and examinations in a subspecialty area. Otolaryngology subspecialties include:

Allergy
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Head and Neck Surgery
Laryngology
Otology/Audiology
Pediatric Otolaryngology
Rhinology
Neurotology
Sleep Medicine
Board certification is valid for 10 years. To revalidate their certification, ENTs must meet guidelines established by the American Board of Medical Specialties and complete a Maintenance of Certification Program. This process emphasizes professional standing, lifelong learning and self-assessment, cognitive expertise and evaluation of performance in practice.

Valid certificate issued by the American Board of Otolaryngology
Valid, unrestricted medical license
Privileges to practice otolaryngology-head and neck surgery in accredited hospital or surgical center
Completion of required CME credits
Successful completion of the American Board of Otolaryngology self-assessment module
Maintenance of Certification Examination

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Are you in search of how to make your eyelashes grow?  Like the hair on your scalp. eyelashes naturally grow in cycles and have a genetically determined growth phase which determines the full potential your lashes can reach.  However, only about 24% of your eyelashes ever reach full length? That’s because your lashes will sustain damage from curling, cleansing, wearing makeup and encountering environmental elements over time. So, while you may not be able to reverse damage to your eyelashes. You can learn how to protect and condition them so they can reach their full fluttery potential.

Infinite Lash has a revolutionary formula infused with a blend of vitamins, minerals, polypeptides, and botanicals that nourish and rejuvenate your natural lashes. It also contains natural antioxidants that protect against dryness and damage.

Not all of us are blessed with long, thick, luscious lashes but here are some essential tips you could try – if you ever wanted to know how to make your eyelashes grow.


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All women have the occasional "straggler", that hair or patch of hairs that grows in the worst possible place!

You know what I'm talking about--those extra hairs on your chin, along your jawline, above your lip, or on your sideburns.

Those hairs can be a pain in the butt to get rid of.

Every time you think you've dealt with the hair, you discover another growing somewhere else.

Worse still, even after you get rid of the hairs, they just grow back--sometimes thicker, stronger, and more visible!

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Fatigue can be described as the lack of energy and motivation (both physical and mental). This is different than drowsiness, a term that describes the need to sleep. Often a person complains of feeling tired and it is up to the health care professional to distinguish between fatigue and drowsiness, though both can occur at the same time. Aside from drowsiness, other symptoms can be confused with fatigue including shortness of breath with activity and muscle weakness. Again, all these symptoms can occur at the same time. Also, fatigue can be a normal response to physical and mental activity; in most normal individuals it is quickly relieved (usually in hours to about a day, depending on the intensity of the activity) by reducing the activity.

Fatigue is a very common complaint and it is important to remember that it is a symptom and not a disease. Many illnesses can result in the complaint of fatigue and they can be physical, psychological, or a combination of the two.

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 Some fat in your liver is normal. But if it makes up more than 5%-10% of the organ's weight, you may have fatty liver disease. If you're a drinker, stop. That's one of the key causes of the condition.

There are two main types of fatty liver disease:-

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

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Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C).

Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal: rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease- producing organisms. For that reason, low fevers should normally go untreated, although you may need to see your doctor to be sure if the fever is accompanied by any other troubling symptoms. As fevers range to 104 F and above, however, there can be unwanted consequences, particularly for children. These can include delirium and convulsions. A fever of this sort demands immediate home treatment and then medical attention. Home treatment possibilities include the use of aspirin or, in children, non-aspirin pain-killers such as acetaminophen, cool baths, or sponging to reduce the fever while seeking medical help. Fever may occur with almost any type of infection of illness. The temperature is measured with a thermometer.

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A small sore situated on the face or in the mouth that causes pain, burning, or itching before bursting and crusting over. The favorite locations are on the lips, chin or cheeks and in the nostrils. Less frequented sites are the gums or roof of the mouth (the palate).

Fever blisters are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1. It lies latent (dormant) in the body and is reawakened (reactivated) by factors such as stress, sunburn, or fever from a wide range of infectious diseases including colds. Recurrences are less common after age 35. Sunscreen (SPF 15 or more) on the lips prevents recurrences of herpes from sunburn.

The virus is highly contagious when fever blisters are present. It is spread by kissing. Children become infected by contact with someone who has a fever blister and then they spread the virus by rubbing their cold sore and touching other children. A person with fever blisters should be careful not to touch the blisters and spread the virus to new sites, such as the eyes or genitals.

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Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. Fibroids, also known as uterine myomas, leiomyomas, or fibromas, are firm, compact tumors that are made of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue that develop in the uterus. It is estimated that between 20 to 50 percent of women of reproductive age have fibroids, although not all are diagnosed. Some estimates state that up to 30 to 77 percent of women will develop fibroids sometime during their childbearing years, although only about one-third of these fibroids are large enough to be detected by a health care provider during a physical examination.

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Fibromyalgia: A disease characterized by chronic pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscles, tendons, and joints, without detectable inflammation. Fibromyalgia does not cause body damage or deformity. However, undue fatigue plagues 90 percent of patients with fibromyalgia. Sleep disorder is also common in patients with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia can be associated with other rheumatic conditions, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can occur with fibromyalgia. There is no definitive medical test for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia, so diagnosis is made by eliminating other possible causes of the symptoms. The most effective treatment is a combination of education, stress reduction, exercise, and medication. Formerly known as fibrositis.


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A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid, either serum or plasma.[1] However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as "blood blisters") or with pus (if they become infected).

The word "blister" entered English in the 14th century. It came from the Middle Dutch "bluyster" and was a modification of the Old French "blostre", which meant a leprous nodule—a rise in the skin due to leprosy. In dermatology today, the words vesicle and bulla refer to blisters of smaller or greater size, respectively.

To heal properly, a blister should not be popped unless medically necessary. If popped, the excess skin should not be removed because the skin underneath needs that top layer to heal properly.

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Reflexology, also known as zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a pseudoscientific[1] system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.


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There's a whiff of something in the air that's distinctly... foot. The Is that me?! panic sets in. Many of us have been in your, ahem, shoes. The odd case of bromodosis—yep, foot odor even has its own very official name—is usually nothing to worry about. Here are a few possible reasons your tootsies stink to high heaven and what to do about the stench.

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Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon — any one of the thick fibrous cords that attaches muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint. While tendinitis can occur in any of your body's tendons, it's most common around your shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and heels

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Freckles, sometimes called ephelides (singular ephelis), are clusters of concentrated melaninized cells which are most easily visible on people with a fair complexion. Freckles do not have an increased number of the melanin-producing cells, or melanocytes, but instead have melanocytes that overproduce melanin granules (melanosomes) changing the coloration of the outer skin cells (keratinocytes). As such, freckles are different from lentigines and moles


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Frequent urination is a condition defined when the need to urinate is felt several times an hour, caused by the false impression of once again having a full bladder. The quantity of urine passed during the day is not, however, larger, as the urinations are very small in volume. Daytime frequent urination is assessed based on the frequency with which the patient has to go to the toilet. This false impression is most of the time due to an irritation in one of the urinary organs. There can be many different underlying causes of this irritation, such as inflammation of the bladder, called cystitis or more commonly urinary infection, or prostatitis, which is an inflammation or benign swelling of the prostate in men.


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There is more than one definition of frizz. Researchers who studied the perception of hair health found that while women around the world perceived the absence of frizz as a sign of healthy hair, how they described "frizz" varied widely according to hair type and desired style. As described by women in the study, the two main types of frizz are:

1. short strands sticking up at the part and throughout the hair length that "project away from the main body of hair"; this type is especially noticeable on women with straight hair who are trying to achieve a smooth style; and

2. strands of wavy or curly hair that do not align with others to form a defined wave or curl.[1]

By this definition, frizz is not exclusively a characteristic of curly hair; straight hair can be frizzy, and tightly curled or afro-textured hair can be frizz-free.[2] "Frizz" sometimes refers to curly hair in general, but that is not what most women understand the term to mean

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Fungal infections of the skin are very common and include athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, and yeast infections.

Athlete's Foot:-

Picture of Ringworm of the Foot (Tinea Pedis)Athlete's foot, also called tinea pedis, is a fungal infection of the foot. It causes peeling, redness, itching, burning, and sometimes blisters and sores.

Athlete's foot is a very common infection. The fungus grows best in a warm, moist environment such as shoes, socks, swimming pools, locker rooms, and the floors of public showers. It is most common in the summer and in warm, humid climates. It occurs more often in people who wear tight shoes and who use community baths and pools.
 

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Gallstones vary in size and chemical structure. A gallstone may be as tiny as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Eighty percent of gallstones are composed of cholesterol. They are formed when the liver produces more cholesterol than digestive juices can liquefy. The remaining 20% of gallstones are composed of calcium and an orange-yellow waste product called bilirubin. Bilirubin gives urine its characteristic color and sometimes causes jaundice.

Gallstones are the most common of all gallbladder problems. They are responsible for 90% of gallbladder and bile duct disease, and are the fifth most common reason for hospitalization of adults in the United States. Gallstones usually develop in adults between the ages of 20 and 50; about 20% of patients with gallstones are over 40. The risk of developing gallstones increases with age-at least 20% of people over 60 have a single large stone or as many as several thousand smaller ones. The gender ratio of gallstone patients changes with age. Young women are between two and six times more likely to develop gallstones than men in the same age group. In patients over 50, the condition affects men and women with equal frequency. Native Americans develop gallstones more often than any other segment of the population; Mexican-Americans have the second-highest incidence of this disease.

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Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.[1] It may occur as a short episode or may be of a long duration.[1] There may be no symptoms but, when symptoms are present, the most common is upper abdominal pain.[1] Other possible symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating, loss of appetite and heartburn.[1][2] Complications may include bleeding, stomach ulcers, and stomach tumors.[1] When due to autoimmune problems, low red blood cells due to not enough vitamin B12 may occur, a condition known as pernicious anemia.[3]

Common causes include infection with Helicobacter pylori and use of NSAIDs.[1] Less common causes include alcohol, smoking, cocaine, severe illness, autoimmune problems, radiation therapy and Crohn's disease.[1][6] Endoscopy, a type of X-ray known as an upper gastrointestinal series, blood tests, and stool tests may help with diagnosis.[1] The symptoms of gastritis may be a presentation of a myocardial infarction.[2] Other conditions with similar symptoms include inflammation of the pancreas, gallbladder problems, and peptic ulcer disease.[2]

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Gas – Everyone has it, no matter how small or big we are. We eliminate it by burping or passing it on the other end.  Passing gas 14 to 23 times a day is normal for both adults and children. Even though it is entirely natural and unavoidable, it can be embarrassing.  Furthermore, when gas does not pass easily, pain often results…upset stomach, bloating and cramping.

