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In Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, an extra electrical pathway between your heart's upper and lower chambers causes a rapid heartbeat. The extra pathway is present at birth and fairly rare.The episodes of fast heartbeats usually aren't life-threatening, but serious heart problems can occur. Treatment can stop or prevent episodes of fast heartbeats. A catheter-based procedure (ablation) can permanently correct the heart rhythm problems.Most people with an extra electrical pathway experience no fast heartbeat. This condition, called Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, is discovered only by chance during a heart exam. Although WPW pattern is often harmless, doctors might recommend further evaluation before children with WPW pattern participate in high-intensity sports.

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A wrist fracture is a medical term for a broken wrist. The wrist is made up of eight small bones which connect with the two long forearm bones called the radius and ulna. Although a broken wrist can happen in any of these 10 bones, by far the most common bone to break is the radius. This is called a distal radius fracture by hand surgeons (Figure 1).Some wrist fractures are stable. “Non-displaced” breaks, in which the bones do not move out of place initially, can be stable. Some “displaced” breaks (which need to be put back into the right place, called “reduction” or “setting”) also can be stable enough to treat in a cast or splint. Other fractures are unstable. In unstable fractures, even if the bones are put back into position and a cast is placed, the bone pieces tend to move or shift into a bad position before they solidly heal. This can make the wrist appear crooked.Some fractures are more severe than others. Fractures that break apart the smooth joint surface or fractures that shatter into many pieces (comminuted fractures) may make the bone unstable. These severe types of fractures often require surgery to restore and hold their alignment. An open fracture occurs when a fragment of bone breaks and is forced out through the skin. This can cause an increased risk of infection in the bone.

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Yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers. Illness ranges in severity from a self-limited febrile illness to severe liver disease with bleeding. Yellow fever disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings, laboratory testing, and travel history, including the possibility of exposure to infected mosquitoes. There is no specific treatment for yellow fever; care is based on symptoms. Steps to prevent yellow fever virus infection include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and getting vaccinated.


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Dwarfism is a condition of short stature. It is defined by the advocacy group Little People of America (LPA) as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches or under, as a result of a medical or genetic condition. Although other groups may extend the criteria for certain forms of dwarfism to 5 feet, the average height of an adult with dwarfism is 4 feet.


There are two main categories of dwarfism -- disproportionate and proportionate. Disproportionate dwarfism is characterized by an average-size torso and shorter arms and legs or a shortened trunk with longer limbs. In proportionate dwarfism, the body parts are in proportion but shortened.


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Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) – Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) (Cardiovascular) pipeline landscape.

Heart failure is also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump out enough oxygen-rich blood. Symptoms include cough, fatigue, weakness, faintness, loss of appetite, swollen (enlarged) liver or abdomen, swollen feet and ankles and weight gain. The predisposing factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, alcohol use and irregular heartbeats. Treatment includes surgery, vasodilator, beta blockers and diuretics.

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Eye floaters appear as small spots that drift through your field of vision. They may stand out when you look at something bright, like white paper or a blue sky. They might annoy you, but they shouldn’t interfere with your sight.


If you have a large floater, it can cast a slight shadow over your vision. But this tends to happen only in certain types of light.


You can learn to live with floaters and ignore them. You may notice them less as time passes. Only rarely do they get bad enough to require treatment.

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Factitious disorder is a serious mental disorder in which someone deceives others by appearing sick, by purposely getting sick or by self-injury. Factitious disorder also can happen when family members or caregivers falsely present others, such as children, as being ill, injured or impaired.


Factitious disorder symptoms can range from mild (slight exaggeration of symptoms) to severe (previously called Munchausen syndrome). The person may make up symptoms or even tamper with medical tests to convince others that treatment, such as high-risk surgery, is needed.


Factitious disorder is not the same as inventing medical problems for practical benefit, such as getting out of work or winning a lawsuit. Although people with factitious disorder know they are causing their symptoms or illnesses, they may not understand the reasons for their behaviors or recognize themselves as having a problem.


Factitious disorder is challenging to identify and hard to treat. However, medical and psychiatric help are critical for preventing serious injury and even death caused by the self-harm typical of this disorder.

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Farsightedness (hyperopia) is a common vision condition in which you can see distant objects clearly, but objects nearby may be blurry.


The degree of your farsightedness influences your focusing ability. People with severe farsightedness may see clearly only objects a great distance away, while those with mild farsightedness may be able to clearly see objects that are closer.


Farsightedness usually is present at birth and tends to run in families. You can easily correct this condition with eyeglasses or contact lenses. Another treatment option is surgery.

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A febrile seizure is a convulsion in a child that may be caused by a spike in body temperature, often from an infection. Your child's having a febrile seizure can be alarming, and the few minutes it lasts can seem like an eternity.


Febrile seizures represent a unique response of a child's brain to fever, usually the first day of a fever. Fortunately, they're usually harmless and typically don't indicate an ongoing problem. You can help by keeping your child safe during a febrile seizure and by comforting him or her afterward.

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Fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements, causing stool (feces) to leak unexpectedly from the rectum. Also called bowel incontinence, fecal incontinence ranges from an occasional leakage of stool while passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control.


Common causes of fecal incontinence include diarrhea, constipation, and muscle or nerve damage. The muscle or nerve damage may be associated with aging or with giving birth.


Whatever the cause, fecal incontinence can be embarrassing. But don't shy away from talking to your doctor. Treatments are available that can improve fecal incontinence and your quality of life.

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Infertility is defined as trying to get pregnant (with frequent intercourse) for at least a year with no success. Female infertility, male infertility or a combination of the two affects millions of couples in the United States. An estimated 10 to 18 percent of couples have trouble getting pregnant or having a successful delivery.


Infertility results from female factors about one-third of the time and male factors about one-third of the time. The cause is either unknown or a combination of male and female factors in the remaining cases.


Female infertility causes can be difficult to diagnose. There are many available treatments, which will depend on the cause of infertility. Many infertile couples will go on to conceive a child without treatment. After trying to get pregnant for two years, about 95 percent of couples successfully conceive.

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A sexual problem, or sexual dysfunction, refers to a problem during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. The sexual response cycle has four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.


While research suggests that sexual dysfunction is common (43% of women and 31% of men report some degree of difficulty), it is a topic that many people are hesitant or embarrassed to discuss. Fortunately, most cases of sexual dysfunction are treatable, so it is important to share your concerns with your partner and doctor.

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The term "fetal macrosomia" is used to describe a newborn who's significantly larger than average.


A baby diagnosed with fetal macrosomia has a birth weight of more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams), regardless of his or her gestational age. About 9 percent of babies born worldwide weigh more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces.


However, the risks associated with fetal macrosomia increase greatly when birth weight is more than 9 pounds 15 ounces (4,500 grams).


Fetal macrosomia may complicate vaginal delivery and could put the baby at risk of injury during birth. Fetal macrosomia also puts the baby at increased risk of health problems after birth.

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Fibroadenomas (fy-broe-ad-uh-NO-muhz) are solid, noncancerous breast lumps that occur most often in women between the ages of 15 and 35.


A fibroadenoma might feel firm, smooth, rubbery or hard and has a well-defined shape. Usually painless, it might feel like a marble in your breast, moving easily under your skin when examined. Fibroadenomas vary in size, and they can enlarge or shrink on their own.


Fibroadenomas are among the most common noncancerous (benign) breast lumps in young women. Treatment might include monitoring to detect changes in size or feel, a biopsy to evaluate the lump or surgery to remove it.

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Fibrocystic breasts are composed of tissue that feels lumpy or rope-like in texture. Doctors call this nodular or glandular breast tissue.


It's not at all uncommon to have fibrocystic breasts. More than half of women experience fibrocystic breast changes at some point in their lives. In fact, medical professionals have stopped using the term "fibrocystic breast disease" and now simply refer to "fibrocystic breasts" or "fibrocystic breast changes" because having fibrocystic breasts isn't really a disease. Breast changes categorized as fibrocystic are considered normal.


Although many women with fibrocystic breasts don't have symptoms, some women experience breast pain, tenderness and lumpiness — especially in the upper, outer area of the breasts. Breast symptoms tend to be most bothersome just before menstruation. Simple self-care measures can usually relieve discomfort associated with fibrocystic breasts.

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Fibromuscular dysplasia is a condition that causes narrowing (stenosis) and enlargement (aneurysm) of the medium-sized arteries in your body. Reduced blood flow from narrowed arteries to the organs can affect the function of the organs.


Fibromuscular dysplasia appears most commonly in the arteries leading to the kidneys. Fibromuscular dysplasia can also affect the arteries leading to your brain, heart, abdomen, arms and legs.


Fibromuscular dysplasia can cause a number of complications, such as high blood pressure or tears of the artery (arterial dissection), if left untreated. Arterial dissection, or spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), can limit blood flow to the organ supplied by the injured artery.

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Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disorder in which scar-like (fibrous) tissue develops in place of normal bone. This irregular tissue can weaken the affected bone and cause it to deform or fracture.


In most cases, fibrous dysplasia occurs at a single site in one bone, but can occur at multiple sites in multiple bones. Single bone involvement usually occurs in adolescents and young adults. People who have more than one affected bone typically develop symptoms before the age of 10.


Although fibrous dysplasia is a genetic disorder, it's caused by a gene mutation that's not passed from parent to child. There's no cure for the disorder. Treatment, which may include surgery, focuses on relieving pain and repairing or stabilizing bones.

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You have flatfeet when the arches on the inside of your feet are flattened, allowing the entire soles of your feet to touch the floor when you stand up.


A common and usually painless condition, flatfeet can occur when the arches don't develop during childhood. In other cases, flatfeet develop after an injury or from the simple wear-and-tear stresses of age.


Flatfeet can sometimes contribute to problems in your ankles and knees because the condition can alter the alignment of your legs. If you aren't having pain, no treatment is usually necessary for flatfeet.

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Folliculitis is an inflammatory condition affecting hair follicles. It appears as a small red tender bump occasionally surmounted with dot of pus surrounding a hair. Older lesions that have lost the pus appear as red bumps surrounding the opening of the follicle absent the hair. One to hundreds of follicles can be affected anywhere that hair is present. Actually, acne vulgaris, the facial rash that teenagers develop, is a type of folliculitis.


Depending on the cause and severity of folliculitis, it may require no treatment and resolve spontaneously, or it may require treatment with powerful antibiotics or other drugs.

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Foot drop, sometimes called "drop foot," is the inability to lift the front part of the foot. This causes the toes to drag along the ground while walking.


To avoid dragging the toes, people with foot drop may lift their knee higher than normal. Or they may swing their leg in a wide arc.


Foot drop can happen to one foot or both feet at the same time. It can strike at any age.


In general, foot drop stems from weakness or paralysis of the muscles that lift the foot. It can have many different causes. Treatments for foot drop vary according to the cause.



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Frostbite occurs when the skin is exposed to extreme or prolonged cold. The skin freezes, as do tissues beneath the surface of the skin. In extreme cases, muscle, nerves, and blood vessels may also freeze.


Skin may freeze within minutes when exposed to temperatures that fall below freezing. Even if temperatures are above freezing, the skin is likely to freeze if it’s wet or exposed to severe wind chills.


Frostbite also occurs when your skin directly contacts very cold surfaces. This type of exposure may immediately freeze the skin that touches the frozen surface.

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Frozen shoulder is the common name for adhesive capsulitis, which is a shoulder condition that limits your range of motion. When the tissues in your shoulder joint become thicker and tighter, scar tissue develops over time. As a result, your shoulder joint doesn’t have enough space to rotate properly. Common symptoms include swelling, pain, and stiffness. You’re more likely to have the condition if you’re between the ages of 40 and 60.

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Foot corns are hardened layers of skin that develop from your skin’s response to friction and pressure. You may have foot corns if you experience the following symptoms on the tips and the sides of your toes:

rough, tough, yellowing patch of lumpy or bumpy skin

skin that’s sensitive to touch

pain when wearing shoes

Foot corns can be safely treated, and you can even prevent future ones. Keep reading to learn tips on how you can manage existing corns and minimize your chances of developing new ones.

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Golfers elbow or medial epicondylitis is an overuse injury similar to tennis elbow (on the outside of the arm) but causing pain on the inside of the elbow instead. It is sometimes known as throwers elbow or little league elbow. We explain the symptoms, causes and treatment to return you back to full fitness in the shortest time.

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Greenstick fractures occur when the force applied to a bone results in bending of the bone such that the structural integrity of the convex surface is overcome. The fact that the integrity of the cortex has been overcome results in fracture of the convex surface. However, the bending force applied does not break the bone completely and the concave surface of the bent bone remains intact.


This can occur following an angulated longitudinal force applied down the bone (e.g. an indirect trauma following a fall on an outstretched arm), or after a force applied perpendicular to the bone (e.g. a direct blow).


This fracture is very different, and much less common, than the torus fracture that results in buckling of the cortex on the concave side of the bend and an intact concave surface.

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Hemifacial spasms happen when the muscles on only one side of your face twitch without warning. These types of spasms are caused by damage or irritation to the facial nerve, which is also known as the seventh cranial nerve. Facial spasms occur when the muscles contract involuntarily because of this nerve irritation.