Children are particularly susceptible to discomfort caused by gas as their delicate digestive systems develop and learn to move gas through their digestive tracts effectively.  Understanding causes, ways to reduce symptoms and treatment will help most find relief. If a child has persistently painful or extreme gassiness, it should be brought to the attention of your doctor, as it could be the sign of a more serious medical problem.


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Gastritis commonly refers to inflammation of the lining of the stomach, but the term is often used to cover a variety of symptoms resulting from stomach lining inflammation and symptoms of burning or discomfort. True gastritis comes in several forms and is diagnosed using a combination of tests. In the 1990s, scientists discovered that the main cause of true gastritis is infection from a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).


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Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, and large and small intestines. Viral and bacterial gastroenteritis are intestinal infections associated with symptoms of diarrhea , abdominal cramps, nausea , and vomiting .


Gastroenteritis is an uncomfortable and inconvenient ailment, but is rarely life-threatening in the United States and other developed nations. Viral gastroenteritis is frequently referred to as the stomach or intestinal flu, although the influenza virus is not associated with this illness.

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It's normal to feel anxious from time to time, especially if your life is stressful. However, excessive, ongoing anxiety and worry that are difficult to control and interfere with day-to-day activities may be a sign of generalized anxiety disorder.


It's possible to develop generalized anxiety disorder as a child or an adult. Generalized anxiety disorder has symptoms that are similar to panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other types of anxiety, but they're all different conditions.


Living with generalized anxiety disorder can be a long-term challenge. In many cases, it occurs along with other anxiety or mood disorders. In most cases, generalized anxiety disorder improves with psychotherapy or medications. Making lifestyle changes, learning coping skills and using relaxation techniques also can help.


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Genital warts are a symptom of infection by HPV.


A genital wart is a contagious fleshy growth on the external genitals or anus. It consists of fibrous overgrowths covered by a thickened outer layer called an epithelium.


These warts can appear around a man's scrotum, anus, and penis, or a woman's vulva, cervix, vagina, or anus.


They are usually benign, meaning that they are unlikely to develop into a cancer. However, many subtypes have the potential to become cancerous.


About 1 in 100 sexually active Americans have genital warts.


It is possible to have HPV without showing symptoms. Genital warts often appear about 3 months after infection. However, in some cases, there may be no symptoms for many years.


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Gingivitis: Gum disease with inflammation of the gums. On inspection, the gums will appear red and puffy, and will usually bleed during tooth-brushing or dental examination. Treatment is by improved cleaning, with more-frequent and longer brushing and flossing, and/or the use of electronic tooth-cleaning equipment. Antiseptic mouthwashes may also be recommended. See also acute membranous gingivitis

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A common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eye rises to a level higher than healthy for that eye. If untreated, it may damage the optic nerve, causing the loss of vision or even blindness.

The elderly, African-Americans, and people with family histories of the disease are at greatest risk. There are no symptoms in the early stage of glaucoma. Glaucoma is often called "the sneak thief of sight." Often, by the time the patient notices vision loss, glaucoma can only be halted, not reversed.

There are several different types of glaucoma, including open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma is the common adult-onset type of glaucoma. Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a less common form of glaucoma that can rapidly impair vision.

The treatment of glaucoma may include medication, surgery, or laser surgery. Eyedrops or pills alone can usually control glaucoma, although they cannot cure it. Some drugs are designed to reduce pressure by slowing the flow of fluid into the eye, while others help to improve fluid drainage. Surgery to help fluid escape from the eye, and laser surgery is now often used for the same purpose. In laser surgery for glaucoma, a laser beam of light is focused on the part of the anterior chamber where the fluid leaves the eye. This results in a series of small changes, making it easier for fluid to exit. Over time, the effect of laser surgery may wear off.

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A noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland. With a goiter, the levels of thyroid hormones may be normal (euthyroid), elevated (hyperthyroidism), or decreased (hypothyroidism).

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Gout is a form of acute arthritis that causes severe pain and swelling in the joints. It most commonly affects the big toe, but may also affect the heel, ankle, hand, wrist, or elbow. It affects the spine often enough to be a factor in back pain. Gout usually comes on suddenly, goes away after 5-10 days, and can keep recurring. Gout is different from other forms of arthritis because it occurs when there are high levels of uric acid circulating in the blood, which can cause urate crystals to settle in the tissues of the joints.

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Inflammation of the soft tissue (gingiva) and abnormal loss of bone that surrounds the teeth and holds them in place. Gum disease is caused by toxins secreted by bacteria in "plaque" that accumulate over time along the gum line. This plaque is a mixture of food, saliva, and bacteria. Early symptoms of gum disease include gum bleeding without pain. Pain is a symptom of more advanced gum disease as the loss of bone around the teeth leads to the formation of gum pockets. Bacteria in these pockets cause gum infection, swelling, pain, and further bone destruction. Advanced gum disease can cause loss of otherwise healthy teeth.

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Gynecomastia is enlargement of the glandular tissue of the male breast.
The condition may occur during infancy and puberty in normally-developing boys.
Gynecomastia results from an imbalance in the hormonal environment in the body, with a relative excess of estrogens (female hormones) when compared to androgens (male hormones).

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There’s no doubt about it, we all want a luxurious, full head of hair. Although hair loss is most commonly associated with men, women also suffer from this problem — and sadly hair loss in women is a lot less acceptable in society today. According to the American Hair Loss Association, women actually make up 40 percent of American hair loss sufferers. Such a common problem among both and women, it’s unsurprising that so many people look for hair loss remedies far and wide.

Have you noticed more hair in your brush lately than you used to see, or is you hair falling out in clumps? Do you look in the mirror and see scalp where you used to see only hair? Losing anywhere from 50 to 150 hairs per day is considered normal, but when you start losing more than that it becomes problematic, not to mention visibly noticeable. What’s really behind your hair loss, and how can you treat the cause, not just the symptoms, with effective hair loss remedies?

It’s common for hair loss sufferers to turn to hair replacement surgery and topical hair loss products in hopes of regaining their full heads of hair — or at least some of what once was. But is that the best course of action to take with hair loss? When it comes to any problem, the first step is to find the root cause. Let’s talk about the real causes of hair loss and what you can start doing today to naturally stop and hopefully reverse your hair loss. For starters there are many foods and vitamins for hair growth that won’t break the bank but can really make a difference. There also many other natural hair loss remedies like rosemary essential oil that have been shown to work as well as conventional topical products.

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Hair loss is the thinning of hair on the scalp. The medical term for hair loss is alopecia. Alopecia can be temporary or permanent. The most common form of hair loss occurs gradually and is referred to as "androgenetic alopecia," meaning that a combination of hormones (androgens are male hormones) and heredity (genetics) is needed to develop the condition. Other types of hair loss include alopecia areata (patches of baldness that usually grow back), telogen effluvium (rapid shedding after childbirth, fever, or sudden weight loss); and traction alopecia (thinning from tight braids or ponytails).

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Experiencing pain around your fingernails is usually a sign of irritation or infection. Swelling and redness around your fingernail may be caused by an infected hangnail.

A hangnail is a piece of skin near the root of the nail that appears jagged and torn. Hangnails generally appear on the fingers and not on the toes, though it’s possible to have one around a toenail.

A hangnail isn’t the same condition as an infected or ingrown nail. A hangnail only refers to the skin along the sides of the nail, not the nail itself.

Hangnails are common. Most people experience hangnails when their skin is dry, such as in the winter or after being exposed to water for a prolonged period. A hangnail can become infected if exposed to bacteria or fungus.

Infected hangnails should be treated as soon as possible. Oftentimes, the condition can be successfully treated at home. If the hangnail doesn’t clear up within a week, you should consult your doctor.

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Hangovers can occur at any time of day, but are usually more common in the morning directly after a night of heavy drinking.

As well as physical symptoms, the person may experience elevated levels of anxiety, regret, shame, embarrassment, and depression. The severity of a hangover is closely linked to how much alcohol was consumed, and whether the sufferer had enough sleep; the less sleep, the worse the hangover.

It is impossible really to say how much alcohol can be safely consumed to avoid a hangover - it depends on the individual and other factors, such as how tired they were before they began drinking, whether they were already dehydrated before the drinking began, whether they drank plenty of water during their drinking session, and how much sleep they got afterward.

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Hay fever affects up to 30% of all people worldwide, including up to 10% of U.S. children under 17 years of age and 7.8% of U.S. adults. The medical cost of allergic rhinitis is approximately $3.4 billion, mostly due to the cost of prescription medications. These figures are probably an underestimate because many of those affected may attribute their discomfort to a chronic cold. Although childhood hay fever tends to be more common, this condition can occur at any age and usually occurs after years of repeated inhalation of allergic substances. The incidence of allergic disease has dramatically increased in the U.S. and other developed countries over recent decades.

"Hay fever" is a misnomer. Hay is not a usual cause of this problem, and it does not cause fever. Early descriptions of sneezing, nasal congestion, and eye irritation while harvesting field hay promoted this popular term. Allergic rhinitis is the correct term used to describe this allergic reaction, and many different substances cause the allergic symptoms noted in hay fever. Rhinitis means "inflammation of the nose" and is a derivative of rhino, meaning nose. Allergic rhinitis that occurs during a specific season is called "seasonal allergic rhinitis." When it occurs throughout the year, it is called "perennial allergic rhinitis." Rhinosinusitis is the medical term that refers to inflammation of the nasal lining as well as the lining tissues of the sinuses. This term is sometimes used because the two conditions frequently occur together.

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Head lice are parasites that are found on human heads. The word lice is plural for louse.

Head lice are spread by personal contact or the sharing of combs, brushes, caps, and other clothing.

Head lice are a common problem with preschool and schoolchildren.

Head lice cause a tickling feeling of something moving in the hair, itching, and sores on the head.

The affected individual, family members also infected, and the home all should be treated.

Remember: one head louse + one head louse = two head lice = the beginning of a head-lice infection.

Very young children should be evaluated by a health-care professional before beginning medications.

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Hearing loss is when your ability to hear is reduced. A hearing loss makes it more difficult for you to hear speech and other sounds.

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Don’t wait to get help if you experience any of these heart attack warning signs. Although some heart attacks are sudden and intense, most start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort. Pay attention to your body .


Chest discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain.

Discomfort in other areas of the upper body. Symptoms can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach.

Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort.

Other signs may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness.

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Heart disease, such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, congestive heart failure, and congenital heart disease, is the leading cause of death for men and women in the U.S. Prevention includes quitting smoking, lowering cholesterol, controlling high blood pressure, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising.

 

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A heart transplant is an operation in which a failing, diseased heart is replaced with a healthier, donor heart. Heart transplant is a treatment that's usually reserved for people who have tried medications or other surgeries, but their conditions haven't sufficiently improved.

While a heart transplant is a major operation, your chance of survival is good, with appropriate follow-up care.

When faced with a decision about having a heart transplant, know what to expect of the heart transplant process, the surgery itself, potential risks and follow-up care.

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Your heart is an amazing organ. It continuously pumps oxygen and nutrient-rich blood throughout your body to sustain life. This fist-sized powerhouse beats (expands and contracts) 100,000 times per day, pumping five or six quarts of blood each minute, or about 2,000 gallons per day.

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Heartburn is a sensation of burning in the chest caused by stomach acid backing up into the esophagus (food pipe). The burning is usually in the upper and central part of the chest, just behind the sternum (breast bone). The burning can worsen or can be brought on by lying flat or on the right side. Pregnancy tends to aggravate heartburn.

Many people experience heartburn and there are a large number of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies available to treat heartburn or the symptoms of heartburn.


In most cases you will not need to see a health-care professional, except if the symptoms are frequent (several times a week) or severe.


If heartburn is severe or the pain is accompanied with additional symptoms such as shortness of breath, radiation into your arms or neck, you will need to see a doctor to distinguish these symptoms from more serious medical conditions such as a heart attack.

GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a chronic and more serious form of heartburn.

If your heartburn symptoms occur more than twice a week you should see your health-care professional to make sure no serious problems are present.

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Heatstroke is a condition caused by your body overheating, usually as a result of prolonged exposure to or physical exertion in high temperatures. This most serious form of heat injury, heatstroke, can occur if your body temperature rises to 104 F (40 C) or higher. The condition is most common in the summer months.


Heatstroke requires emergency treatment. Untreated heatstroke can quickly damage your brain, heart, kidneys and muscles. The damage worsens the longer treatment is delayed, increasing your risk of serious complications or death.

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heel spur is a pointed bony outgrowth of the bone of the heel (the calcaneus bone). They are attributed to chronic local inflammation at the insertion of soft-tissue tendons or fascia in the area. Heel spurs can be located at the back of the heel or under the heel, beneath the sole of the foot. Heel spurs at the back of the heel are frequently associated with inflammation of the Achilles tendon (tendinitis) and cause tenderness and pain at the back of the heel made worse while pushing off the ball of the foot.

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Hereditary hemochromatosis (he-moe-kroe-muh-TOE-sis) causes your body to absorb too much iron from the food you eat. Excess iron is stored in your organs, especially your liver, heart and pancreas. Too much iron can lead to life-threatening conditions, such as liver disease, heart problems and diabetes.


The genes that cause hemochromatosis are inherited, but only a minority of people who have the genes ever develop serious problems. Signs and symptoms of hereditary hemochromatosis usually appear in midlife.


Treatment includes regularly removing blood from your body. Because much of the body's iron is contained in red blood cells, this treatment lowers iron levels.

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The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. Hemoglobin forms an unstable, reversible bond with oxygen. In its oxygenated state it is called oxyhemoglobin and is bright red. In the reduced state it is called deoxyhemoglobin and is purple-blue.


Each hemoglobin molecule is made up of four heme groups surrounding a globin group. Heme contains iron and gives a red color to the molecule. Globin consists of two linked pairs of polypeptide chains. The development of each chain is controlled at a separate genetic locus. Changes in the amino acid sequence of these chains results in abnormal hemoglobins. For example, hemoglobin S is found in sickle-cell disease, a severe type of anemia in which the red cells become sickle-shaped when oxygen is in short supply.


When red blood cells die, the hemoglobin within them is released and broken up: the iron in hemoglobin is salvaged, transported to the bone marrow by a protein called transferrin and used again in the production of new red blood cells; the remainder of the hemoglobin becomes a chemical called bilirubin that is excreted into the bile which is secreted into the intestine, where it gives the feces their characteristic yellow-brown color.

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Hemorrhoids (Piles) are blood vessels located in the smooth muscles of the walls of the rectum and anus. They are a normal part of the anatomy and are located at the junction where small arteries merge into veins. They are cushioned by smooth muscles and connective tissue and are classified by where they are located in relationship to the pectinate line, the dividing point between the upper 2/3 and lower 1/3 of the anus. This is an important anatomic distinction because of the type of cells that line the hemorrhoid, and the nerves that provide sensation.

Internal hemorrhoids are located above the pectinate line and are covered with cells that are the same as those that line the rest of the intestines. External hemorrhoids arise below the line and are covered with cells that resemble skin.

Hemorrhoids become an issue only when they begin to swell, causing itching, pain and/or bleeding.

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This infection of the liver is caused by the hepatitis C virus. About 3.9 million people in the U.S. have the disease. But it causes few symptoms, so most of them don't know.


There are many forms of the hepatitis C virus. The most common in the U.S. is type 1. None is more serious than any other, but they respond differently to treatment.

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Herpes is an infection caused by HSV (herpes simplex virus). This virus affects the external genitalia, anal region, mucosal surfaces, and skin in other parts of the body.


Herpes is a long-term condition. However, many people never have symptoms even though they are carrying the virus.

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Any time an internal body part pushes into an area where it doesn't belong, it's called a hernia.

The hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm -- the muscular wall separating the chest cavity from the abdomen. Normally, the esophagus (food pipe) goes through the hiatus and attaches to the stomach. In a hiatal hernia (also called hiatus hernia) the stomach bulges up into the chest through that opening.

There are two main types of hiatal hernias: sliding and paraesophageal (next to the esophagus).

In a sliding hiatal hernia, the stomach and the section of the esophagus that joins the stomach slide up into the chest through the hiatus. This is the more common type of hernia.

 

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Hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm — the muscle that separates your chest from your abdomen and plays an important role in breathing. Each contraction is followed by a sudden closure of your vocal cords, which produces the characteristic "hic" sound.


Hiccups may result from a large meal, alcoholic or carbonated beverages or sudden excitement. In some cases, hiccups may be a sign of an underlying medical condition. For most people, a bout of hiccups usually lasts only a few minutes. Rarely, hiccups may persist for months. This can result in weight loss and exhaustion.

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There are many questions regarding safe s*x and the spread of STD, an infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. Confusion often arises around how exactly AIDS spreads, as it is often generalized to “bodily fluids.” However, this categorization is too broad when considering hickey and the risks for HIV. You cannot contract it from the exchange of saliva through kissing or giving or receiving hickey. Hickeys, or “love bites,” are bruises and do not break the skin, so there is not access to the bloodstream. Even if the skin were to break, HIV could not spread through saliva. To be infected with HIV, already infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions must enter your body.

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Hypertension, also known as high or raised blood pressure, is a condition in which the blood vessels have persistently raised pressure. Blood is carried from the heart to all parts of the body in the vessels. Each time the heart beats, it pumps blood into the vessels. Blood pressure is created by the force of blood pushing against the walls of blood vessels (arteries) as it is pumped by the heart. The higher the pressure in blood vessels the harder the heart has to work in order to pump blood. If left uncontrolled, hypertension can lead to a heart attack, an enlargement of the heart and eventually heart failure. Blood vessels may develop bulges (aneurysms) and weak spots due to high pressure, making them more likely to clog and burst. The pressure in the blood vessels can also cause blood to leak out into the brain. This can cause a stroke. Hypertension can also lead to kidney failure, blindness, rupture of blood vessels and cognitive impairment.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is recorded as two numbers usually written one above the other. The upper number is the systolic blood pressure - the highest pressure in blood vessels when the heart contracts, or beats. The lower number is the diastolic blood pressure - the lowest pressure in blood vessels when the heart muscle relaxes. Normal adult blood pressure is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure of 80 mm Hg.

Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure equal to or above 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure equal to or above 90 mm Hg.

More than 1 in 5 adults worldwide have raised blood pressure – a condition that causes around half of all deaths from stroke and heart disease. Complications from hypertension account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year.

In nearly all high-income countries, widespread diagnosis and treatment with low-cost medication have led to a significant drop in the proportion of people with raised blood pressure as well as the average blood pressure across populations. This has contributed to a reduction in deaths from heart disease. For example, the prevalence of raised blood pressure in the WHO region of the Americas in 2014 was 18%, as compared to 31% in 1980.

In contrast, low-income countries have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure. In the WHO African region, more than 30% of adults in many countries are estimated to have high blood pressure. This proportion is increasing and the average blood pressure levels in this region are much higher than global averages.

Many people with high blood pressure in developing countries are not aware of their disease. Those who are diagnosed may not have access to treatment and may not be able to successfully control their illness over the long term. It contributes to the burden of heart disease, stroke and kidney failure and premature mortality and disability.

Detection, treatment and control of hypertension is an important health priority worldwide.

 

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Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) in your blood. Your cells need cholesterol, and your body makes all it needs. But you also get cholesterol from the food you eat.