Hemifacial spasms are also known as tic convulsif. At first, they may appear only as small, barely noticeable tics around your eyelid, cheek, or mouth. Over time, the tics may expand to other parts of your face.


Hemifacial spasms can happen to men or women, but they’re most common in women over 40. They also tend to occur more often on the left side of your face. 


Hemifacial spasms aren’t dangerous on their own. But a constant twitch in your face can be frustrating or uncomfortable. In severe cases, these spasms can limit function due to involuntary eye closing or the impact they have on speaking.


In some cases, these spasms may indicate that you have an underlying condition or an abnormality in your facial structure. Either of these causes can compress or damage your nerves and make your face muscles twitch.

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A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age.


Older people are at a higher risk of hip fracture because bones tend to weaken with age (osteoporosis). Multiple medications, poor vision and balance problems also make older people more likely to trip and fall — one of the most common causes of hip fracture.


A hip fracture almost always requires surgical repair or replacement, followed by months of physical therapy. Taking steps to maintain bone density and avoid falls can help prevent hip fracture.

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HPV infection commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths (warts). Certain types of HPV infection cause cervical cancers. More than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV) exist.


Different types of HPV infection cause warts on different parts of your body. For example, some types of HPV infection cause plantar warts on the feet, while others cause warts that mostly appear on the face or neck.


Most HPV infections don't lead to cancer. But some types of genital HPV can cause cancer of the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina (cervix). Other types of cancers, including cancers of the anus, penis, vagina, vulva and back of the throat (oropharyngeal), have been linked to HPV infection.


Vaccines can help protect against the strains of genital HPV most likely to cause genital warts or cervical cancer.

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Jaundice is particularly common in premature babies - boys more often than girls. It usually appears within the baby's first week of life.


In an otherwise healthy baby born at full term, infant jaundice is rarely a cause for alarm; it tends to go away on its own. However, if treatment is necessary, infants tend to respond to non-invasive therapy.


In rare cases, untreated infant jaundice may lead to brain damage and even death.

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Infant reflux occurs when food backs up (refluxes) from a baby's stomach, causing the baby to spit up. Sometimes called gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the condition is rarely serious and becomes less common as a baby gets older. It's unusual for infant reflux to continue after age 18 months.


Reflux occurs in healthy infants multiple times a day. As long as your baby is healthy, content and growing well, the reflux is not a cause for concern.


Rarely, infant reflux can be a sign of a medical problem, such as an allergy, a blockage in the digestive system or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

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Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere - in air, soil and water. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains a germ. Germs can also spread through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent infections.

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You can also catch flu by touching an infected person, for instance, shaking hands. Adults are contagious 1-2 days before getting symptoms and up to 7 days after becoming ill. This means that you can spread the influenza virus before you even know you are infected.


In this article, we explain the symptoms of flu, how it is treated, how it differs from a cold, and the best ways to prevent flu occurring.

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Jellyfish are a common sea creature found in every ocean. There are many species of jellyfish, all of them with tentacles. Some carry poisonous venom in their tentacles as a method of self-defense against predators. It’s this venom that makes a jellyfish sting so painful.


Most types of jellyfish stings will cause some discomfort, but some can be life-threatening. According to the National Science Foundation, over 500,000 people are stung by jellyfish every year in North America’s Chesapeake Bay alone.

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Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study.

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Oh, what a beautiful smile you have there. Every time you smile, your eyes light up. Ah, those crinkles at the corners of the eyes make you look prettier still.


Crow’s feet may or may not look charming, but if I’m guessing right, you would still want to iron them out. Want to know the best treatment for crows feet? Worry not! Have a look at these remedies I’ve gathered, and you can have your wish come true in no time.

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Listeriosis is an infection caused by a gram stain-positive motile bacterium named Listeria monocytogenes. The foodborne illness produces fever, muscle aches, and, in many people, diarrhea. Severe infections can cause headaches, meningitis, convulsions, and death. Most healthy people exposed to the bacteria have minor or no symptoms, but a few people, especially the elderly, pregnant females and their fetus, newborns, and anyone with a compromised immune system are especially susceptible to these organisms. Listeria bacteria are widespread throughout the world and are often associated with farm animals that may show no signs of infection. Research shows that many animals are uninfected carriers, and they suggest that some humans carry these organisms as part of their bowel flora. Except for pregnant women and their fetus or newborn, there is no direct transfer of Listeria from human to human.


The organisms (Listeria monocytogenes) that cause listeriosis have probably been infecting humans for centuries. Listeria was first isolated from an infected WWI soldier in 1918 and had many different names until 1940, when the genus and species names were firmly established. However, the bacteria were first recognized as a food-borne (food poisoning) pathogen in 1979. The bacteria can penetrate human cells and can multiply inside them. People with altered or impaired immune systems have cells that are less able to control the spread of these organisms into the blood or into other cells. In 2010, a known species, Listeria ivanovii, thought only to infect cattle, was found to infect humans so there are two Listeria species that can infect humans.


Outbreaks of listeriosis can occur with some frequency. For example, in 2017, soft raw milk cheese was a source of an outbreak (Vulto Creamery). In this outbreak, eight people were infected and two died. Other recalls of products in 2017 include 3 tons of cheese for possible Listeria contamination (La Nica Products INC.), macadamia nuts (Simple Truth brand), Ava's Organic Cashews, and Queso Fresco cheese, for the same problem.

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Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs, digestive system and other organs in the body.


Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery. But in people with cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes the secretions to become sticky and thick. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas.


Although cystic fibrosis requires daily care, people with the condition are usually able to attend school and work, and often have a better quality of life than people with cystic fibrosis had in previous decades. Improvements in screening and treatments mean people with cystic fibrosis now may live into their mid- to late 30s, on average, and some are living into their 40s and 50s.

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Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects connective tissue — the fibers that support and anchor your organs and other structures in your body. Marfan syndrome most commonly affects the heart, eyes, blood vessels and skeleton.People with Marfan syndrome are usually tall and thin with disproportionately long arms, legs, fingers and toes. The damage caused by Marfan syndrome can be mild or severe. If your aorta — the large blood vessel that carries blood from your heart to the rest of your body — is affected, the condition can become life-threatening.
Treatment usually includes medications to keep your blood pressure low to reduce the strain on your aorta. Regular monitoring to check for damage progression is vital. Many people with Marfan syndrome eventually require preventive surgery to repair the aorta.
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Dandruff is a skin condition that affects mainly the scalp. Symptoms include flaking and sometimes mild itchiness.It can result in social or self-esteem problems. A more severe form of the condition, which includes inflammation of the skin, is known as seborrheic dermatitis.


The cause is unclear but believed to involve a number of genetic and environmental factors. The condition may worsen in the winter.It is not due to poor hygiene. The underlying mechanism involves the over growth of skin cells.Diagnosis is based on symptoms.


There is no known cure.The typical treatment is with antifungal cream such as ketoconazole. Dandruff affects about half of adults. Onset is usually at puberty. Males are more often affected than females.Rates decrease after the age of 50.


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Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common skin bacteria. It is sometimes called staph, and it most often causes skin and soft tissue infections. Although S. aureus has been causing staph infections as long as humans have existed, MRSA has only been around since 1961. Methicillin was one of the first antibiotics used to treat S. aureus and other infections. S. aureus developed a gene mutation that allowed it to escape being killed by methicillin, so it became resistant to methicillin. That makes it harder to treat someone who gets an infection. Stronger, more expensive, or intravenous antibiotics may be needed.


Since the 1960s, MRSA has picked up more resistance to different antibiotics. Overuse of antibiotics has increased resistance in MRSA and other infectious bacteria, because resistance genes (the genes that code for resistance) can be passed from bacteria to bacteria.


If a doctor orders a test for bacteria on a specimen of pus, for example, the laboratory will alert the doctor if the test shows MRSA, so that precautions can be taken, and the right treatment can be started.

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Myelofibrosis is a serious bone marrow disorder that disrupts your body's normal production of blood cells. The result is extensive scarring in your bone marrow, leading to severe anemia, weakness, fatigue and often an enlarged spleen.Myelofibrosis is an uncommon type of chronic leukemia — a cancer that affects the blood-forming tissues in the body. Myelofibrosis belongs to a group of diseases called myeloproliferative disorders.Many people with myelofibrosis get progressively worse, and some may eventually develop a more serious form of leukemia. Yet it's also possible to have myelofibrosis and live symptom-free for years. Treatment for myelofibrosis, which focuses on relieving symptoms, can involve a variety of options.

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Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) refers to pain and presumed inflammation in the body's soft tissues or muscles. Myofascial pain is a chronic, painful condition that affects the fascia (connective tissue that covers the muscles). Myofascial pain syndrome might involve either a single muscle or a muscle group. In some cases, the area where a person experiences the pain might not be where the myofascial pain generator is located. Experts believe that the actual site of the injury or the strain prompts the development of a trigger point that, in turn, causes pain in other areas. This situation is known as referred pain.

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Myxofibrosarcoma is a common connective tissue neoplasm of malignant fibrocytes in a myxoid matrix favoring the extremities. Like many other tumors of connective tissue, soft tissue sarcoma exhibits high recurrence rates but is rarely known to metastasize. We present a patient with myxofibrosarcoma of the hand with metastases to the lungs, pleura, and mediastinum. The mediastinal metastasis presented clinically with gastrointestinal symptoms due to compression of the gastroesophageal junction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma of the hand and also the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma to mediastinal lymph nodes at the level of the gastroesophageal junction. We also performed a comprehensive literature review of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma.

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Naegleria (nay-GLEER-e-uh) infection is a rare and usually fatal brain infection caused by an amoeba commonly found in freshwater lakes, rivers and hot springs. Exposure occurs during swimming or other water sports.The amoeba — called Naegleria fowleri — travels up the nose to the brain, where it causes severe damage. Most people who have naegleria infection die within a week.Millions of people are exposed to the amoeba that causes naegleria infection each year, but only a handful of them ever get sick from it. Health officials don't know why some people develop naegleria infection while others don't.Avoiding warm bodies of fresh water and wearing nose clips while in the water may help prevent such infections.

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Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes tumors to form on nerve tissue. These tumors can develop anywhere in your nervous system, including your brain, spinal cord and nerves. Neurofibromatosis is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood.The tumors are usually noncancerous (benign), but sometimes can become cancerous (malignant). Symptoms are often mild. However, complications of neurofibromatosis can include hearing loss, learning impairment, heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems, loss of vision, and severe pain.Neurofibromatosis treatment aims to maximize healthy growth and development and to manage complications as soon as they arise. When neurofibromatosis causes large tumors or tumors that press on a nerve, surgery can help ease symptoms. Some people may benefit from other therapies, such as stereotactic radiosurgery or medications to control pain.

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Norovirus infection can cause the sudden onset of severe vomiting and diarrhea. The virus is highly contagious and commonly spread through food or water that is contaminated during preparation or contaminated surfaces. You can also be infected through close contact with an infected person.Diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting typically begin 12 to 48 hours after exposure. Norovirus symptoms last one to three days, and most people recover completely without treatment. However, for some people — especially infants, older adults and people with underlying disease — vomiting and diarrhea can be severely dehydrating and require medical attention.Norovirus infection occurs most frequently in closed and crowded environments such as hospitals, nursing homes, child care centers, schools and cruise ships.

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Parvovirus infection is a common and highly contagious childhood ailment — sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the distinctive face rash that develops. Parvovirus infection has also been known as fifth disease because, historically, it was one of five common childhood illnesses characterized by a rash.In most children, parvovirus infection is mild and requires little treatment. However, in some adults, the infection can be serious. Parvovirus infection in some pregnant women can lead to serious health problems for the fetus. Parvovirus infection is also more serious for people with some kinds of anemia or who have a compromised immune system.

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A foramen ovale is a hole in the heart. The small hole naturally exists in babies who are still in the womb for fetal circulation. It should close soon after birth. If it doesn’t close, the condition is called patent foramen ovale (PFO).PFOs are common. They occur in roughly one out of every four people. If you have no other heart conditions or complications, treatment for PFO is unnecessary.While a fetus develops in the womb, a small opening exists between the two upper chambers of the heart called the atria. This opening is called the foramen ovale. The purpose of the foramen ovale is to help circulate blood through the heart. A fetus doesn’t use their own lungs to oxygenate their blood. They rely on their mother’s circulation to provide oxygen to their blood from the placenta. The foramen ovale helps blood circulate more quickly in the absence of lung function.When your baby is born and their lungs begin to work, the pressure inside their heart usually causes the foramen ovale to close. Sometimes it may not happen for a year or two. In some people, the closure may never happen at all, resulting in PFO.