If you have too much cholesterol, it starts to build up in your arteries. (Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.) This is called hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis camera.gif. It is the starting point for some heart and blood flow problems. The buildup can narrow the arteries and make it harder for blood to flow through them. The buildup can also lead to dangerous blood clots and inflammation that can cause heart attacks and strokes.

There are different types of cholesterol.

LDL is the "bad" cholesterol. It's the kind that can raise your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
HDL is the "good" cholesterol. It's the kind that is linked to a lower risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.

 

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Hip pain is a common complaint that can be caused by a wide variety of problems. The precise location of your hip pain can provide valuable clues about the underlying cause.

Problems within the hip joint itself tend to result in pain on the inside of your hip or your groin. Hip pain on the outside of your hip, upper thigh or outer buttock is usually caused by problems with muscles, ligaments, tendons and other soft tissues that surround your hip joint.

Hip pain can sometimes be caused by diseases and conditions in other areas of your body, such as your lower back. This type of pain is called referred pain. 

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For many people -- particularly women -- hips and thighs are trouble spots. Efforts to achieve slim, trim thighs can seem futile, especially since exercise and diet won't necessarily reduce fat in the places you'd like. Though you target your stomach, the excess fat may come off your bottom, or vice versa. Still, dedication to exercise combined with good nutrition will trim fat throughout your body and help you tone all over, including your thigh

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HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, if not treated. Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely, even with treatment. So once you get HIV, you have it for life.

HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system fight off infections. Untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to get other infections or infection-related cancers. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS, the last stage of HIV infection.

No effective cure currently exists, but with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. The medicine used to treat HIV is called antiretroviral therapy or ART. If taken the right way, every day, this medicine can dramatically prolong the lives of many people infected with HIV, keep them healthy, and greatly lower their chance of infecting others. Before the introduction of ART in the mid-1990s, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Today, someone diagnosed with HIV and treated before the disease is far advanced can live nearly as long as someone who does not have HIV.

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Hives (medically known as urticaria) appear on the skin as wheals that are red, very itchy, smoothly elevated areas of skin often with a blanched center. They appear in varying shapes and sizes, from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter anywhere on the body.

It is estimated that 20% of all people will develop urticaria at some point in their lives. Hives are more common in women than in men. One hallmark of hives are their tendency to change size rapidly and to move around, disappearing in one place and reappearing in other places, often in a matter of hours. An individual hive usually lasts no longer than 24 hours. An outbreak that looks impressive, even alarming, first thing in the morning can be completely gone by noon, only to be back in full force later in the day. Very few skin diseases occur and then resolve so rapidly. Therefore, even if you have no evidence of hives to show the doctor when you get to the office for examination, the diagnosis can be established based upon the accurate recounting of your symptoms and signs. Because hives fluctuate so much and so fast, it is helpful to bring along a photograph of what the outbreak looked like at its most severe point.

Swelling deeper in the skin that may accompany hives is called angioedema. This swelling of the hands and feet, as well as the face (lips or eyelids), can be as dramatic as it is brief.

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Hoarseness is an abnormal change in the voice caused by a variety of conditions. The voice may have changes in pitch and volume, ranging from a deep, harsh voice to a weak, raspy voice.

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Hormonal imbalance occurs when normal levels and production of hormones in the endocrine system, or their ratio to other hormones, is disrupted. When it comes to hormonal imbalance, we tend to focus most on sex hormones related to pregnancy, periods and menopause.

But you have many types of hormones and they control many other functions including metabolism and weight, thyroid function, sleep cycles and your body’s response to stress. Even though all your hormones together form the foundation of your health.

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Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance found in the cell membrane and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals.

Our body needs cholesterol to a certain level to work properly, but if excess of cholesterol enters blood, it can make sticky deposits to the walls of the arteries leading to its narrowing and blockage.

High cholesterol shoots up the risk of getting various cardiovascular diseases such as Atherosclerosis, Cardiac Arrest, Stroke, Heart Attack, etc.

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Hyperpigmentation is the production of excess melanin causing dark spots on the skin. Age spots, liver spots, freckles, sun spots, pregnancy mask are all types of hyperpigmentation and there are several treatments available to reduce or remove the darker skin.

Hyperpigmentation refers to areas of skin where an excess of melanin has been produced and formed deposits, causing skin patches that appear darker than the surrounding skin.


Common skin areas that experience hyperpigmentation or dyschromia are the face, arms, and hands.  Age spots, liver spots, freckles, sun spots, melasma, and any typical dark or brown spots in the skin are examples of hyperpigmentation. 

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Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe complications and increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. The pressure depends on the work being done by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.

Medical guidelines define hypertension as a blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), according to guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) in November 2017.

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Hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid disease, means your thyroid gland makes and releases too much thyroid hormone. The thyroid gland is located in the front of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple. It makes hormones that control your metabolism. Metabolism is the pace of your body’s processes and includes things like your heart rate and how quickly you burn calories.


Hyperthyroidism can affect your metabolism. It can also cause nervousness, increased perspiration (sweatiness), rapid heartbeat, hand tremors, difficulty sleeping and weight loss.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid disease, is a common disorder. With hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.


The thyroid gland is located in the front lower part of your neck. Hormones released by the gland travel through your bloodstream and affect nearly every part of your body, from your heart and brain, to your muscles and skin.


Thyroid


The thyroid controls how your body's cells use energy from food, a process called metabolism. Among other things, your metabolism affects your body’s temperature, your heartbeat, and how well you burn calories. If you don't have enough thyroid hormone, your body processes slow down. That means your body makes less energy, and your metabolism becomes sluggish.

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IBS affects between 25 and 45 million Americans. Most of them are women. People are most likely to get the condition in their late teens to early 40s.

IBS is a mix of belly discomfort or pain and trouble with bowel habits: either going more or less often than normal (diarrhea or constipation) or having a different kind of stool (thin, hard, or soft and liquid).

It’s not life-threatening, and it doesn't make you more likely to get other colon conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or colon cancer. But IBS can be a long-lasting problem that changes how you live your life. People with IBS may miss work or school more often, and they may feel less able to take part in daily activities. Some people may need to change their work setting: shifting to working at home, changing hours, or even not working at all.


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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine. Signs and symptoms include cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea or constipation, or both. IBS is a chronic condition that you'll need to manage long term.


Only a small number of people with IBS have severe signs and symptoms. Some people can control their symptoms by managing diet, lifestyle and stress. More-severe symptoms can be treated with medication and counseling.


IBS doesn't cause changes in bowel tissue or increase your risk of colorectal cancer.

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IBS affects between 25 and 45 million Americans. Most of them are women. People are most likely to get the condition in their late teens to early 40s.


IBS is a mix of belly discomfort or pain and trouble with bowel habits: either going more or less often than normal (diarrhea or constipation) or having a different kind of stool (thin, hard, or soft and liquid).


It’s not life-threatening, and it doesn't make you more likely to get other colon conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or colon cancer. But IBS can be a long-lasting problem that changes how you live your life. People with IBS may miss work or school more often, and they may feel less able to take part in daily activities. Some people may need to change their work setting: shifting to working at home, changing hours, or even not working at all.

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The III academic programme aims to deliver world class interdisciplinary research for children with infectious, immunological and inflammatory disease, children with life threatening respiratory disease, children in pain and critically ill children on intensive care.

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On the whole, your immune system does a remarkable job of defending you against disease-causing microorganisms. But sometimes it fails: A germ invades successfully and makes you sick. Is it possible to intervene in this process and boost your immune system? What if you improve your diet? Take certain vitamins or herbal preparations? Make other lifestyle changes in the hope of producing a near-perfect immune response?

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High blood pressure is also known as hypertension. Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted against the walls of the arteries as blood flows through them.


In the United States, approximately 85 million people have high blood pressure - about 1 in every 3 adults over 20, according to the American Heart Association (AHA).

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimate that about two-thirds of people over the age of 65 in the U.S. have high blood pressure.

If left untreated or uncontrolled, high blood pressure can cause many health problems. These conditions include heart failure, vision loss, stroke, and kidney disease.

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Indigestion is often a sign of an underlying problem, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, or gallbladder disease, rather than a condition of its own.

Also called dyspepsia, it is defined as a persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen.

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In general, infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant (conceive) after one year of unprotected sex. Women who do not have regular menstrual cycles, or are older than 35 years and have not conceived during a 6-month period of trying, should consider making an appointment with a reproductive endocrinologist - an infertility specialist. These doctors may also be able to help women with recurrent pregnancy loss - 2 or more spontaneous miscarriages.

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Strange bumps have sprung up on your face. They're not exactly pimples. They're not hives, either. Could they be ingrown hairs?

Ingrown hairs are hairs that have curled around and grown back into your skin instead of rising up from it.

Sometimes, dead skin can clog up a hair follicle. That forces the hair inside it to grow sideways under the skin, rather than upward and outward. Sometimes, cutting naturally curly hair too closely will result in the sharpened end of the hair piercing the skin, causing an ingrown hair.

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Insomnia is a sleep disorder that regularly affects millions of people worldwide. In short, individuals with insomnia find it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep. The effects can be devastating.


Insomnia commonly leads to daytime sleepiness, lethargy, and a general feeling of being unwell, both mentally and physically. Mood swings, irritability, and anxiety are common associated symptoms.


Insomnia has also been associated with a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. According to the National Sleep Foundation, 30-40 percent of American adults report that they have had symptoms of insomnia within the last 12 months, and 10-15 percent of adults claim to have chronic insomnia.

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Interstitial cystitis (in-tur-STISH-ul sis-TIE-tis) — also called painful bladder syndrome — is a chronic condition causing bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes pelvic pain. The pain ranges from mild discomfort to severe.


Your bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine. The bladder expands until it's full and then signals your brain that it's time to urinate, communicating through the pelvic nerves. This creates the urge to urinate for most people.


With interstitial cystitis, these signals get mixed up — you feel the need to urinate more often and with smaller volumes of urine than most people.


Interstitial cystitis most often affects women and can have a long-lasting impact on quality of life. Although there's no cure, medications and other therapies may offer relief.

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Intestinal worms, also known as parasitic worms, are one of the main types of intestinal parasites. Common types of intestinal worms include:


    flatworms, which include tapeworms and flukes

    roundworms, which cause ascariasis, pinworm, and hookworm infections

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Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia — a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues.