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Pericardial effusion (per-e-KAHR-dee-ul uh-FU-zhun) is the accumulation of too much fluid in the double-layered, sac-like structure around the heart (pericardium).The space between the layers normally contains a thin layer of fluid. But if the pericardium is diseased or injured, the resulting inflammation can lead to excess fluid. Fluid can also build up around the heart without inflammation, such as from bleeding after a chest trauma.Pericardial effusion puts pressure on the heart, affecting the heart's function. If untreated, it can lead to heart failure or death

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A pinworm infection is one of the most common types of human intestinal worm infections. Pinworms are tiny, narrow worms. They’re white in color and less than half an inch long. A pinworm infection, also known as enterobiasis or oxyuriasis, is the most common type of worm infection in humans in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Pinworm infections can spread easily. They’re most common in children between the ages of 5 and 10, people who live in institutions, and those who have regular, close contact with individuals in these groups. An effective treatment for pinworm infections is medication, though reinfection is possible. Serious complications and long-term health effects are rare.


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Detoxification is one of the more widely used treatments and concepts in alternative medicine. It is based on the principle that illnesses can be caused by the accumulation of toxic substances (toxins) in the body. Eliminating existing toxins and avoiding new toxins are essential parts of the healing process. Detoxification utilizes a variety of tests and techniques.

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Premature ovarian failure — also known as primary ovarian insufficiency — is a loss of normal function of your ovaries before age 40. If your ovaries fail, they don't produce normal amounts of the hormone estrogen or release eggs regularly. Infertility is a common result.


Premature ovarian failure is sometimes referred to as premature menopause, but the two conditions aren't the same. Women with premature ovarian failure can have irregular or occasional periods for years and might even become pregnant. Women with premature menopause stop having periods and can't become pregnant.


Restoring estrogen levels in women with premature ovarian failure helps prevent some complications, such as osteoporosis, that occur as a result of low estrogen.

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When your child has a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD), his body has a harder time fighting germs that make people sick. He may get a lot of infections in his ears, lungs, skin, or other areas that take a long time to go away.

Most cases happen in babies or young children, but sometimes it doesn't show up until adulthood. There are many different types -- more than 200 -- and they affect different parts of the immune system. All make it more likely that he'll get sick from infections.

Everyone with a PIDD has a different experience. If your child has it, in most cases he'll be able to go to school and make friends like other kids. As an adult with a PIDD, he'll be able to work and have an active, normal life.

If your child's PIDD is mild, he may need to take medicines to treat the infections he gets.

Doctors treat some of the more serious types of PIDD with doses of antibodies to fight infections. He'll get these antibodies through an IV in his veins. The treatment takes several hours, and he'll need one every few weeks.

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Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a condition that’s characterized by episodes of sudden uncontrollable and inappropriate laughing or crying. Pseudobulbar affect typically occurs in people with certain neurological conditions or injuries, which might affect the way the brain controls emotion.

If you have pseudobulbar affect you'll experience emotions normally, but you'll sometimes express them in an exaggerated or inappropriate way. As a result, the condition can be embarrassing and disruptive to your daily life.

Pseudobulbar affect often goes undiagnosed or is mistaken for mood disorders. Once diagnosed, however, pseudobulbar affect can be managed with medication.

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Q fever, also called query fever, is a bacterial infection caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria are most commonly found in cattle, sheep, and goats around the world. Humans typically get Q fever when they breathe in dust that was contaminated by infected animals. Farmers, veterinarians, and people who work with these animals in labs are at the highest risk of being infected. The highest amounts of bacteria are found in the "birth products" (placenta, amniotic fluid) of infected animals. The disease may cause mild symptoms similar to the flu. However, many people have no symptoms at all. Mild forms of the disease may clear up in a few weeks without any treatment.

In rare cases, a more serious form of disease develops if the infection is chronic, which means it persists for six months (and there are some case reports indicating that it may persist for more than six months). A more serious form also can develop if the infection is recurrent, which means it comes back. People with heart valve problems or weak immune systems are at the highest risk of developing these types of Q fever. Chronic Q fever is very serious because it can damage a person’s vital organs, including the:

heart

liver

brain

lungs

More severe or chronic forms of Q fever can be treated with antibiotics. Those at risk for Q fever can prevent the disease by disinfecting contaminated areas and washing their hands thoroughly.


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A rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is an epithelial-lined tract between the rectum and vagina. For thousands of years, women simply tolerated the distressing symptoms generated by RVFs. Today, there is no need for such tolerance, because most RVFs can be surgically corrected via a number of approaches. [1] A small percentage, however, cannot be corrected, because of patient comorbidity or disease-related factors; in these cases, patients can be helped only by fecal diversion. [2]  This article discusses only acquired RVFs. Most RVFs are located at or just above the dentate line. Fistulas below the dentate line are not true RVFs but, rather, anovaginal fistulas; the treatment required for these differs from that required for RVFs.

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Rheumatic fever is one of the complications associated with strep throat. It’s a relatively serious illness that can cause stroke, permanent damage to your heart, and death if it’s left untreated. The condition usually appears in children between the ages of 5 and 15, even though older children and adults have been known to contract the fever as well. It’s still common in places like sub-Saharan Africa, south central Asia, and certain populations in Australia and New Zealand.


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The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, keeping the head of your upper arm bone firmly within the shallow socket of the shoulder. A rotator cuff injury can cause a dull ache in the shoulder, which often worsens when you try to sleep on the involved side.Rotator cuff injuries occur most often in people who repeatedly perform overhead motions in their jobs or sports. Examples include painters, carpenters, and people who play baseball or tennis. The risk of rotator cuff injury also increases with age.Many people recover from rotator cuff disease with physical therapy exercises that improve flexibility and strength of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint.Sometimes, rotator cuff tears may occur as a result of a single injury. In those circumstances, medical care should be provided as soon as possible. Extensive rotator cuff tears may require surgical repair, transfer of alternative tendons or joint replacement


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Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food.


Typically, people with salmonella infection have no symptoms. Others develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within eight to 72 hours. Most healthy people recover within a few days without specific treatment.


In some cases, the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection can be so dehydrating as to require prompt medical attention. Life-threatening complications also may develop if the infection spreads beyond your intestines. Your risk of acquiring salmonella infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

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Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria. This illness usually occurs in a few people (about 10%) who have strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis) and occasionally streptococcal skin infections or even wound infections. Scarlet fever is also known as scarlatina in the older articles; group A Streptococcus (for example, Streptococcus pyogenes) is often shortened to read as "group A strep" or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS). Scarlet fever is mainly known for its sunburned-skin-colored sandpaper-like skin rash that is associated with fever.


Outbreaks occur. England reported a 50-year high number of individuals diagnosed with the disease (over 19,206) in 2016

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Schizoaffective disorder is a mental illness that involves persistent psychotic symptoms, like hallucinations or delusions, occurring together with mood problems of depressive, manic, or mixed episodes. The term schizoaffective was first used in 1933 by Jacob Kasanin and has been included in every edition of the mental health diagnostic manual, called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), since 1952. Statistics on how often this condition occurs range from 0.32% in the general United States population up to as much as 9% of psychiatrically hospitalized people. Schizoaffective disorder is thought to occur at least as often as schizophrenia and less often than 

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Selective IgA deficiency is one of the most common types of PI. These individuals lack IgA, but usually have normal amounts of other immunoglobulins (antibodies). Many people go undiagnosed because they are never sick enough to be seen by a doctor, while others may develop a variety of severe problems.


Selective IgA Deficiency

IgA protects the body at surfaces that come in contact with the environment. These sites are the mucosal surfaces—mouth, ears, sinuses, nose, throat, airways within the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and genitals.


IgA antibodies are transported in secretions to these mucosal surfaces and play a role in protecting them from infection, which is why IgA is known as a secretory antibody. Because the area of a person's mucosal surfaces is equal to 1.5 tennis courts, the importance of IgA in protecting these surfaces cannot be overstated.


Although people with selective IgA deficiency do not produce IgA, they do produce all the other immunoglobulins. In addition, the other aspects of their immune systems function properly.


The causes of selective IgA deficiency remain unknown. It is likely there are a variety of causes that vary from person to person.


Low serum IgA, like absent serum IgA, is relatively common. Most people with low serum IgA have no apparent illness; others have symptoms similar to 


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Nonsuicidal self-injury, often simply called self-injury, is the act of deliberately harming the surface of your own body, such as cutting or burning yourself. It's typically not meant as a suicide attempt. Rather, this type of self-injury is an unhealthy way to cope with emotional pain, intense anger and frustration. While self-injury may bring a momentary sense of calm and a release of tension, it's usually followed by guilt and shame and the return of painful emotions. Although life-threatening injuries are usually not intended, with self-injury comes the possibility of more serious and even fatal self-aggressive actions.


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Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella (shih-GEHL-uh). Most who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5 to 7 days. Some people who are infected may have no symptoms at all, but may still pass the Shigella bacteria to others. The spread of Shigella can be stopped by frequent and careful handwashing with soap and taking other hygiene measures.


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The palate is commonly called the roof of the mouth. It is divided into two parts: the bony hard palate in the front, and the fleshy soft palate (called the velum) in the back of the mouth. The hard palate is part of the oral cavity and the soft palate is part of the oropharynx.The hard palate creates a barrier between the mouth and the nasal cavity. A natural opening in the palate for nerves and blood vessels (near the third molar) can create a passageway for a tumor to spread into the nasal cavity.The soft palate closes the nasal passage during swallowing so food does not enter the nose. It also helps create speech sounds. If the palate does not function correctly during speech, air escapes through the nose, and the speech has a nasal sound. During a sneeze, the soft palate closes the nasal passage to protect it. Substances in the sneeze are thrown out into mouth.


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Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of cancers that grow in parts of your body like your muscles, deep layers of skin, or in fat. They also can form on blood vessels, nerves, or connective tissues, which support organs and other kinds of tissues.Soft tissue sarcomas account for less than 1% of all cases of cancer. But there are dozens of different types, and they can happen in children and adults.About 12,000 people are diagnosed with one of these cancers every year.

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Solitary fibrous tumors are rare growths of soft tissue cells that can form nearly anywhere in the body.Solitary fibrous tumors most often occur in the lining around the outside of the lungs (pleural solitary fibrous tumors). Solitary fibrous tumors have also been found in the head and neck, breast, kidney, prostate, spinal cord, and other sites.Most solitary fibrous tumors are noncancerous (benign), but in rare cases, solitary fibrous tumors can be cancerous (malignant). Solitary fibrous tumors tend to grow slowly and may not cause signs and symptoms until they become very large.

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Concern or fear about certain situations, activities, animals or objects is not uncommon. Many people feel anxious when faced with a snake or spider, heights, or travelling by plane. Fear is a rational response to situations that can pose a threat to our safety.However, some people react to objects, activities or situations (the phobic stimulus) by imagining or irrationally exaggerating the danger. Their feelings of panic, fear or terror are completely out of proportion to the actual threat. Sometimes the mere thought of the phobic stimulus, or the sight of it on TV, is enough to cause a reaction. These types of excessive reactions may be indicative of a specific phobia.People with specific phobias are often well aware that their fears are exaggerated or irrational, but feel that their anxious reaction is automatic or uncontrollable. Specific phobias are often associated with panic attacks, during which the person experiences overwhelming physical sensations that may include a pounding heart, choking, nausea, faintness, dizziness, chest pain, hot or cold flushes and perspiration.

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Spina bifida means open spine. The spine (backbone) protects the spinal cord, a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. The spinal cord carries signals back and forth between your body and your brain. Spina bifida happens when the bones in the spine don’t form correctly, or when the spinal cord doesn’t form correctly, leaving a gap or opening. Spina bifida can happen anywhere along the spine.Spina bifida is the most common kind of neural tube defect (also called NTD). NTDs are birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. Birth defects are health conditions that are present at birth. Birth defects change the shape or function of one or more parts of the body. They can cause problems in overall health, in how the body develops or in how the body works.A baby’s neural tube normally develops into the brain and spinal cord. It starts out as a tiny, flat ribbon that turns into a tube by the end of the first month of pregnancy. NTDs happen if the tube doesn’t close completely. About 1,500 to 2,000 babies are born with spina bifida each year in the United States.

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Staphylococcus bacteria (also termed staph) are responsible for a number of common infections. Staphylococcus is a genus of bacteria that is characterized by a round shape (coccus or spheroid shaped), Gram-stain positive, and found as either single cells, in pairs, or more frequently, in clusters that resemble a bunch of grapes. The genus name Staphylococcus is derived from Greek terms (staphyle and kokkos) that mean "a bunch of grapes," which is how the bacteria often appear microscopically after Gram-staining. In 1884, Rosenbach first described and named the bacteria. Two major divisions of the genus Staphylococcus are separated by the ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that can clot blood. Most, but not all, human bacterial infections are caused by coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Staphylococcus epidermidis strains and other Staphylococcus species that are coagulase-negative produce slime that interferes with immune defenses. S. epidermidis are often associated with implanted devices (for example, catheters or prosthetic devices).

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Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of a bone that's weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis.Stress fractures are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. Track and field athletes and military recruits who carry heavy packs over long distances are particularly susceptible, but anyone can have a stress fracture. If you start a new exercise program, for example, you might develop stress fractures if you do too much too soon.

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Tapeworms are long, segmented worms of the class Cestoda, which comprise 1 of 3 classes of parasitic worms (worms that require a host within which to mature). The other classes are Nematoda and Trematoda. These worms lack an intestinal tract and instead can absorb nutrients through their integument.The adult consists of a head (scolex), where the worms attach to the mucosa of the intestine; a neck; and a segmented body that contains both male gonads and female gonads (proglottids).

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Tetralogy of Fallot (teh-TRAL-uh-jee of fuh-LOW) is a rare condition caused by a combination of four heart defects that are present at birth (congenital).These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause oxygen-poor blood to flow out of the heart and to the rest of the body. Infants and children with tetralogy of Fallot usually have blue-tinged skin because their blood doesn't carry enough oxygen.Tetralogy of Fallot is often diagnosed during infancy or soon after. However, tetralogy of Fallot might not be detected until later in life in some adults, depending on the severity of the defects and symptoms.With early diagnosis followed by appropriate surgical treatment, most children and adults who have tetralogy of Fallot live relatively normal lives, though they'll need regular medical care throughout life and might have restrictions on exercise

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Trigger finger is a painful condition that causes the fingers or thumb to catch or lock when bent. In the thumb its called trigger thumb.Trigger finger happens when tendons in the finger or thumb become inflamed. Tendons are tough bands of tissue that connect muscles and bones. Together, the tendons and muscles in the hands and arms bend and straighten the fingers and thumbs.A tendon usually glides easily through the tissue that covers it (called a sheath) because of a lubricating membrane surrounding the joint called the synovium. Sometimes a tendon may become inflamed and swollen. Prolonged irritation of the tendon sheath can produce scarring and thickening that impede the tendon's motion. When this happens, bending the finger or thumb can pull the inflamed tendon through a narrowed tendon sheath, making it snap or pop.

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Transposition of the great arteries is a serious but rare heart defect present at birth (congenital), in which the two main arteries leaving the heart are reversed (transposed). The condition is also called dextro-transposition of the great arteries. A rarer type of this condition is called levo-transposition of the great arteries.Transposition of the great arteries changes the way blood circulates through the body, leaving a shortage of oxygen in blood flowing from the heart to the rest of the body. Without an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood, the body can't function properly and your child faces serious complications or death without treatment.Transposition of the great arteries is usually detected either prenatally or within the first hours to weeks of life.Corrective surgery soon after birth is the usual treatment for transposition of the great arteries. Having a baby with transposition of the great arteries can be alarming, but with proper treatment, the outlook is promising

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Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that originate in the uterus (womb). Although they are composed of the same smooth muscle fibers as the uterine wall (myometrium), they are much denser than normal myometrium. Uterine fibroids are usually round.Uterine fibroids are often described based upon their location within the uterus. Subserosal fibroids are located beneath the serosa (the lining membrane on the outside of the uterus). These often appear localized on the outside surface of the uterus or may be attached to the outside surface by a pedicle. Submucosal (submucous) fibroids are located inside the uterine cavity beneath the inner lining of the uterus. Intramural fibroids are located within the muscular wall of the uterus.

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A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than are men. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to your kidneys.Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place

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Puffiness under the eyes can be bothersome, but it’s usually just a cosmetic concern. While rare, undereye puffiness can be a symptom of some kidney and thyroid conditions. If you occasionally wake up with puffiness under the eyes, consider what you did the day before to look for lifestyle causes such as staying up late or eating too much salt. Consider talking to your doctor about possible treatments for chronic undereye puffiness.

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An ear infection, or otitis media, is the most common cause of earaches. Although this condition is a frequent cause of infant distress and is often associated with children, it can also affect adults.

The infection in the middle ear (the space behind the eardrum where tiny bones pick up vibrations and pass them along to the inner ear) very often accompanies a common cold, the flu, or other types of respiratory infections. This is because the middle ear is connected to the upper respiratory tract by a tiny channel known as the Eustachian tube. Germs that are growing in the nose or sinus cavities can climb up the Eustachian tube and enter the middle ear to start growing.

Most parents are frustratingly familiar with ear infections. Except for wellness baby visits, ear infections are the most common reason for trips to the pediatrician, accounting for approximately 30 million doctor visits a year in the U.S.
 
 
 

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The idea behind functional training is that each exercise should be more natural and carry over into daily life. Functional training exercises tend to activate more muscles and therefore consume more energy. These multidimensional exercises also tend to improve your natural movement skills and enhance your general mobility.See how many of the below functional training exercises you can incorporate into your workouts for a more practical and fat burning workout.


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At the foundation of fusion yoga is a community of people coming together to practice yoga as a way to be free of pain, to think more clearly, and to have a better relationship with the world.  Fusion yoga is a supporting, exciting, and empowering experience for yoga practitioners of every level. Whether you're new or highly experienced, you'll find a class offering that meets your needs.  Our yoga classes are meant to challenge you mentally and physically.  All classes ask you to look within- to tap into your own innate needs, potential and expression as you cultivate your own experience.


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 Inactivity is taking its toll on human beings. As fitness professionals, we are keenly aware that society is fascinated with the human body—with losing fat, specifically—and yet, getting people to exercise is still a major obstacle. Obesity, a significant and growing health problem, has been associated with heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and hyperinsulinemia, among other conditions. The numbers speak louder than words. Overweight is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9, obesity as having a BMI equal to or greater than 30. Fifty-five to 60 percent of adults over the age of 18 have a BMI of at least 25; approximately 22 percent have a BMI of 30 or higher (Jakicic et al. 2001).


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Fetal echocardiography is a test similar to an ultrasound. This exam allows your doctor to better see the structure and function of your unborn child’s heart. It’s typically done in the second trimester, between weeks 18 to 24.


The exam uses sound waves that “echo” off of the structures of the fetus’ heart. A machine analyzes these sound waves and creates a picture, or echocardiogram, of their heart’s interior. This image provides information on how your baby’s heart has formed and whether it’s working properly.


It also allows your doctor to see the blood flow through their heart. This in-depth look allows your doctor to find any defects or abnormalities in the baby’s blood flow or heartbeat.

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We reviewed the records of 52 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients examined between 1995 and 2000 who had needle electromyography (EMG) of their respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, at or near the time of their diagnosis. With respiratory function testing, patients with abnormal diaphragmatic EMG at diagnosis (Group 1, n=23) had significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC), lower daytime arterial PO(2) and higher PCO(2) measurements (p<0.05) than patients with normal diaphragmatic EMG (Group 2, n=29). Twenty-eight percent of the patients without symptoms or signs of respiratory insufficiency at the time they were examined had an abnormal diaphragm EMG. Mean survival of Groups 1 and 2 were similar. However, sub-analysis of patients within each group, comparing those treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with those not treated, showed that treated patients in Group 1 (abnormal diaphragm EMG) survived significantly longer (p<0.05) than untreated patients. They also started NIPPV earlier than treated patients in Group 2. We conclude that respiratory muscle EMG was simply and safely performed on ALS patients at or around the time of diagnosis. The procedure can detect sub-clinical respiratory muscle dysfunction. The technique used for EMG of the respiratory muscles, its pitfalls and contraindications are also reviewed.

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The facial nerve conduction velocity was measured in 30 healthy subjects (60 sides) and in 51 patients with a unilateral Bell's palsy. The normal value was 47.8 +/- 5.1 m/s. Incomplete recovery was common in Bell's palsy when the velocity was below 30 m/s. Mild synkinesis was observed in only one patient when the nerve conduction velocity was above 30 m/s. When the degree of degeneration revealed by electroneuroneography did not exceed 60%, the conduction velocity was in the normal range. For degrees of degeneration in excess of this, the conduction velocity decreased in parallel with the increase in the degree of degeneration.


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Barium tests are used to help see the outline of the upper parts of the gut (gastrointestinal tract) such as the gullet (oesophagus), stomach and upper gut (small intestines). The gut (gastrointestinal tract) does not show up very well on ordinary X-ray pictures. However, if you drink a white liquid that contains a chemical called barium sulfate, the outline of the upper parts of the gut (oesophagus, stomach and small intestines) shows up clearly on X-ray pictures. This is because X-rays do not pass through barium.

Depending on what part of your gut is being looked at, you may have one or more of the tests listed below. In each test, the barium coats the lining of the gut being tested. Therefore, abnormalities in the lining or structure of the gut can be seen on the X-ray pictures. In each of the following tests, several X-ray pictures are taken using low-dose X-rays. The total amount of radiation for each test is quite small and thought to be safe. The X-ray machine is usually linked to a TV monitor. Still pictures, or a video recording of X-ray pictures taken in quick succession, can be taken if necessary.

In this test you drink some barium liquid. The barium liquid is often fruit-flavoured so it is pleasant to drink. You stand in front of an X-ray machine whilst X-ray pictures are taken as you swallow. This test aims to look for problems in the gullet (oesophagus). These include a narrowing (stricture), hiatus hernias, tumours, reflux from the stomach, disorders of swallowing, etc. You will usually be asked not to eat or drink for a few hours before this test. A barium swallow test takes about 10 minutes.

This is similar to a barium swallow (above). However, it aims to look for problems in the stomach and the first part of the gut (small intestine), known as the duodenum. These problems may include ulcers, small fleshy lumps (polyps), tumours, etc. You drink some barium liquid but you then lie on a couch whilst X-ray pictures are taken over your tummy (abdomen). It may take a little longer to do than a barium swallow.

So that the barium coats all around the lining of the stomach, the doctor doing the test (radiologist) may do one or more of the following:

Ask you to swallow some bicarbonate powder and citric acid before swallowing the barium. These 'fizz up' when they mix in the stomach and make some gas. (You may have to resist the urge to burp.) The gas expands the stomach and duodenum and also pushes the barium to coat the lining of the stomach and duodenum. This makes the X-ray pictures much clearer. It is the shape and contours of the lining of the stomach and duodenum which need to be seen most clearly on the pictures.

Ask you to turn over on to your stomach on the couch. Various X-ray pictures may be taken whilst you are in different positions. You may be given an injection of a drug that makes the muscles in the stomach and gut relax.You will usually be asked not to eat anything for several hours before this test. (Food particles in the gut can make it difficult to interpret the X-rays.) However, you may be allowed sips of water up to two hours before the test.


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A prospective study comparing colour Doppler ultrasound (US) with the 'gold standard' of intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of renal transplant artery stenosis was performed. Both the intrarenal vessels and the transplant renal artery were examined by Doppler US. Diagnostic arteriography was performed only if, on Doppler, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant renal artery exceeded 1.5 ms-1. Of 109 patients, the transplant artery could not be visualized using colour Doppler US in three, and these were omitted from statistical analysis. Of the remaining 106 patients, 31 had a peak systolic velocity greater than 1.5 ms-1 in the transplant renal artery and were referred for DSA. Of the multiple renal Doppler indices recorded, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant artery was the best discriminating measurement for the detection of renal artery stenosis. A peak systolic velocity of > or = 2.5 ms-1 in the transplant renal artery had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for the detection of renal artery stenosis ( > 50% diameter reduction). Although a significant difference in Pulsatility Index, Resistive Index, Acceleration Index and Acceleration Time was recorded from the intrarenal vessels in the angiographically normal and stenosed groups with Doppler, these measurements were less useful as discriminating diagnostic tests. In conclusion, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant renal artery is the most sensitive Doppler criterion for renal artery stenosis and is sensitive and specific enough to be used as a screening test. The intrarenal acceleration time and index should not be used in isolation.

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noninvasive X-ray test that is used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions.


It provides detailed cross sectional images of the body part in question to provide more clarity and detailed images than traditional X-rays.


A CT scan of the facial area produces images of a patient’s sinus cavity.

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Computed tomography (CT) perfusion of the head uses special x-ray equipment to show which areas of the brain are adequately supplied with blood (perfused) and provides detailed information about blood flow to the brain. CT perfusion is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. It’s a useful technique for measuring blood flow to the brain, which may be important for treating stroke, brain blood vessel disease and brain tumors.

Computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging shows which areas of the brain are adequately supplied or perfused with blood and provides detailed information on delivery of blood or blood flow to the brain.

CT perfusion scanning is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions.

CT scanning combines special x-ray equipment with sophisticated computers to produce multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. These cross-sectional images of the area being studied can then be examined on a computer monitor, printed or transferred to a CD.

CT scans of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater clarity and reveal more details than regular x-ray exams.

In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. It is this crucial difference in absorption that allows the body parts to be distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image.

In a conventional x-ray exam, a small amount of radiation is aimed at and passes through the part of the body being examined, recording an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black.With CT scanning, numerous x-ray beams and a set of electronic x-ray detectors rotate around you, measuring the amount of radiation being absorbed throughout your body. Sometimes, the examination table will move during the scan, so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior.

Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, allow thinner slices to be obtained in a shorter period of time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities.


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A fistulogram is a special x-ray procedure. It uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based contrast material to produce images of an abnormal passage within the body called a fistula. It looks at the blood flow in your fistula or graft (dialysis access). This procedure can check to see if it is blocked or if there is any narrowing (stenosis).

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Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures. It’s much like an X-ray "movie" and is often done while a contrast dye moves through the part of the body being examined. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part and sent to a video monitor so that the body part and its motion can be seen in detail. Fluoroscopy, as an imaging tool, allows healthcare providers to look at many body systems, including the skeletal, digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, and reproductive systems.