As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron. Without enough iron, your body can't produce enough of a substance in red blood cells that enables them to carry oxygen (hemoglobin). As a result, iron deficiency anemia may leave you tired and short of breath.


You can usually correct iron deficiency anemia with iron supplementation. Sometimes additional tests or treatments for iron deficiency anemia are necessary, especially if your doctor suspects that you're bleeding internally.

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A normal menstrual cycle lasts 28 days, plus or minus seven days. Menstrual bleeding is considered irregular if it occurs more frequently than every 21 days or lasts longer than 8 days. Missed, early, or late periods are also considered signs of an irregular cycle.


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IBS affects between 25 and 45 million Americans. Most of them are women. People are most likely to get the condition in their late teens to early 40s.


IBS is a mix of belly discomfort or pain and trouble with bowel habits: either going more or less often than normal (diarrhea or constipation) or having a different kind of stool (thin, hard, or soft and liquid).


It’s not life-threatening, and it doesn't make you more likely to get other colon conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or colon cancer. But IBS can be a long-lasting problem that changes how you live your life. People with IBS may miss work or school more often, and they may feel less able to take part in daily activities. Some people may need to change their work setting: shifting to working at home, changing hours, or even not working at all.

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Itchy skin is an uncomfortable, irritating sensation that makes you want to scratch. Also known as pruritus (proo-RIE-tus), itchy skin is usually caused by dry skin. It's common in older adults, as skin tends to become drier with age.

Depending on the cause of your itchy skin, it may appear normal. Or it may be red or rough or have bumps or blisters. Repeated scratching can cause raised, thickened areas of skin that may bleed or become infected.

Self-care measures such as moisturizing, using anti-itch products and taking cool baths can help relieve itchy skin. Long-term relief requires identifying and treating the cause of itchy skin. Itchy skin treatments include medications, wet dressings and light therapy.

 

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Itchy eyes may be uncomfortable, especially when you’re trying to fall asleep. There are several reasons you may notice itchy eye symptoms only at night. One reason may be because you’re not as busy as you are at other points during the day. You may be more in tune with your body in the evening when things are quieter.

Working outside of your home in the daytime may mean you’re exposed to different allergens in your home at night. For example, at the office you might have air conditioning. At home, you may open windows to get a cool breeze — and possibly pollen — from outdoors.


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Itching affecting the scalp, meaning the skin covering the top of the head which grows hair, can have many causes. It can be caused by parasites such as lice, irritation due to a harsh shampoo, the presence of dandruff, or a skin disease, the most common being psoriasis which causes skin lesions and itching. The treatment for an itchy scalp can be prescribed after determining the cause. The most common cause in children is head lice, the discovery of nits should lead to treatment with two applications of lotion, 8 days apart.

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An itchy scalp may be irritating for anyone, especially during the hot summers. Instead of trying a host of market products and professional treatments, use these regular and popular home remedies to eliminate the itchiness from your scalp. Before opting for these home remedies, make sure you check the cause of this itchiness. Notice your scalp texture carefully. Dry skin on the scalp or infections such as dandruff and psoriasis can cause an itchy scalp. The itching and scratching can also result in excess hair fall.

Ask yourself these questions: Is your scalp dry or damaged? Are you suffering from normal dandruff or lice? Or is it any other regular reason like sweating that is giving you an itchy scalp? If your answer is yes, you can move on to the home remedies safely without further ado.


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Itchy skin is an uncomfortable, irritating sensation that makes you want to scratch. Also known as pruritus (proo-RIE-tus), itchy skin is usually caused by dry skin. It's common in older adults, as skin tends to become drier with age.

Depending on the cause of your itchy skin, it may appear normal. Or it may be red or rough or have bumps or blisters. Repeated scratching can cause raised, thickened areas of skin that may bleed or become infected.

Self-care measures such as moisturizing, using anti-itch products and taking cool baths can help relieve itchy skin. Long-term relief requires identifying and treating the cause of itchy skin. Itchy skin treatments include medications, wet dressings and light therapy.


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Jaundice is a term used to describe the yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. It's caused by a build-up of a substance called bilirubin in the blood and body's tissues. Any condition that disrupts the movement of bilirubin from the blood to the liver and out of the body can cause jaundice. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is formed by the breakdown of dead red blood cells (RBC) in the liver. There are several ways that a build- up of bilirubin can occur:

If red blood cells broke down too early, the spleen gets overloaded and hence too much bilirubin is produced to be handled by the liver. Unprocessed bilirubin accumulates in the bloodstream and eventually the skin and eyes looks yellow. This condition is called hemolytic anemia. At times this condition is inherited. Hemolytic anemia may also occur as a side-effect of certain drugs.
Sometimes the trouble is in the liver cells. If there is a faulty uptake, processing or excretion of bilirubin it will result in an accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Newborn babies can be temporarily jaundiced because of lack of mature enzymes needed to process bilirubin. In adults, alcoholism is a common cause of damage to liver cells. Other toxins and certain drugs can also cause acute damage to the liver.
A blockage in the bile duct can also result in a build-up of fully processed bilirubin. This can spill over into the urine and cause it to become very dark. The blockage is most commonly caused by a gallstone.

 

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Tinea cruris, most commonly known as jock itch, is a fungal infection of the skin. It belongs to a group of fungal skin infections called tinea. Like other tinea infections, jock itch is caused by mold-like fungi, which are known as dermatophytes. These microscopic fungi naturally live on the skin as well as on the hair and nails. They’re typically harmless, but they can multiply quickly and cause infections when they’re allowed to thrive in warm, moist areas. This is why jock itch usually develops in the skin around the groin, inner thighs, and buttocks.Jock itch is most common in men and adolescent boys. The infection causes a rash that often itches or burns. The affected areas can also be red, flaky, or scaly.Though jock itch can be bothersome, it’s typically a mild infection. Treating it quickly will minimize symptoms and keep the infection from spreading. Most people find relief simply by applying topical antifungal medications and by keeping the affected area clean and dry.


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Joints are the parts of your body where your bones meet. Joints allow the bones of your skeleton to move. Joints include:

shoulders
hips
elbows
knees
Joint pain refers to discomfort, aches, and soreness in any of the body’s joints. Joint pain is a common complaint. It doesn’t typically require a hospital visit. Sometimes, joint pain is the result of an illness or injury. Arthritis is also a common cause of joint pain. However, it can also be due to other conditions or factors.

 

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When skin is injured, fibrous tissue called scar tissue forms over the wound to repair and protect the injury. In some cases, scar tissue grows excessively, forming smooth, hard growths called keloids. Keloids can be much larger than the original wound. They’re most commonly found on the chest, shoulders, earlobes, and cheeks. However, keloids can affect any part of the body. Although keloids aren’t harmful to your health, they may create cosmetic concerns.

 
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A keloid is an abnormal proliferation of scar tissue that forms at the site of cutaneous injury (eg, on the site of a surgical incision or trauma); it does not regress and grows beyond the original margins of the scar. Keloids should not be confused with hypertrophic scars, which are raised scars that do not grow beyond the boundaries of the original wound and may reduce over time. [1] See the image below.

keloids are benign dermal fibroproliferative tumors with no malignant potential. The first description of abnormal scar formation in the form of keloids was recorded in the Smith papyrus regarding surgical techniques in Egypt around 1700 BC. [2] The term keloid, meaning "crab claw," was first coined by Alibert in 1806, in an attempt to illustrate the way the lesions expand laterally from the original scar into normal tissue. [3] Since that time, physicians have attempted to characterize normal scars, hypertrophic scars, and keloids.


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Keratosis pilaris (ker-uh-TOE-sis pih-LAIR-is) is a common, harmless skin condition that causes dry, rough patches and tiny bumps, usually on the upper arms, thighs, cheeks or buttocks. The bumps generally don't hurt or itch.Keratosis pilaris is often considered a variant of normal skin. It can't be cured or prevented. But you can treat it with moisturizers and prescription creams to help improve the appearance of the skin. The condition usually disappears by age 30.


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When you know the symptoms of chronic kidney disease (CKD), you can get treatment and feel your best. CKD symptoms can be subtle. Some people don’t have any symptoms — or don’t think they do. If you have one or more of the 15 symptoms below, or worry about kidney problems, see a doctor for blood and urine tests. Many of the symptoms on this list can be caused by other health problems. The only way to know the cause of YOUR symptoms is to see your doctor.




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The cause of chronic kidney disease isn't always known. But any condition or disease that damages blood vessels or other structures in the kidneys can lead to kidney disease. The most common causes of chronic kidney disease are:

Diabetes . High blood sugar levels caused by diabetes damage blood vessels in the kidneys. If the blood sugar level remains high over many years, this damage gradually reduces the function of the kidneys.
High blood pressure (hypertension). Uncontrolled high blood pressure damages blood vessels, which can lead to damage in the kidneys. And blood pressure often rises with chronic kidney disease, so high blood pressure may further damage kidney function even when another medical condition initially caused the disease.

 

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Kidney stones (renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis) are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys.Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.

Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they're recognized in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances — for example, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or cause complications — surgery may be needed.Your doctor may recommend preventive treatment to reduce your risk of recurrent kidney stones if you're at increased risk of developing them again.


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When you get a kidney transplant, a healthy kidney is placed inside your body to do the work your own kidneys can no longer do.  On the plus side, there are fewer limits on what you can eat and drink, but you should follow a heart-healthy diet. Your health and energy should improve.  In fact, a successful kidney transplant may allow you to live the kind of life you were living before you got kidney disease. Studies show that people with kidney transplants live longer than those who remain on dialysis.On the minus side, there are the risks of surgery.  You will also need to take anti-rejection medicines for as long as your new kidney is working, which can have side effects.  You will have a higher risk for infections and certain types of cancer.Although most transplants are successful and last for many years, how long they last can vary from one person to the next. Many people will need more than one kidney transplant during a lifetime.