Fluoroscopy may be used to evaluate specific areas of the body. These include the bones, bowel, muscles, heart vessels, and joints.

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Constipation has a high prevalence in the general population and is a cause for significant morbidity. It has been estimated that approximately 10% of the Indian population suffers from constipation. [1] Chronic constipation leads to approximately 2.5 million visits to the physicians in the United States annually. [2] Various definitions have been used for chronic constipation. However, recently, the Rome II criteria were developed to promote consistency in the diagnosis. [3] Constipation may be primary or secondary. Primary constipation may be due to slow transit disorder or anorectal expulsion disorder (obstructive defecation) or a combination of these. According to the National Institute for health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines issued in 2010, obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is characterized by the urge to defecate but an impaired ability to expel the fecal bolus. Symptoms include unsuccessful fecal evacuation attempts, excessive straining, pain, bleeding after defecation, and a sense of incomplete fecal evacuation. [4] Patients may also resort to digital rectal evacuation. Evaluation and treatment of these patients has been difficult. Magnetic resonance defecography (MRD) has been shown to demonstrate the structural abnormalities associated with ODS, and patients with significant structural abnormalities may benefit from surgical interventions like stapled transanal resection of rectum (STARR). Patients who do not demonstrate significant structural abnormalities can be referred for biofeedback techniques. We present our experience in a large series of patients with suspected ODS who underwent MRD at our tertiary care center.


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Diffusion tensor imaging tractography, or DTI tractography, is an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technique that measures the rate of water diffusion between cells to understand and create a map of the body’s internal structures; it is most commonly used to provide imaging of the brain. This advanced imaging technique, which provides much more detailed images of the brain than a conventional MRI, may also be used in the diagnosis of stroke, acute ischemia, brain tumors and multiple sclerosis, as well as pre-operative planning.  Using MRI technology, DTI tractography is non-invasive and uses radio waves and a magnetic field to produce images of the brain, tissues and skull. MRI technology provides detailed images showing small changes in body tissue and blood flow, which makes it an extremely reliable tool for the detection of disease, injury, bleeding and swelling.  Loyola offers state-of-the-art imaging and diagnostic techniques in order to provide timely and accurate diagnosis for our patients. Our expert radiologists are recognized nationally for clinical excellence, innovative diagnostic and therapeutic methods and skilled use of the latest technology. Our experienced technologists provide testing in a caring and compassionate environment where we want you to feel comfortable asking any questions you may have about your test or procedure. 


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CSF flow studies are performed using a variety of MRI techniques and are able to qualitatively assess and quantify pulsatile CSF flow. The most common technique used is time resolved 2D phase contrast MRI with velocity encoding. Note, when referring to CSF flow in the setting on imaging we are referring to pulsatile to-and-fro flow due to vascular pulsations rather than bulk transport of CSF (the mechanism by which produced CSF is absorbed, via absorption at arachnoid granulations and via the glymphatic pathway). The latter is too slow to be easily assessed clinically. 


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 A consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Commonly known as impotence. Medically, the term erectile dysfunction is used to properly differentiate this form of impotence from other problems that interfere with sexual intercourse, such as disease, injury, drug side effects, or a disorder that impairs the nerve supply or the blood flow to the penis. Other forms of impotence include lack of sexual desire and problems with ejaculation and orgasm. Erectile dysfunction is treatable in all age groups, and treatment includes using medication (notably Viagra) and penile implants. Abbreviated ED.

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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It’s also sometimes referred to as impotence.


Occasional ED isn’t uncommon. Many men experience it during times of stress. Frequent ED can be a sign of health problems that need treatment. It can also be a sign of emotional or relationship difficulties that may need to be addressed by a professional.


Not all male sexual problems are caused by ED. Other types of male sexual dysfunction include:

premature ejaculation

delayed or absent ejaculation

lack of interest in sex

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Pulmonary function tests are a broad range of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and exhale air and how efficiently they transfer oxygen into the blood. Spirometry measures how well the lungs exhale. The information gathered during this test is useful in diagnosing certain types of lung disorders, but is most useful when assessing for obstructive lung diseases (especially asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD). Lung volume measurement detects restrictive lung diseases. In this set of diseases, a person cannot inhale a normal volume of air. Restrictive lung diseases may be caused by inflammation or scarring of the lung tissue (interstitial lung disease) or by abnormalities of the muscles or skeleton of the chest wall. Testing the diffusion capacity (also called the DLCO) permits an estimate of how efficiently the lungs transfer oxygen from the air into the bloodstream.


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An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan a the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.

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A biophysical profile (BPP) test measures the health of your baby (fetus) during pregnancy. A BPP test may include a non stress test with electronic fetal heart monitoring and a fetal ultrasound. The BPP measures your baby's heart rate, muscle tone, movement, breathing, and the amount of amniotic fluid around your baby. A BPP is commonly done in the last trimester of pregnancy. If there is a chance that your baby may have problems during your pregnancy (high-risk pregnancy), a BPP may be done by 32 to 34 weeks or earlier. Some women with high-risk pregnancies may have a BPP test every week or twice a week in the third trimester. It is usually done to keep track of your baby’s health. 

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USG scan for Follicular Monitoring is done to study ovarian follicles that are used to identify ovulation of egg. For couples planning for pregnancy, ovulation period is the important period to try on, for conception to happen. Out of many ways available, the most reliable way to understand the ovulation is Follicular monitoring. It’s an endovaginal scan carried to study the ovaries, uterus and uterus lining. Looking at ovaries, the growth of follicles inside ovaries can be assessed giving a chance to predict the ovulation and also look if the womb is getting ready for pregnancy.

With follicular monitoring, you will get to know the growth of follicles, the approximate rupture period of follicles and hence can predict the ovulation period thereby have an intercourse happen at the right time for conception to take place. The womb if not yet ready for pregnancy can be treated by some supplements prescribed by the doctors.

This scan is carried out in a slightly dark examination room. You will have to undress down from your waist while you get covered by a sheet. Now you will be asked to position yourself lying down on your back on a special bed with your knees bent. Once you position yourself comfortably; the transducer, a sterile lubricated covered electronic device, is gently inserted into your vagina to look at the uterus and ovaries. Depending on how relaxed the patient is, the test takes up to 15 minutes.


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An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan a the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels





 

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Acid- Fast Bacilli (AFB) smear and culture are two separate tests always performed together at the MSPHL, Tuberculosis (TB) Unit. AFB smear refers to the microscopic examination of a fluorochrome stain of a clinical specimen. The AFB culture is the inoculation of a clinical specimen onto culture media Becton-Dickinson Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (B-D MGIT broth) and Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) media slant, incubation at 37°C for up to six (6) weeks and detection of growth or no growth during this incubation period. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have the disease cough, sneeze, or spit. The other widely used tests used in the diagnosis & screening of Tuberculosis infection are:AFB, smear examinationCulture, Mycobacterium TuberculosisMantoux test (Tuberculin skin test)Mycobacterium antibody panel (TB-IgG, IgM, IgA)Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by RT-PCRQuantiferon TB Gold.

The Acid Fast Bacilli - Sputum is done for routine health screenings, to identify the acid-fast bacilli in sputum, fluid or tissue specimen and to manage the medication of mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. It may also be used when an atypical mycobacterial infection is suspected.

The Acid Fast Bacilli is generally ordered on suspicion of tuberculosis. The most common symptom of tuberculosis is a chronic cough that produces mucus and sometimes contains blood streaks. Other symptoms of tuberculosis include chest pain, weakness, chills, fever and unexplained weight loss.


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Investing laboratories and new rapid tools to diagnose tuberculosis20140521_105740 Suzanne Zambia


To be able to halt the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, one of the first and most essential breakthroughs we need to realize is universal access to laboratories that provide quality-assured diagnostic tests for TB. Each year an estimated 3 million people are either not diagnosed or not treated for TB. To be able to identify all persons with TB disease in need of treatment, laboratory facilities and laboratory networks urgently need to be upgraded and expanded in many countries. Laboratory work is also becoming progressively complex, following the increased use of quality-assured diagnostics and the introduction of new laboratory tools.


Countries often lack appropriately qualified technicians and well-trained managers, and laboratory services are facing challenges ranging from poor infrastructure, unreliable basic utilities (water, electricity), to interruptions of essential supplies.

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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a single polypeptide chain glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 70,000 daltons. Synthesis of AFP occurs primarily in the liver and yolk sac of the fetus. It is secreted in fetal serum, reaching a peak at approximately 13 weeks gestation, after which it rapidly declines until about 22 weeks gestation and then gradually declines until term. Transfer of AFP into maternal circulation is accomplished primarily through diffusion across the placenta. Maternal serum AFP levels rise from the normal nonpregnancy level of 0.20 ng/mL to about 250 ng/mL at 32 weeks gestation.


If the fetus has an open neural tube defect, AFP is thought to leak directly into the amniotic fluid causing unexpectedly high concentrations of AFP. Other fetal abnormalities such as omphalocele, gastroschisis, congenital renal disease, and esophageal atresia; and other fetal distress situations such as threatened abortion, prematurity, and fetal demise, may also show AFP elevations. Decreased amniotic fluid AFP values may be seen when gestational age has been overestimated.

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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced in the liver of a developing fetus. During a baby's development, some AFP passes through the placenta and into the mother's blood. An AFP test measures the level of AFP in pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy. Too much or too little AFP in a mother's blood may be sign of a birth defect or other condition. These include:


A neural tube defect, a serious condition that causes abnormal development of a developing baby's brain and/or spine

Down syndrome, a genetic disorder that causes intellectual disabilities and developmental delays

Twins or multiple births, because more than one baby is producing AFP

Miscalculation of due date, because AFP levels change during pregnancy

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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein that is produced in early fetal life by the liver and by a variety of tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the ovary and testis (eg, yolk sac and embryonal carcinoma). Most studies report elevated AFP concentrations in approximately 70% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Elevated AFP concentrations are found in 50% to 70% of patients with nonseminomatous testicular tumors.(1)


AFP is elevated during pregnancy. Persistence of AFP in the mother following birth is a rare hereditary condition.(2) Neonates have markedly elevated AFP levels (>100,000 ng/mL) that rapidly fall to below 100 ng/mL by 150 days and gradually return to normal over their first year.(2)


Concentrations of AFP above the reference range also have been found in serum of patients with benign liver disease (eg, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis), gastrointestinal tract tumors and, along with carcinoembryonic antigen in ataxia telangiectasia.

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For several decades, nonspecific methods, which depend upon raised globulin levels, have been used in the diagnosis of VL. Some of the tests used for detecting these nonspecific immunoglobulins are Napier's formol gel or aldehyde test and the Chopra antimony test. Since these tests depend upon raised globulin levels, results can be positive in a host of conditions (13, 14). Lack of specificity, as well as varying sensitivities, renders them highly unreliable.


Several immunodiagnostic methods which are more sensitive and specific have been developed. They are useful in identifying specific cases and can be used for community surveillance. The human body makes an attempt to fight against VL by producing some of the highest levels of antibodies found in response to any disease, all to no avail. This is due to polyclonal activation of the B cells, resulting in marked elevation of levels (in serum) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM against various nonspecific proteins and haptens (23). The consistent presence of high levels of antibodies against parasite antigens can simplify diagnosis of VL. Several serological techniques are based on detection of these antibodies. The specificity of the antibody depends upon the antigen or epitope used in the test, as the parasite stimulates production of a wide array of antibodies, including group-, genus-, and species-specific antibodies. Therefore, the sensitivity may depend upon the test and its methodology, but the specificity will depend on the antigen rather than the serological procedure used. In most serological tests, the sensitivity and specificity data are compared against demonstration of parasites in various tissues.


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Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase is one of the isoenzymes of Alkaline Phosphatase.

Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphataseit is associated with osteoblast cell function and thought to have a role in bone mineralization.

The measurement of Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase provides information useful in the evaluation and treatment of people with Paget’s disease, osteoporosis, and metastases to bone.

Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is the bone-specific isoform of alkaline phosphatase. A glycoprotein that is found on the surface of osteoblasts, BAP reflects the biosynthetic activity of these bone-forming cells. BAP has been shown to be a sensitive and reliable indicator of bone metabolism.(1)

Normal bone is constantly undergoing remodeling in which bone degradation or resorption is balanced by bone formation. This process is necessary for maintaining bone health. If the process becomes uncoupled and the rate of resorption exceeds the rate of formation, the resulting bone loss can lead to osteoporosis and, consequently, a higher susceptibility to fractures.

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and abnormal bone microarchitecture. It can result from a number of clinical conditions including states of high bone turnover, endocrine disorders (primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and thyrotoxicosis), osteomalacia, renal failure, gastrointestinal diseases, long-term corticosteroid therapy, multiple myeloma, and cancer metastatic to the bones.

Paget disease is another common metabolic bone disease caused by excessive rates of bone remodeling resulting in local lesions of abnormal bone matrix. These lesions can result in fractures or neurological involvement. Antiresorptive therapies are used to restore the normal bone structure.



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An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test checks the level of AFP in a pregnant woman's blood. AFP is a substance made in the liver of an unborn baby (fetus). The amount of AFP in the blood of a pregnant woman can help see whether the baby may have such problems as spina bifida and anencephaly. An AFP test can also be done as part of a screening test to find other chromosomal problems, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) or Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18). An AFP test can help find an omphalocele, a congenital problem in which some of the baby's intestines stick out through the belly wall.


Normally, low levels of AFP can be found in the blood of a pregnant woman. No AFP (or only a very low level) is generally found in the blood of healthy men or healthy, nonpregnant women.


The level of AFP in the blood is used in a maternal serum triple or quadruple screening test. Generally done between 15 and 20 weeks, these tests check the levels of three or four substances in a pregnant woman's blood. The triple screen checks alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and a type of estrogen (unconjugated estriol, or uE3). The quad screen checks these substances and the level of the hormone inhibin A. The levels of these substances-along with a woman's age and other factors-help the doctor estimate the chance that the baby may have certain problems or birth defects.

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All women have the occasional "straggler", that hair or patch of hairs that grows in the worst possible place!

You know what I'm talking about--those extra hairs on your chin, along your jawline, above your lip, or on your sideburns.

Those hairs can be a pain in the butt to get rid of.

Every time you think you've dealt with the hair, you discover another growing somewhere else.

Worse still, even after you get rid of the hairs, they just grow back--sometimes thicker, stronger, and more visible!

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The immune system makes an abundance of proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are made by white blood cells (B cells). The antibodies recognize and combat infectious organisms (germs) in the body. Antibodies develop in our immune system to help the body fight infectious organisms. When an antibody recognizes the foreign proteins of an infectious organism, it recruits other proteins and cells to fight off the infection. This cascade of attack is called inflammation.


Sometimes these antibodies make a mistake, identifying normal, naturally-occurring proteins in our bodies as being “foreign” and dangerous. When these antibodies make incorrect calls, identifying a naturally-occurring protein (or self protein) as foreign, they are called autoantibodies. Autoantibodies start the cascade of inflammation, causing the body to attack itself. The antibodies that target “normal” proteins within the nucleus of a cell are called antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Most of us have autoantibodies, but typically in small amounts. The presence of large amount of autoantibodies or ANAs can indicate an autoimmune disease. ANAs could signal the body to begin attacking itself which can lead to autoimmune diseases, including lupus, scleroderma, Sjögren’s syndrome, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, drug-induced lupus, and autoimmune hepatitis. A positive ANA can also be seen in juvenile arthritis.

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Fatigue can be described as the lack of energy and motivation (both physical and mental). This is different than drowsiness, a term that describes the need to sleep. Often a person complains of feeling tired and it is up to the health care professional to distinguish between fatigue and drowsiness, though both can occur at the same time. Aside from drowsiness, other symptoms can be confused with fatigue including shortness of breath with activity and muscle weakness. Again, all these symptoms can occur at the same time. Also, fatigue can be a normal response to physical and mental activity; in most normal individuals it is quickly relieved (usually in hours to about a day, depending on the intensity of the activity) by reducing the activity.

Fatigue is a very common complaint and it is important to remember that it is a symptom and not a disease. Many illnesses can result in the complaint of fatigue and they can be physical, psychological, or a combination of the two.

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 Some fat in your liver is normal. But if it makes up more than 5%-10% of the organ's weight, you may have fatty liver disease. If you're a drinker, stop. That's one of the key causes of the condition.

There are two main types of fatty liver disease:-

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

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Abdominal ultrasonography, diagnostic paracentesis, and ascitic fluid cultures are recommended by the British Society of Gastroenterology, the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), particularly in the setting of supsected infection. [1]


Laparoscopy may be valuable for the diagnosis of otherwise unexplained cases, especially if malignant ascites is suspected. [6]  This may be of particular importance in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma.

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Volume regulation and hemodynamic functions change during pregnancy, leading to marked increases in blood volume and cardiac output, peripheral vasodilatation and reduced sensitivity to angiotensin. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is intimately involved in fluid and sodium homeostasis and exerts marked relaxant activity on vascular smooth muscle pre-contracted with angiotensin. This study was performed to clarify the role of ANP as a regulator of maternal physiology.

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Chikungunya virus (also known as CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquitoes. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up' in the Makonde language (spoken in a border area between Mozambique and Tanzania where the first outbreak was described), which refers to the arthritis that the infection can cause. Fever and joint aches are the most common manifestations of infection, which may resemble other viral illnesses, including dengue. The disease is usually self-limited, but some cases may evolve into a chronic condition with debilitating arthritis.

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Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C).

Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal: rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease- producing organisms. For that reason, low fevers should normally go untreated, although you may need to see your doctor to be sure if the fever is accompanied by any other troubling symptoms. As fevers range to 104 F and above, however, there can be unwanted consequences, particularly for children. These can include delirium and convulsions. A fever of this sort demands immediate home treatment and then medical attention. Home treatment possibilities include the use of aspirin or, in children, non-aspirin pain-killers such as acetaminophen, cool baths, or sponging to reduce the fever while seeking medical help. Fever may occur with almost any type of infection of illness. The temperature is measured with a thermometer.

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A small sore situated on the face or in the mouth that causes pain, burning, or itching before bursting and crusting over. The favorite locations are on the lips, chin or cheeks and in the nostrils. Less frequented sites are the gums or roof of the mouth (the palate).

Fever blisters are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1. It lies latent (dormant) in the body and is reawakened (reactivated) by factors such as stress, sunburn, or fever from a wide range of infectious diseases including colds. Recurrences are less common after age 35. Sunscreen (SPF 15 or more) on the lips prevents recurrences of herpes from sunburn.

The virus is highly contagious when fever blisters are present. It is spread by kissing. Children become infected by contact with someone who has a fever blister and then they spread the virus by rubbing their cold sore and touching other children. A person with fever blisters should be careful not to touch the blisters and spread the virus to new sites, such as the eyes or genitals.

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The test is a simple method to identifying a person’s gender and establish sexual identity in newborns and in adults. Earlier the method was popularly employed in competitive sports to identify males masquerading as females. 


The mouth has to be rinsed and washed before the test. A spatula is used to gently scrape the inside of the person’s cheek. This can be done by a health care provider or by self. A smear of this buccal sample is made on a slide, stained and observed under the microscope.

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Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. Fibroids, also known as uterine myomas, leiomyomas, or fibromas, are firm, compact tumors that are made of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue that develop in the uterus. It is estimated that between 20 to 50 percent of women of reproductive age have fibroids, although not all are diagnosed. Some estimates state that up to 30 to 77 percent of women will develop fibroids sometime during their childbearing years, although only about one-third of these fibroids are large enough to be detected by a health care provider during a physical examination.

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Medullary thyroid cancer can be highly aggressive, especially if the diagnosis is done in advanced stages. Early diagnosis is based on RET genetic testing, for familial forms, and on the routine measurement of calcitonin (Ct). Nevertheless, since false-positive results can be obtained with the basal measurement of Ct, a provocative test to evaluate stimulated Ct is often needed. Pentagastrin which has been widely used to stimulate basal Ct, especially in European countries, is now hardly available. Thus, the stimulation with calcium (Ca), used in the 1970s-1980s and then abandoned for around 30 years, has recently elicited more interest. In the past 3 years, studies in patients and normal controls have demonstrated that the stimulation with Ca (2.3-2.5 mg/kg of elemental Ca, corresponding to 25 mg/kg of Ca gluconate) is highly potent and accurate. Novel gender-related cut-offs have been proposed for the Ca test, though the analysis of additional large series is predicted to modify these preliminary data. Finally, Ca seems to be the test of choice to stimulate Ct for the diagnosis and follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer, also because it is widely available, has a low cost and it is associated with a low number and intensity of side effects. In the present review the different methods to stimulate Ct and the cut-offs for the identification of the hyperplastic/neoplastic transformation of the C cells will be reported and discussed.

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Fibromyalgia: A disease characterized by chronic pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscles, tendons, and joints, without detectable inflammation. Fibromyalgia does not cause body damage or deformity. However, undue fatigue plagues 90 percent of patients with fibromyalgia. Sleep disorder is also common in patients with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia can be associated with other rheumatic conditions, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can occur with fibromyalgia. There is no definitive medical test for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia, so diagnosis is made by eliminating other possible causes of the symptoms. The most effective treatment is a combination of education, stress reduction, exercise, and medication. Formerly known as fibrositis.


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The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL) involves detection of elevated levels of plasma and/or 24-h urine catecholamines and/or their metabolites, including metanephrines. Although these tests are reasonably sensitive, false-positive results are often encountered. Follow-up tests can provide additional information to correctly diagnose PPGL. In this regard, the utility of the urinary clonidine suppression test (UCST) remains unknown.

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A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid, either serum or plasma.[1] However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as "blood blisters") or with pus (if they become infected).

The word "blister" entered English in the 14th century. It came from the Middle Dutch "bluyster" and was a modification of the Old French "blostre", which meant a leprous nodule—a rise in the skin due to leprosy. In dermatology today, the words vesicle and bulla refer to blisters of smaller or greater size, respectively.

To heal properly, a blister should not be popped unless medically necessary. If popped, the excess skin should not be removed because the skin underneath needs that top layer to heal properly.

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Reflexology, also known as zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a pseudoscientific[1] system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.


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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a set of laboratory tests that examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This fluid is an ultrafiltrate of plasma. It is clear and colorless. It contains glucose, electrolytes, amino acids, and other small molecules found in plasma, but has very little protein and few cells. CSF protects the central nervous system from injury, cushions it from the surrounding bone structure, provides it with nutrients, and removes waste products by returning them to the blood. CSF is withdrawn from the subarachnoid space through a needle by a procedure called a lumbar puncture or spinal tap. CSF analysis includes tests in clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology, and microbiology. Usually three or four tubes are collected. The first tube is used for chemical and/or serological analysis and the last two tubes are used for hematology and microbiology tests. This reduces the chances of a falsely elevated white cell count caused by a traumatic tap (bleeding into the subarachnoid space at the puncture site), and contamination of the bacterial culture by skin germs or flora.




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Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition that mainly affects the lungs, pancreas, and sweat glands. It causes the production of thick, sticky mucus that leads to recurrent respiratory infections and blocks the release of pancreatic enzymes, inhibiting the digestion of protein and fat.


CF is one of the most common recessive genetic disorders in the U.S. A recessive disorder occurs when each of the two copies of a gene (one inherited from each parent) is abnormal. According to Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, it is estimated that 30,000 Americans are living with CF and approximately 1,000 new cases are diagnosed every year. Most people with CF are diagnosed in early childhood.


CF is caused by mutations (disease-causing variations in the DNA) in a gene called CFTR located on chromosome seven. More than 2,000 different CF mutations have been identified so far, but only a few are common. The majority of cystic fibrosis cases in the U.S. are caused by a mutation called deltaF508 (F508).


The CFTR gene is responsible for the normal production of a protein called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In CF, the CFTR protein may be dysfunctional or totally absent. With dysfunctional or absent CFTR, chloride does not move out of the ducts into surrounding fluid, resulting in the production of thick, sticky mucus. Since CFTR levels are usually highest in the epithelial cells lining the internal surfaces of the bronchi of the lungs, pancreas, sweat glands, salivary glands, intestine, and reproductive organs, these are the areas most affected by CF.


Most people with CF develop respiratory and pancreatic symptoms early in life, although the severity of signs and symptoms varies from person to person, even in those carrying the exact same mutations. The majority of adult men with CF are also infertile due to missing or underdeveloped vas deferens, the tubules that transport sperm from the testicles.


An individual with one normal CFTR gene copy and one abnormal gene copy is a CF carrier. Carriers do not generally have symptoms, but they may pass a copy of their abnormal gene on to their children. Both biological parents must either be carriers or have CF in order for their child to have CF.


The risk associated with carrying an abnormal CF gene can be generally associated with a person's ethnic background. Caucasians from Northern Europe and Ashkenazi Jews have the highest incidence of CF with about 1 in 25 individuals being CF carriers.

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There's a whiff of something in the air that's distinctly... foot. The Is that me?! panic sets in. Many of us have been in your, ahem, shoes. The odd case of bromodosis—yep, foot odor even has its own very official name—is usually nothing to worry about. Here are a few possible reasons your tootsies stink to high heaven and what to do about the stench.

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Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a potent form of testosterone required for male sexual development. However, aging men tend to have higher levels of DHT that could lead to problems such as hair loss and prostate dysfunction.


Additionally, men and women on testosterone therapy should always check their testosterone blood level to make sure that it stays within an optimal range. Remember, women with higher levels of DHT can also lose their hair.

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Lipids are a group of fats and fat-like substances that are important constituents of cells and sources of energy. A lipid profile measures the level of specific lipids in the blood.


Two important lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, are transported in the blood by lipoprotein particles. Each particle contains a combination of protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules. The particles measured with a lipid profile are classified by their density into high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).