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Our bodies produce several kinds of wastes, including sweat, carbon dioxide gas, feces (stool or poop), and urine (pee). These wastes leave the body in different ways. Sweat is released through pores in the skin. Water vapor and carbon dioxide are exhaled from the lungs. And undigested food materials are formed into feces in the intestines and excreted from the body as solid waste in bowel movements.

Urine, which is produced by the kidneys, contains the byproducts of metabolism — salts, toxins, and water — that end up in the blood. The kidneys and urinary tract (which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra) filter and eliminate these waste substances from our blood. Without the kidneys, waste products and toxins would soon build up in the blood to dangerous levels.


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Knee pain is a common complaint that affects people of all ages. Knee pain may be the result of an injury, such as a ruptured ligament or torn cartilage. Medical conditions — including arthritis, gout and infections — also can cause knee pain.Many types of minor knee pain respond well to self-care measures. Physical therapy and knee braces also can help relieve knee pain. In some cases, however, your knee may require surgical repair.

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People with lactose intolerance are unable to fully digest the sugar (lactose) in milk. As a result, they have diarrhea, gas and bloating after eating or drinking dairy products. The condition, which is also called lactose malabsorption, is usually harmless, but its symptoms can be uncomfortable.A deficiency of lactase — an enzyme produced in your small intestine — is usually responsible for lactose intolerance. Many people have low levels of lactase but are able to digest milk products without problems. If you're actually lactose intolerant, though, your lactase deficiency leads to symptoms after you eat dairy foods.Most people with lactose intolerance can manage the condition without having to give up all dairy foods

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Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) from overuse, irritation or infection.Inside the larynx are your vocal cords — two folds of mucous membrane covering muscle and cartilage. Normally, your vocal cords open and close smoothly, forming sounds through their movement and vibration.But in laryngitis, your vocal cords become inflamed or irritated. This swelling causes distortion of the sounds produced by air passing over them. As a result, your voice sounds hoarse. In some cases of laryngitis, your voice can become almost undetectable.Laryngitis may be short-lived (acute) or long lasting (chronic). Most cases of laryngitis are triggered by a temporary viral infection or vocal strain and aren't serious. Persistent hoarseness can sometimes signal a more serious underlying medical condition.


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His is the medical term for a definite kind of vaginal discharge that is most common during pregnancy as well as at additional times during the reproductive years. If an individual has leukorrhea, it may be a sticky as well as thick vaginal discharge that is yellow, green or white. It may vary with the menstrual cycle of the woman as her hormone levels change.

Discharges from the vagina are normally a sign of vaginal yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, or sexually transmitted diseases. Leukorrhea may or may not be an indication of the presence of an infection, and it is not normally accompanied by any other symptoms or signs, such as itching, pain, irritation or burning, or redness of the tissue. Only a qualified medical professional can advise a woman whether there is an infection.

If a woman has any type vaginal discharge which is unusual during pregnancy or at any other time, she should always consult with her primary care physician before using any over-the-counter therapy or home remedies.


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Lice are tiny insects that can be found on various parts of the body, including the head, eyebrows, and eyelashes. These insects live on humans and feed on their blood. Lice that live close to the scalp are known as head lice.Head lice are found most often on the back of the neck and behind the ears. Although lice can’t jump or fly, they can spread very easily from person to person through head-to-head contact or through shared clothing or personal items (such as a hat, towel, or hairbrush). Contrary to popular myth, personal hygiene has nothing to do with getting head lice.


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If you are concerned about your uneven tone complexion or pigmentation spots on your face, you have come to the right place. In this article you will find tips about how to lighten skin naturally.By following our skin lightening tips you can get even tone skin complexion with lighter and brighter skin. We will tell you about natural skin lightening tips that can actually make a difference.


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Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer, is a cancer which starts in the liver, rather than migrating to the liver from another organ or section of the body. In other words, it is a primary liver cancer.

Cancers that originate elsewhere and eventually reach the liver are known as liver metastasis or secondary liver cancers, and are most commonly from cancer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (colon cancer), lung cancer, renal cancer (cancer of the kidney), ovarian cancer and prostate cancer.

The liver, which is located below the right lung and under the ribcage is one of the largest organs of the human body. It is divided into the right and left lobes. Nutrient-rich blood is carried by the portal vein from the intestines to the liver, while oxygen-rich blood reaches the liver from the hepatic artery.

All vertebrates (animals with a spinal column) have a liver, as do some other animals. The liver has a range of functions, including detoxification (getting rid of toxins), synthesizing proteins, breaking down fats, and producing biochemicals that are essential for digestion. We cannot survive without a liver.

 

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A liver transplant is an operation that replaces a patient's diseased liver with a whole or partial healthy liver from another person. This article explains the current indications for liver transplantation, types of donor livers, the operation itself, and the immunosuppression that is required after transplantation.Liver transplantation surgically replaces a failing or diseased liver with one that is normal and healthy. At this time, transplantation is the only cure for liver insufficiency or liver failure because no device or machine reliably performs all of the functions of the liver. People who require liver transplants typically have one of the following conditions


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Liver

The liver is a large organ on the upper right side of your torso, opposite the stomach and behind the ribcage. One of its main functions is to make a substance called bile (composed mostly of bilirubin, bile salts, and cholesterol) that is required to digest food in the small intestine.


The liver is divided into two sections: a right lobe and a left lobe. Both lobes are made up of cells called hepatocytes. These cells produce bile and secrete it into the bile ducts, which carry bile to the gallbladder where it is stored until used by the small intestine.


Gallbladder and Bile Ducts

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac under the right lobe of the liver. Between meals, it stores and concentrates bile, which is produced at a constant rate by the liver. When it is not full of bile, the gallbladder is about 3 inches long and 1 inch wide at its thickest part.


After meals, the gallbladder releases bile into the duodenum to aid with digestion. The cystic duct carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct, which empties into the duodenum. Entry of bile into the duodenum is regulated by layers of muscle called the sphincter of Oddi.


Between meals, the sphincter of Oddi closes and prevents bile from entering the duodenum. During and after meals, this sphincter opens and allows bile to enter the duodenum.


Pancreas

The pancreas is a long, thin gland that lies horizontally behind the bottom part of your stomach. It makes digestive enzymes that flow through the pancreatic duct to the small intestine. These enzymes, along with bile from the gallbladder, break down food for use as energy by the body. The pancreas also makes insulin and glucagon, hormones that help regulate blood glucose (sugar) levels.


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Fatigue is a constant state of tiredness, even when you’ve gotten your usual amount of sleep. This symptom develops over time and causes a drop in your physical, emotional, and psychological energy levels. You’re also more likely to feel unmotivated to participate in or do activities you normally enjoy.

Loss of appetite means you don’t have the same desire to eat as you used to. Signs of decreased appetite include not wanting to eat, unintentional weight loss, and not feeling hungry. The idea of eating food may make you feel nauseous, as if you might vomit after eating. Long-term loss of appetite is also known as anorexia, which can have a medical or psychological cause.


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Olfaction (the sense of smell) is an important function of the nasal cavity and skull base that has become increasingly investigated due to its role in behavior, cognition, disease severity, quality of life (QOL), and sinonasal disease. Smelling is critical and important to our daily lives. For instance, the sense of smell can alert us to the smoke of a fire or the odor of a natural gas leak, dangerous fumes, or rotten/spoiled food. Importantly, 80% of our taste is related to smell. Remember the smell of your spouse’s perfume or cologne or the taste of your mother’s cooking? Taste and smell unlock some of our deepest memories. They are critical to our perception of the outside world, factor into almost all important social interactions in our society, and the loss of taste and smell can negatively affect one’s QOL.


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The pathophysiology of lower back pain is a source of fascination, frustration, and, often, confusion by clinicians and scientists who both treat and study patients who have this problem. The statement that we do not know the origin of low back pain in the majority of cases has become a mantra to any introduction to the topic. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) Guidelines on Low Back Problems and similar guidelines in other countries have given up on attempts to define the origin of the pain in patients who have this problem and have instead resorted to differentiating between so-called Red Flag pathologic conditions and patients who have nonspecific low back pain, with or without leg symptoms.


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Low blood pressure might seem desirable, and for some people, it causes no problems. However, for many people, abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension) can cause dizziness and fainting. In severe cases, low blood pressure can be life-threatening.

A blood pressure reading lower than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) for the top number (systolic) or 60 mm Hg for the bottom number (diastolic) is generally considered low blood pressure.

The causes of low blood pressure can range from dehydration to serious medical or surgical disorders. It's important to find out what's causing your low blood pressure so that it can be treated.


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lood is made up of several types of cells. These cells float in a liquid called plasma. The types of blood cells are:red blood cellswhite blood cellsplatelets, or thrombocytesWhen your skin is injured or broken, platelets clump together and form clots to stop the bleeding. When you don’t have enough platelets in your blood, your body cannot form clots.A low platelet count may also be called thrombocytopenia. This condition can range from mild to severe, depending on its underlying cause. For some, the symptoms can include severe bleeding and are possibly fatal if they’re not treated. Other people may not experience any symptoms.Typically, a low platelet count is the result of a medical condition, like leukemia, or certain drugs. The treatment usually addresses the condition causing the thrombocytopenia.


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Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you inhale and release carbon dioxide when you exhale.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, among both men and women. Lung cancer claims more lives each year than do colon, prostate, ovarian and breast cancers combined.People who smoke have the greatest risk of lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer increases with the length of time and number of cigarettes you've smoked. If you quit smoking, even after smoking for many years, you can significantly reduce your chances of developing lung cance


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Lung transplantation or pulmonary transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a patient's diseased lungs are partially or totally replaced by lungs which come from a donor. Donor lungs can be retrieved from a living donor or a deceased donor. A living donor can only donate one lung lobe. With some lung diseases a recipient may only need to receive a single lung. With other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis it is imperative that a recipient receive two lungs. While lung transplants carry certain associated risks, they can also extend life expectancy and enhance the quality of life for end-stage pulmonary patients.

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If you take good care of your lungs, they can last a lifetime. “The lungs are very durable if they’re not attacked from the outside,” says Norman H. Edelman, MD, chief medical officer of the American Lung Association (ALA). With a few exceptions, your lungs don’t get into trouble unless you get them into trouble, he says.However, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth-leading cause of death in the U.S. after heart disease, cancer, and stroke. Here are 12 things you can do to keep your lungs healthy as you age.