Monitoring and maintaining healthy levels of these lipids is important in staying healthy. While the body produces the cholesterol needed to function properly, the source for some cholesterol is the diet. Eating too much of foods that are high in saturated fats and trans unsaturated fats (trans fats) or having an inherited predisposition can result in a high level of cholesterol in the blood. The extra cholesterol may be deposited in plaques on the walls of blood vessels. Plaques can narrow or eventually block the opening of blood vessels, leading to hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and increasing the risk of numerous health problems, including heart disease and stroke. A high level of triglycerides in the blood is also associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), although the reason for this is not well understood.

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Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon — any one of the thick fibrous cords that attaches muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint. While tendinitis can occur in any of your body's tendons, it's most common around your shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and heels

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Coagulation factors are proteins circulating in the blood that are essential for proper blood clot formation. Coagulation factor tests measure the function of or sometimes the amount of these proteins in the blood.


Blood clotting is a complex process that involves numerous coagulation factors, which are produced by the liver and blood vessels. Each coagulation factor is evaluated with one or more tests. When factor levels are low, it can cause blood clotting to fail, leading to unexplained bleeding episodes. Measuring coagulation factors can help a healthcare practitioner determine the cause of the bleeding and the best treatment.


Coagulation factors are usually tested by measuring the factor's activity level in the blood. Activity assays can detect reduced levels of protein or proteins that don't function properly. Rarely, the amount (antigen level) of a coagulation factor may also be measured. Coagulation factor antigen tests can tell how much of the protein is present, but not whether its function is normal.


When someone bleeds (e.g., with an injury), the coagulation system is activated, plugging the leaking blood vessel with a clot. The coagulation system consists of a series of coagulation factors that activate in a step-by-step process called the coagulation cascade. The end result is the formation of insoluble fibrin threads that link together at the site of injury, along with aggregated cell fragments called platelets, to form a stable blood clot. The clot prevents additional blood loss and remains in place until the injured area has healed.


Blood clotting is dynamic; once a clot is formed, other factors are activated that slow clotting or dissolve the clot in a process called fibrinolysis. The clot is eventually removed after the injury site heals. In normal healthy individuals, this balance between clot formation and removal ensures that bleeding does not become excessive and that clots are removed once they are no longer needed.


For people with bleeding disorders, clotting does not work properly because they lack platelets or coagulation factors, or their platelets or factors don't work properly. There are a variety of bleeding disorders that may be passed through families (inherited) or acquired after birth. If a person has signs and symptoms of one of these disorders, coagulation factor testing may be ordered to help determine the diagnosis and treatment.


There are nine coagulation factor proteins that can be measured clinically (see table below). These factors are referred to by a name or Roman numeral or both in some cases. For example, coagulation factor II is also known as prothrombin. When one or more of these factors are produced in too small a quantity, or are not functioning correctly, they can cause excessive bleeding.

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Fibrin degradation products (FDP) are substances that remain in your bloodstream after your body dissolves a blood clot. Your fibrinolytic (clot-busting) system manages and regulates clot dissolving.


When you cut yourself, the injured blood vessel constricts to stop bleeding and promote healing. This process is called hemostasis. Platelets in your blood gather together and stick to the injury site to form a plug or clot. The formation of the plug or clot is called the clotting cascade.


Fibrin is a protein that aids in clotting. Clotting, also called coagulation, at the wound site produces a mass of fibrin threads called a net. The net remains in place until the cut is healed. As the cut heals, the clotting slows down. Eventually the clot breaks down and dissolves.


When the clot and fibrin net dissolve, fragments of protein are released into the body. These fragments are fibrin degradation products (FDPs). If your body is unable to dissolve a clot, you may have abnormal levels of FDPs.


Blood tests can measure your level of FDPs to see if you have a clotting disorder. The fibrin degradation products test is a specific test that determines the amount of FDPs in your blood. The test is also known as the fibrin split products (FSPs) test, or the fibrin breakdown products test.

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Ferritin is an iron-containing protein and is the primary form of iron stored inside of cells. The small quantity of ferritin that is released into the blood is a reflection of the amount of total iron stored in the body. This test measures the amount of ferritin in the blood.


In healthy people, about 70% of the iron absorbed by the body is incorporated into the hemoglobin of red blood cells. Most of the remaining 30% is stored as ferritin or as hemosiderin, a complex of iron, proteins, and other materials. Ferritin and hemosiderin are present primarily in the liver but also in the bone marrow, spleen, and skeletal muscles.


When available iron is insufficient to meet the body's needs, iron stores are depleted and ferritin levels decrease. This may occur because of insufficient iron intake, inadequate absorption, or increased need for iron such as during pregnancy or due to a condition that causes chronic blood loss. Significant depletion of iron stores may occur before any signs of iron deficiency develop.


Iron storage and ferritin levels increase when more iron is absorbed than the body needs. Chronic absorption of excess iron will lead to the progressive buildup of iron compounds in organs and may eventually cause their dysfunction and failure. This happens in hemochromatosis, a genetic disease in which the body absorbs too much iron, even on a normal diet.

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A fetal hemoglobin test is a blood test that checks the amount of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) in the blood. Fetal hemoglobin is one of many types of hemoglobin. It is present in high levels in fetuses, but usually drops to trace amounts about six months after birth. If Hb F is at higher than normal levels, it can mean you have thalassemia, myeloid leukemia, or sickle cell anemia.

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Fibrinogen is a protein, a coagulation factor (factor I) that is essential for blood clot formation. Two types of tests are available to evaluate fibrinogen: a fibrinogen activity test evaluates how well fibrinogen functions in helping to form a blood clot while a fibrinogen antigen test measures the amount of fibrinogen in the blood.


Fibrinogen is produced by the liver and released into circulation along with several other coagulation factor proteins. Normally, when a body tissue or blood vessel wall is injured, a process called hemostasis begins to help stop the bleeding by forming a plug at the injury site. Small cell fragments called platelets adhere to and aggregate at the site, a coagulation cascade begins, and clotting factors are activated one after the other.


As the cascade nears completion, soluble fibrinogen is converted into insoluble fibrin threads. These threads crosslink together to form a fibrin net that stabilizes at the injury site. The fibrin net adheres to the site of injury along with the platelets to form a stable blood clot. This barrier prevents additional blood loss and remains in place until the injured area has healed.


For a stable clot to form there must be enough normally functioning platelets and coagulation factors. If there are dysfunctional factors or platelets, or too little or too much of them, it can lead to bleeding episodes and/or to formation of an in appropriate blood clot (thrombosis). Several laboratory tests, including fibrinogen tests, can be used to evaluate hemostasis.

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Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused by nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori) whose preferred habitats are the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes which induce the development of disfiguring and debilitating clinical symptoms. The infection, which is transmitted by various genera of mosquitoes (Sasa 1976), is considered to be one of the health problems of greatest social and economic impact in endemic areas (Ottesen et al. 1997).


Until the 1980s, the only direct way to confirm a diagnosis of infection by W. bancrofti was via the identification of microfilariae (MF) in peripheral blood using camera counting, polycarbonate membrane filtration, the thick smear method or Knott's technique (Knott 1939, Denham et al. 1971, Dennis & Kaen 1971, Eberhard & Lammie 1991). Apart from the low sensitivities of these methods arising from the fact that they only identify filarial infection by way of microfilaremia, they are also inconvenient in terms of the time of day the blood must be collected, namely when the MF are at a peak in peripheral blood, a parameter that varies from one endemic area to another. In Brazil, the peak for microfilaremia occurs between 11 pm-1 am (Dreyer et al. 1996).


In the 1990s, significant advances were made in the diagnosis of LF with the emergence of new diagnostic tools: (i) use of recombinant antigens to detect specific antibodies (Chandrasherkar et al. 1994); (ii) a PCR for the detection of filarial DNA (Zhong et al. 1996, Rocha et al. 2002); (iii) the visualisation of live adult worms (AW) using ultrasound (US) and (iv) circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detection (More & Copeman 1990, Weil et al. 1997). At present, the standard diagnostic tools are US (Amaral et al. 1994) and CFA detection, with the latter using the monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) Og4C3 and AD12. The CFA detection techniques are commercially available in the form of kits and have the advantage of allowing for diagnosis to be carried out using blood samples collected at any time of day (More & Copeman 1990, Amaral et al. 1994, Weil et al. 1997, Rocha 2002, 2004)

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For a palpable breast lump, a fine needle is inserted through the skin and directed towards the suspicious area. When this needle reaches the mass, the doctor suctions out a sample with the help of syringe, which is then sent to the laboratory for further analysis.

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The fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test is a blood test that checks for the presence of antibodies to Treponema pallidum bacteria. These bacteria cause syphilis.


Syphilis s a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that’s spread through direct contact with syphilitic sores. Sores are most often present on the penis, vagina, or rectum. These sores aren’t always noticeable. You may not even know that you’re infected.


The FTA-ABS test doesn’t actually check for the syphilis infection itself. However, it can determine whether you have antibodies to the bacteria that cause it. Antibodies are special proteins produced by the immune system when harmful substances are detected. These harmful substances, known as antigens, include viruses, fungi, and bacteria. This means that people who are infected with syphilis will have the corresponding antibodies.

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Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) and Folic Acid (Folate) both play key roles in DNA synthesis and creating red blood cells. This test is used to measure vitamin B12 and folic acid levels.


Deficiencies in vitamin B12 can lead to nerve damage and specific cases of anemia in which red blood cells are larger than average and the level of hemoglobin in the blood are deficient, called macrocyotic anemia. Deficiencies in folate can cause neural tube defects to occur to a fetus during pregnancy.


Malnutrition or conditions that can cause an individual to have poor absorption of nutrients like celiac disease, Crohn's disease, alcoholism or intestinal or gastrointestinal disorders may have low levels of B12 and folic acid.

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Freckles, sometimes called ephelides (singular ephelis), are clusters of concentrated melaninized cells which are most easily visible on people with a fair complexion. Freckles do not have an increased number of the melanin-producing cells, or melanocytes, but instead have melanocytes that overproduce melanin granules (melanosomes) changing the coloration of the outer skin cells (keratinocytes). As such, freckles are different from lentigines and moles


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Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced primarily by cells in the prostate, a small gland that encircles the urethra in males and produces a fluid that makes up part of semen. Most of the PSA that the prostate produces is released into this fluid, but small amounts of it are also released into the bloodstream. This test measures the amount of PSA in the blood.


The PSA test is used as a tumor marker to screen for and to monitor prostate cancer. It is a good tool but not a perfect one, and most experts agree that screening should be done on asymptomatic men only after thorough discussions with their healthcare providers on the benefits and risks and after informed decisions are made to undergo screening. Elevated levels of PSA are associated with prostate cancer, but they may also be seen with prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PSA levels tend to increase in all men as they age, and men of African American heritage may have levels that are higher than other men, even at earlier ages.


PSA is not diagnostic of cancer. The gold standard for identifying prostate cancer is the prostate biopsy, collecting small samples of prostate tissue and identifying abnormal cells under the microscope. (Read the article on Anatomic Pathology for more information on biopsies.) The total PSA test and digital rectal exam (DRE) are used together to help determine the need for a prostate biopsy.


The goal of screening is to detect prostate cancer while it is still confined to the prostate. Once the presence of prostate cancer is confirmed by biopsy, another decision must be made with regard to treatment. Prostate cancer is relatively common in men as they age and many, if not most, of the tumors are very slow-growing. While prostate cancer is the number two cause of death in men, the slow-growing type is an uncommon cause of death. A pathologist may be able to help differentiate between slow-growing cases and cancers that are likely to grow aggressively and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize).

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Triiodothyronine (T3) is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped organ that lies flat across the windpipe at the base of the throat. The other major thyroid hormone is called thyroxine (T4) and together they help control the rate at which the body uses energy. Almost all of the T3 (and T4) found in the blood is bound to protein. The rest is free (unbound) and is the biologically active form of the hormone. Tests can measure the amount of free T3 or the total T3 (bound plus unbound) in the blood.


T3 and T4 production is regulated by a feedback system. When blood levels of thyroid hormones decline, the hypothalamus releases thyrotropin releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary gland to produce and release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and/or release more thyroid hormones. Most of the thyroid hormone produced is T4. This hormone is relatively inactive, but it is converted into the much more active T3 in the liver and other tissues.


If the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of T4 and T3, then the person affected may have symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism, such as nervousness, tremors of the hands, weight loss, insomnia, and puffiness around dry, irritated eyes. In some cases, the person's eyes cannot move normally and they may appear to be staring. In other cases, the eyes may appear to bulge.


If the thyroid gland produces insufficient amounts of thyroid hormones, then the person may have signs and symptoms associated with hypothyroidism and a slowed metabolism, such as weight gain, dry skin, fatigue, and constipation. The blood levels of thyroid hormones may be low or high due to thyroid dysfunction or rarely due to insufficient or excessive TSH production related to a pituitary disorder.


The most common causes of thyroid dysfunction are related to autoimmune disorders. Graves disease causes hyperthyroidism, but it can also be caused by thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, and excessive production of TSH. The effect of these conditions on thyroid hormone production can be detected and monitored by measuring the free T3 or sometimes total T3.