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Lung diseases are some of the most common medical conditions in the world. Tens of millions of people suffer from lung disease in the U.S. Smoking, infections, and genetics are responsible for most lung diseases.

The lungs are part of a complex apparatus, expanding and relaxing thousands of times each day to bring in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. Lung disease can result from problems in any part of this system.

 

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Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. Typical symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. Lyme disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings (e.g., rash), and the possibility of exposure to infected ticks.  Laboratory testing is helpful if used correctly and performed with validated methods. Most cases of Lyme disease can be treated successfully with a few weeks of antibiotics. Steps to prevent Lyme disease include using insect repellent, removing ticks promptly, applying pesticides, and reducing tick habitat. The ticks that transmit Lyme disease can occasionally transmit other tickborne diseases as well.


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If you’re here, you’ve probably just been diagnosed, or suspect you have Macular Degeneration, or someone you care about has just been diagnosed or suspects they have the disease.

This entire site is dedicated to information regarding Macular Degeneration, but this page will give you a quick general overview to get you oriented.

Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting more than 10 million Americans – more than cataracts and glaucoma combined.

Macular Degeneration is caused by the deterioration of the central portion of the retina, the inside back layer of the eye that records the images we see and sends them via the optic nerve from the eye to the brain. The retina’s central portion, known as the macula, is responsible for focusing central vision in the eye, and it controls our ability to read, drive a car, recognize faces or colors, and see objects in fine detail.

Illustrations of the anatomy of a normal human eye and loss of central vision:

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There are no shortcuts to growing luscious, long locks. On average, hair grows about a half an inch per month. Your general health, well-being, and genetic factors affect your rate of hair growth.You can encourage hair growth by maintaining healthy hair through a good diet and proper hair care. Certain herbs can help make your hair grow faster, too.

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A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby’s mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis. Mastitis also occurs in women who aren’t breastfeeding, but this is not as common.Infection typically affects the fatty tissue in the breast, causing swelling, lumps, and pain. Although most infections are due to breastfeeding or clogged milk ducts, a small percentage of breast infections are associated with rare kinds of breast cancer.


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Measles, or rubeola, is a viral infection of the respiratory system. Measles is a very contagious disease that can spread through contact with infected mucus and saliva. An infected person can release the infection into the air when they cough or sneeze.The measles virus can live on surfaces for several hours. As the infected particles enter the air and settle on surfaces, anyone within close proximity can become infected.

Drinking from an infected person’s glass, or sharing eating utensils with an infected person, increases your risk of infection.Measles is a leading cause of death in children. Of the 114,900 global deaths related to measles in 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that most of the victims were under the age of 5Contact a doctor immediately if you suspect you have measles. If you have not received a measles vaccine and you come into contact with an infected person, visit your doctor to receive a measles vaccine within 72 hours of contact to prevent infection. You can also prevent an infection with a dose of immunoglobulin taken within six days of contact with an infected person.


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A normal mole is usually an evenly colored brown, tan, or black spot on the skin. It can be either flat or raised. It can be round or oval. Moles are generally less than 6 millimeters (about ¼ inch) across (about the width of a pencil eraser). Some moles can be present at birth, but most appear during childhood or young adulthood. New moles that appear later in life should be checked by a doctor.

Once a mole has developed, it will usually stay the same size, shape, and color for many years. Some moles may eventually fade away.Most people have moles, and almost all moles are harmless. But it’s important to recognize changes in a mole – such as in its size, shape, or color – that can suggest a melanoma may be developing.


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Melasma is a very common patchy brown, tan, or blue-gray facial skin discoloration, usually seen in women in the reproductive years. It typically appears on the upper cheeks, upper lip, forehead, and chin of women 20-50 years of age. Although possible, it is uncommon in males. Most of those with melasma are women. It is thought to be primarily related to external sun exposure, external hormones like birth control pills, and internal hormonal changes as seen in pregnancy. Most people with melasma have a history of daily or intermittent sun exposure, although heat is also suspected to be an underlying factor. Melasma is most common among pregnant women, especially those of Latin and Asian descents. People with olive or darker skin, like Hispanic, Asian, and Middle Eastern individuals, have higher incidences of melasma.

Prevention is primarily aimed at facial sun protection and sun avoidance. Treatment requires regular sunscreen application, medications such as 4% hydroquinone and other fading creams.


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There is no such thing as a "bad memory", and anyone can improve their memory, as long as you are not suffering from memory loss as a medical condition. If you want to improve your memory, there are a number of things you can do, from eating blueberries to using a variety of mnemonic devices. If you're optimistic and dedicated, you'll be able to improve your memory, whether you want to win the World Memory Championships, ace your history test, or simply remember where you put your keys.

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Menopause is defined as the absence of menstrual periods for 12 months. It is the time in a woman's life when the function of the ovaries ceases.The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process. This so-called perimenopausal transition period is a different experience for each woman.The average age of menopause is 51 years old, but menopause may occur as early as the 30s or as late as the 60s. There is no reliable lab test to predict when a woman will experience menopause.The age at which a woman starts having menstrual periods is not related to the age of menopause onset.

Symptoms of menopause can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, hot flashes, vaginal and urinary symptoms, and mood changes.Complications that women may develop after menopause include osteoporosis and heart disease.Treatments for menopause are customized for each woman.Treatments are directed toward alleviating uncomfortable or distressing symptoms.

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Men's health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, as experienced by men, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. These often relate to structures such as male genitalia or to conditions caused by hormones specific to, or most notable in, males.


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Heavy menstrual bleeding (called menorrhagia by health care professionals) is defined as soaking a pad and/or tampon every hour or less during each menstrual cycle. For many women, heavy menstrual bleeding is a huge obstacle to their lifestyles. Have you ever had to reschedule an activity around your menstrual period? Then, you know the toll it can take. You may not know that heavy bleeding can be more than a schedule buster. The heavy bleeding can also lead to iron-deficient anemia, the most common health-related threat of menorrhagia. While most cases of anemia are easily treated with oral iron supplements, sometimes the bleeding is so severe a woman's entire volume of blood drops, leading to shortness of breath, severe fatigue and heart palpitations that require hospitalization.


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Making the right diagnosis, finding a mental health professional and obtaining health insurance coverage are the main challenges families face. Many insurers do not provide equal benefits for mental health services as they do for other general medical services. There are often long waiting lists to receive quality services. Patients who have a "dual diagnosis" of developmental and/or medical conditions along with their mental health condition seem to have the most difficulty finding appropriate services.Cincinnati Children's has compiled a list of Greater Cincinnati and national resources that provide mental health services.

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Here's a secret: slaving away inside your body—right this minute—is your very own personal trainer working tirelessly to help you burn calories and shed fat. It's called your metabolism, and it's the sum of everything your body does. Each time you eat, enzymes in your body's cells break down the food and turn it into energy that keeps your heart beating, your mind thinking, and your legs churning during a grueling workout. A fast metabolism means more calories burned. The more you burn, the easier it is to drop pounds. And get this—you can make increase you metabolism so it works harder, a lot harder, 24 hours a day.To some degree, our bodies hum along at a preset speed determined by gender and genetics, but there's still plenty of wiggle room. "You have a huge amount of control over your metabolic rate," says John Berardi, Ph.D., C.S.C.S., author of The Metabolism Advantage. "You can't affect how many calories it takes to keep your heart beating, but you can burn an extra 500 to 600 calories a day by exercising properly and eating right." And by making a few changes to your routine.To make those changes simpler, we enlisted the help of leading experts and came up with a round-the-clock, turn-up-the-burn plan complete with new moves that will throw that slow metabolism into overdrive.


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Nutrition & Metabolism publishes studies with a clear focus on nutrition and metabolism with applications ranging from nutrition needs, exercise physiology, clinical and population studies, as well as the underlying mechanisms in these aspects.The areas of interest for Nutrition & Metabolism encompass studies in molecular nutrition in the context of obesity, diabetes, lipedemias, metabolic syndrome and exercise physiology. Manuscripts related to molecular, cellular and human metabolism, nutrient sensing and nutrient–gene interactions are also in interest, as are submissions that have employed new and innovative strategies like metabolomics/lipidomics or other omic-based biomarkers to predict nutritional status and metabolic diseases


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Migraine is a  neurological disorder often described as intense pulsing or throbbing pain in one area of the head. Typically the headache is unilateral (affecting one half of the head) and pulsating in nature, lasting from 2 to 72 hours.

Migraines are believed to be due to a mixture of environmental and genetic factors . Migraines typically present with self-limited, recurrent severe headache associated with autonomic symptoms.

 

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माइग्रेन एक प्रकार का न्यूरोवेस्कुलर विकार (Neurovascular Disorder) है जिसमें सिर में रूक-रूक कर दर्द होता है। हालांकि माइग्रेन के समय मस्तिष्क की सटीक क्रियाविधि (The Exact Mechanism) की जानकारी नहीं है लेकिन ऐसा माना जाता है की माइग्रेन के समय दिमाग में रक्त का संचार बढ़ जाता है जिससे व्यक्ति को तेज सिरदर्द होने लगता है।

माइग्रेन सेरेब्रल कॉर्टेक्स (Cerebral Cortex) की बढ़ी हुई उत्तेजना तथा ब्रेनस्टेम (Brainstem) के ट्राइगेमिनल न्यूक्लियस (Trigeminal Nucleus) में दर्द के न्यूरॉन्स (Pain Neurons) के असामान्य नियंत्रण से संबंधित है।

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A migraine is usually a moderate or severe headache felt as a throbbing pain on one side of the head.Many people also have symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and increased sensitivity to light or sound.Migraine is a common health condition, affecting around one in every five women and around one in every 15 men. They usually begin in early adulthood.


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A milium cyst is small, white bump that typically appears on the nose and cheeks. These cysts are often found in groups, and in these cases are called milia. The cysts occur when keratin becomes trapped beneath the surface of the skin. Keratin is a strong protein that is typically found in skin tissues, hair, and nail cells.

Milia can occur in people of all ages, but they’re most common in newborns. They’re typically found on the face, eyelids, and cheeks. Milia are often confused with a condition called Epstein pearls, which involves the appearance of harmless white-yellow cysts on a newborn’s gums and mouth. Milia are also often inaccurately referred to as “baby acne.”Keep reading to learn more about milia as well as their causes and what you can do to treat them.

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Cuts: A cut is an area of severed skin that has been penetrated with a sharp edge, such as a knife, a small tool or the edge of a sheet of paper (paper cuts are also painful). The wound will often bleed and have slightly dehiscent wound edges.Grazes or abrasions: A usually harmless abrasion of the upper skin layers that occurs after falling on knees, hands or elbows, or scratching over a rough surface with some skin coming off subsequently. Abrasions can be painful since the injury often extends to the many fine nerve endings subjacent to the skin.

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Minor skin wounds often occur as the result of unanticipated trauma and may include lacerations, abrasion (grazes), blisters and more serious wounds such as skin tears and bites. In many instances the skin may only require protection from further injury and can therefore be treated in the home with due regard for managing the risk of infection. In other cases the advice of a doctor is preferred, especially when the wound is deep and there may be damage to underlying structures such as nerves.

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Moles are growths on the skin that are usually brown or black. Moles can appear anywhere on the skin, alone or in groups.Most moles appear in early childhood and during the first 25 years of a person's life. It is normal to have between 10-40 moles by adulthood.As the years pass, moles usually change slowly, becoming raised and/or changing color. Sometimes, hairs develop in the mole. Some moles may not change at all, while others may slowly disappear over time

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Mosquito bites are the itchy bumps that appear after mosquitoes use their mouthparts to puncture your skin and feed on your blood. The bump usually clears up on its own in a few days. Occasionally a mosquito bite causes a large area of swelling, soreness and redness. This type of reaction, most common in children, is sometimes referred to as skeeter syndrome.

Bites from mosquitoes carrying certain viruses or parasites can cause severe illness. Infected mosquitoes in many parts of the world transmit West Nile virus to humans. Other mosquito-borne infections include yellow fever, malaria and some types of brain infection (encephalitis).

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Motion sickness is the feeling you get when the motion you sense with your inner ear is different from the motion you visualize. It is a common condition that occurs in some people who travel by car, train, airplane or boat. Many people suffer from this condition if they ride on a roller coaster or other similar amusement park rides. Motion sickness progresses from a feeling of uneasiness to sweating and/or dizziness. This is usually quickly followed by nausea and/or vomiting

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Mouth ulcers — also known as canker sores — are normally small, painful lesions that develop in your mouth or at the base of your gums. They can make eating, drinking, and talking uncomfortable. Women, adolescents, and people with a family history of mouth ulcers are at higher risk for developing mouth ulcers.

Mouth ulcers aren’t contagious and usually go away within one to two weeks. However, if you get a canker sore that is large or extremely painful or if it lasts for a long time without healing, you should seek the advice of a doctor.

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MS affects the central nervous system (CNS), but exactly why is happens is unclear.

In the CNS, nerve fibers are surrounded by a myelin sheath, which protects them. Myelin also helps the nerves conduct electrical signals quickly and efficiently. In MS, the myelin sheath disappears in multiple areas, leaving a scar, or sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis means "scar tissue in multiple areas."

The areas where there is no myelin or a lack of myelin are called plaques or lesions. As the lesions get worse, nerve fibers can break or become damaged. As a result, the electrical impulses from the brain do not flow smoothly to the target nerve.

When there is no myelin, the fibers cannot conduct the electrical impulses at all. The messages from the brain to the muscles cannot be transmitted.

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Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder affecting your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and muscle control.

Formerly called Shy-Drager syndrome, MSA shares many Parkinson's disease-like symptoms, such as slow movement, rigid muscles and poor balance.

Treatment includes medications and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms, but there is no cure. The condition progresses gradually and eventually leads to death.

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An acute (sudden, shortlived) viral illness that usually presents with inflammation of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands. A child with mumps often looks like a chipmunk with a full mouth due to the swelling of the parotids (the salivary glands near the ears).

Mumps can also cause inflammation of other tissues, most frequently the covering and substance of the central nervous system (meningoencephalitis), the pancreas (pancreatitis) and, after adolescence, the ovary (oophoritis) and the testis (orchitis). The testis is particularly susceptible to damage from mumps; the damage can lead to infertility.

Together with the likes of measles and chickenpox, mumps was once considered one of the inevitable infectious diseases of childhood. Since a mumps vaccine became available in 1967, the incidence of mumps has declined in the U.S., but there are still many underimmunized populations (for example, more blacks than whites have not yet been immunized).

Treatment is with rest and non-aspirin pain relievers to ease pain in swollen areas. Rarely, mumps can cause a form of meningitis, in which case hospitalization may be needed. Prevention is by immunization with the vaccine.

The origin of the word mumps is not clear. It may have to do with the English usage, now obsolete, of "mump" to mean a grimace. More probably, mumps comes from a colder climate, Iceland, where mumpa meant to fill the mouth too full.

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An involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. When we use the muscles such as those of our arms and legs that can voluntarily be controlled, they alternately contract and relax as we move our limbs. Muscles that support our head, neck, and trunk contract similarly in a synchronized fashion to maintain our posture. A muscle (or even a few fibers of a muscle) that involuntarily (without consciously willing it) contracts is called a "spasm." If the spasm is forceful and sustained, it becomes a cramp. Muscle cramps can last anywhere from a few seconds to a quarter of an hour, and occasionally longer. It is not uncommon for a cramp to recur multiple times until it finally goes away. The cramp may involve a part of a muscle, the entire muscle, or several muscles that usually act together, such as those that flex adjacent fingers. Some cramps involve the simultaneous contraction of muscles that ordinarily move body parts in opposite directions. Muscle cramps are very common and become increasingly frequent with age. Any muscle under voluntary control (skeletal muscle) can cramp. The legs and feet, and particularly the calf (the classic "charley horse"), are especially subject to cramps.

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Muscle aches, or myalgia, are extremely common. Almost everybody has experienced discomfort in their muscles at some point.

Because there is muscle tissue in nearly all parts of the body, this type of pain can be felt practically anywhere…

 

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If you have ever played sports, chances are you have experienced a muscle strain injury. Even if you aren't an athlete, muscle strains are some of the most common injuries; however, this type of injury is often confused with a sprain, so let's start by clarifying the difference.

A strain is an injury that affects the muscle or the tendon. The tendon is the tissue that connects muscle to bone.
A sprain is an injury that affects a ligament. A ligament is connective tissue joining bones together.
In this lesson, we're specifically concerned with muscle strains, which can come in different types: the muscle itself can partially or completely tear, or the tendons can partially or completely tear. In any case, it's painful. You may also hear a strain referred to as a pulled muscle.

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Bones give people shape. They hold the body upright, and also protect organs like the heart and the kidneys. They store the minerals calcium and phosphorus, and also contain bone marrow, where new blood cells are made.


There are different types of muscles and joints, each with different functions.


Skeletal muscle is muscle that you can consciously control. When your brain tells a muscle to contract, it shortens, pulling one bone towards another across a joint. Muscles work in pairs – when one shortens, a corresponding muscle lengthens. Physical activity maintains or increases the strength of skeletal muscles.


Smooth muscle sits in and around blood vessels and organs. You can’t consciously control smooth muscle. It helps regulate your blood pressure, airways and digestion.


The heart is made of special muscle called cardiac muscle. You can’t control it consciously. It contracts to make your heart beat.


Joints in the arms and legs are synovial joints which means they have fluid in them (synovial fluid) so bones can move over each other.


Joints in the spine and pelvis are cartilaginous joints – they provide more stability and less movement.


There are also fibrous joints that allow no movement at all – just stability. You have fibrous joints in your skull.

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One of a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. The muscles of the heart and some other involuntary muscles are also affected in some forms of muscular dystrophy, and a few forms involve other organs as well.

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Nail infection, fungal: The most common fungus infection of the nails is onychomycosis.

Onychomycosis makes the nails look white and opaque, thickened, and brittle. Those at increased risk for developing onychomycosis include:

People with diabetes;
People with disease of the small blood vessels (peripheral vascular disease)
Artificial nails increase the risk for onychomycosis because, when an artificial nail is applied, the nail surface is usually abraded with an emery board damaging it, emery boards can carry infection, and water can collect under the nail creating a moist, warm environment favorable for fungal growth.

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Your child may bite his nails for any number of reasons – curiosity, boredom, stress relief, habit, or imitation. Nail-biting is the most common of the so-called "nervous habits," which include thumb-sucking, nose picking, hair twisting or tugging, and teeth grinding.

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The nail organ is an integral component of the digital tip. It is a highly versatile tool that protects the fingertip, contributes to tactile sensation by acting as a counterforce to the fingertip pad, and aids in peripheral thermoregulation via glomus bodies in the nail bed and matrix. Because of its form and functionality, abnormalities of the nail unit result in functional and cosmetic issues. The structures that define and produce the nail (nail plate) include the matrix (sterile and germinal), the proximal nail fold, the eponychium, the paronychium, and the hyponychium (see the images below). Collectively, the nail bed (sterile matrix), nail fold, eponychium, paronychium, and hyponychium are referred to as the perionychium.

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Nasal congestion or "stuffy nose" occurs when nasal and adjacent tissues and blood vessels become swollen with excess fluid, causing a "stuffy" feeling. Nasal congestion may or may not be accompanied by a nasal discharge or "runny nose."

Nasal congestion usually is just an annoyance for older children and adults. But nasal congestion can be serious for children whose sleep is disturbed by their nasal congestion, or for infants, who might have a hard time feeding as a result.

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Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, including systemic illnesses (such as influenza), medications, pain, and inner ear disease.

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Neck pain is the sensation of discomfort in the neck area. Neck pain can result from disorders of any of the structures in the neck, including the cervical vertebrae and intervertebral discs, nerves, muscles, blood vessels, esophagus, larynx, trachea, lymphatic organs, thyroid gland, or parathyroid glands. Neck pain arises from numerous different conditions and is sometimes referred to as cervical pain.

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