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Thyroxine (T4) is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped organ that lies flat across the windpipe at the base of the throat. The other major thyroid hormone is called triiodothyronine (T3) and together they help control the rate at which the body uses energy. Almost all of the T4 (and T3) found in the blood is bound to protein. The rest is free (unbound) and is the biologically active form of the hormone. This test measures the amount of free T4 in the blood.


T4 production is regulated by a feedback system. When the level of T4 in the bloodstream decreases, the hypothalamus releases thyrotropin releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary gland to produce and release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH then stimulates the thyroid gland to make and/or release more T4. As the blood concentration of T4 increases, TSH release is inhibited.


T4 makes up about 90% of thyroid hormones. When the body requires thyroid hormone, the thyroid gland releases stored T4 into circulation. In the blood, T4 is either free (not bound) or bound to protein (primarily bound to thyroxine-binding globulin). The concentration of free T4 is only about 0.1% of that of total T4. T4 is converted into T3 in the liver or other tissues. T3, like T4, is also mostly bound to protein, but it is the free forms of T3 and T4 that are biologically active. Free T3 is 4 to 5 times more active than free T4 in circulation.


If the thyroid gland does not produce sufficient T4, due to thyroid dysfunction or to insufficient TSH, then the affected person experiences symptoms of hypothyroidism such as weight gain, dry skin, cold intolerance, irregular menstruation, and fatigue. Severe untreated hypothyroidism, called myxedema, can lead to heart failure, seizures, and coma. In children, hypothyroidism can stunt growth and delay sexual development.

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Testosterone is the main sex hormone (androgen) in men. It is responsible for male physical characteristics. Although it is considered to be a "male" sex hormone, it is present in the blood of both men and women. This test measures the level of testosterone in the blood.


Testosterone is mainly produced by special endocrine tissue (the Leydig cells) in the male testicles. It is also produced by the adrenal glands in both males and females and, in small amounts, by the ovaries in females.


In males, testosterone stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics, including enlargement of the penis, growth of body hair, muscle development, and a deepening voice. It is present in large amounts in males during puberty and in adult males to regulate the sex drive and maintain muscle mass. In women, testosterone is converted to estradiol, the main sex hormone in females.


Testosterone production is stimulated and controlled by luteinizing hormone (LH), which is manufactured by the pituitary gland. Testosterone works within a negative feedback mechanism: as the testosterone level increases, LH production decreases, which slows testosterone production; decreased testosterone causes increased production of LH, which in turn stimulates testosterone production.


Testosterone levels are diurnal, peaking in the early morning hours (about 4:00 to 8:00 am), with the lowest levels in the evening (about 4:00 to 8:00 pm). Levels also increase after exercise and also decrease with age.


About two-thirds of testosterone circulates in the blood bound to sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and slightly less than one-third bound to albumin. A small percent (less than 4%) circulates as free testosterone. The free plus the albumin-bound testosterone is the bioavailable fraction, which can act on target tissues.

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Fructosamine is a glycated serum protein which is formed by the combination of glucose and protein in the blood. Higher the levels of blood glucose, higher will be the concentration of fructosamine. Hence, the blood fructosamine levels reflect the amount of glucose present. Glycation mainly involves albumin which is the principal blood protein. Other protein substance may also combine with glucose. These protein substances have a lifespan of about 2-3 weeks. By measuring the level of fructosamine, you get an idea of the level of blood glucose over the past 2-3 weeks. Fructosamine test is usually performed on a blood sample to measure the level of fructosamine in blood. The test is performed to confirm Diabetes and also useful in estimating the blood sugar trends in the diabetic patient.

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Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is an important part of the reproductive system. It’s responsible for the growth of ovarian follicles. Follicles produce estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries and help maintain the menstrual cycles in women. In men, FSH is a part of the development of the gonads as well as sperm production.


The FSH test measures the level of FSH found in your blood. Your doctor will order an FSH test to find the underlying cause of symptoms affecting the reproductive system.

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Fungi are microbes that exist in nature as one-celled yeasts or as branching filamentous molds (also may be spelled "moulds"). Only about 20 to 25 species of fungi are common causes of infection. Fungal tests detect infections and sometimes identify the fungus and help guide treatment. 


Fungal infections range from superficial skin infections to serious deep tissue, blood, lung, or systemic diseases.


Superficial fungal infections are very common. They may cause nail infections or itchy, red, scaly skin infections such as those commonly known as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm, or yeast infections that cause white patches in the mouth (thrush) or vaginal itching and discharge. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), almost 75% of women will have at least one yeast infection in their lifetime.

Lung, blood, and systemic infections: less commonly, fungi cause serious lung infections, blood infections (septicemia), or systemic infections that can affect any organ in the body. Fungal lung infections typically start with the accidental inhalation of microscopic fungal spores. While anyone can get a serious lung or systemic fungal infection, most affected people will only experience mild to moderate flu-like symptoms. However, people who are immunocompromised, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and people with an underlying condition such as diabetes or lung disease are at an increased risk of having a severe fungal infection, a systemic infection, and/or recurrent infections.

Fungal tests are used to detect and identify fungi in order to diagnose infections and help guide treatment. Fungal testing typically includes a microscopic examination of the sample on a slide, sometimes using a preparation or stain to aid in detection of fungal elements. This may be sufficient to determine that the infection is due to a fungus and, with superficial infections, no further testing may be required.


However, in cases of persistent, deep, or systemic infections when a more definitive diagnosis is needed, the microscopic exam may be followed by additional tests, such as culture and susceptibility testing, antigen or antibody tests, or molecular tests that detect fungal genetic material.

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Fungal Smear test is performed on a sample of skin to measure the level of Fungal Smear (Skin) in the skin.It is performed to confirm Fungal Infection of Skin and also during the treatment and after the treatment of Fungal Infection of Skin and Immunosuppressive Condition.

No special preparation is needed for Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin. Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin. Your doctor depending on your condition will give specific instructions.

The normal result for Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin for Fungal Smear (Skin) is A normal KOH test result shows no Fungi. A stained slide fluoresce is observed if positive for fungus. A positive test indicates Fungal infection but it cannot identify the organism. If KOH test is positive then, specimen is inoculated into culture media. for Unisex gender and for All age groups.


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Frequent urination is a condition defined when the need to urinate is felt several times an hour, caused by the false impression of once again having a full bladder. The quantity of urine passed during the day is not, however, larger, as the urinations are very small in volume. Daytime frequent urination is assessed based on the frequency with which the patient has to go to the toilet. This false impression is most of the time due to an irritation in one of the urinary organs. There can be many different underlying causes of this irritation, such as inflammation of the bladder, called cystitis or more commonly urinary infection, or prostatitis, which is an inflammation or benign swelling of the prostate in men.


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C-peptide is a substance, a short chain of amino acids, that is released into the blood as a byproduct of the formation of insulin by the pancreas. This test measures the amount of C-peptide in a blood or urine sample.


In the pancreas, within specialized cells called beta cells, proinsulin, a biologically inactive molecule, splits apart to form one molecule of C-peptide and one molecule of insulin. Insulin is vital for the transport of glucose into the body's cells and is required on a daily basis. When insulin is required and released from the beta cells into the blood in response to increased levels of glucose, equal amounts of C-peptide are also released. Since C-peptide is produced at the same rate as insulin, it is useful as a marker of insulin production.


In particular, C-peptide testing can be used to help evaluate the production of insulin made by the body (endogenous) and to help differentiate it from insulin that is not produced by the body but is taken in as diabetic medication (exogenous) and so does not generate C-peptide. This test may be done in conjunction with an insulin test.

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Blood sugar (glucose) is usually present in the urine at very low levels or not at all. Abnormally high amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are usually the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated. It serves as the main source of energy used by the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body's cells to use the glucose. Excess or shortage of insulin in the body causes an imbalance of the blood glucose in the body, leading to its severe drop or drastic increase in the blood. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. Chronic low glucose levels can lead to brain and nerve damage.


Fasting blood sugar is a test for glucose content in a person’s blood that, as the name suggests, is conducted after fasting. The test is generally carried out in the morning, after an overnight fasting. As a part of the test, a sample of the patient’s blood is collected and then sent to the lab for testing.


A fasting blood sugar test offers information about how the body is managing the blood sugar levels. Normally, the range of glucose in a person’s blood is between 70 to 100 mg/dl. Fasting blood sugar levels between 100 to 126 mg/dl are considered as pre-diabetic or impaired fasting glucose and blood sugar levels of 126 mg/dl or higher are diagnosed as diabetes.

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There is more than one definition of frizz. Researchers who studied the perception of hair health found that while women around the world perceived the absence of frizz as a sign of healthy hair, how they described "frizz" varied widely according to hair type and desired style. As described by women in the study, the two main types of frizz are:

1. short strands sticking up at the part and throughout the hair length that "project away from the main body of hair"; this type is especially noticeable on women with straight hair who are trying to achieve a smooth style; and

2. strands of wavy or curly hair that do not align with others to form a defined wave or curl.[1]

By this definition, frizz is not exclusively a characteristic of curly hair; straight hair can be frizzy, and tightly curled or afro-textured hair can be frizz-free.[2] "Frizz" sometimes refers to curly hair in general, but that is not what most women understand the term to mean

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Fungal infections of the skin are very common and include athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, and yeast infections.

Athlete's Foot:-

Picture of Ringworm of the Foot (Tinea Pedis)Athlete's foot, also called tinea pedis, is a fungal infection of the foot. It causes peeling, redness, itching, burning, and sometimes blisters and sores.

Athlete's foot is a very common infection. The fungus grows best in a warm, moist environment such as shoes, socks, swimming pools, locker rooms, and the floors of public showers. It is most common in the summer and in warm, humid climates. It occurs more often in people who wear tight shoes and who use community baths and pools.
 

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Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A (HAV). It is one of several various causes of hepatitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. This test detects antibodies in the blood that are produced by the immune system in response to a hepatitis A infection.

Hepatitis A is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far, including B, C, D, and E, that are known to cause the disease. While hepatitis A can cause a severe, acute disease that typically lasts 1 to 2 months, it does not cause a chronic infection as do some of the other hepatitis viruses.

Hepatitis A is spread, most commonly, from person-to person through stool (fecal) contamination or by ingesting food or water contaminated by the stool of an infected person (a foodborne illness). Recognized risk factors for hepatitis A include close contact with an infected person, international travel, household or personal contact with a child who attends a child care center, household or personal contact with a newly arriving international adoptee, a recognized foodborne outbreak, men who have sex with men, and use of illegal drugs.

Although there are many causes of hepatitis, the symptoms remain the same. In hepatitis, the liver is damaged and unable to function normally. It cannot process toxins or waste products such as bilirubin for their removal from the body. During the course of the disease, bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood can increase. While tests such as bilirubin or a liver panel can tell a health practitioner that someone has hepatitis, they do not identify the cause. Antibody tests for hepatitis viruses may help determine the cause.

There are two different classes of hepatitis A antibody that may be tested, IgM and IgG. When a person is exposed to hepatitis A, the body first produces hepatitis A IgM antibodies. These antibodies typically develop 2 to 3 weeks after first being infected (and are detectable before the onset of symptoms) and persist for about 3 to 6 months. Hepatitis A IgG antibodies are produced within 1 to 2 weeks of the IgM antibodies and usually persist for life.

1.Because hepatitis A IgM antibodies develop early in the course of infection, a positive hepatitis A IgM test is usually considered diagnostic for a current or recent infection of hepatitis A. This test may be done as part of an acute viral hepatitis panel used to determine which virus is causing symptoms when viral hepatitis is suspected.

2.An HAV IgG test may be used to help determine if a person has been infected in the past and has some immunity to the disease.

3.A total hepatitis A antibody test detects the presence of both the IgM and IgG antibodies, thus can identify current and past infections.

A vaccine that prevents hepatitis A has been available since 1995. Historically, infection rates varied cyclically, with nationwide increases every 10-15 years. However, rates have declined in general since the vaccine was introduced. In 2010, the number of acute hepatitis A cases reported nationwide declined by approximately 53% from about 3,600 in 2006.



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Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is one of several various causes of hepatitis, a condition characteriszed by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. Other causes of hepatitis include, for example, certain drugs, inherited disorders, and autoimmune diseases. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far. The other four are A, C, D, and E. 


The course of HBV infections can vary from a mild form (acute) that lasts only a few weeks to a more serious, chronic, form lasting years. Sometimes chronic HBV leads to serious complications such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. 


HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Mothers can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth. The virus, however, is not spread through food or water, casual contact such as holding hands, or coughing or sneezing.

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Hepatitis B tests detect substances that reflect a current or previous infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Some tests detect viral proteins (antigens) or the antibodies that are produced in response to an infection, while other types of tests detect or evaluate the genetic material (DNA) of the virus. The pattern of test results can identify a person who has a current active infection or one who has immunity as a result of previous exposure.

For details on the various tests, see the table under "How is it used?"

Hepatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. It has several various causes, one of which is infection by a virus. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far that are known to mainly infect the liver. The other four are hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E.

HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Rarely, mothers can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth. The virus is not spread through casual contact such as holding hands, coughing or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood, and can be passed by sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person.

Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the U.S. since 1981, and beginning in 1991, health care providers in the U.S. began vaccinating infants at birth. Still, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that between 804,000 and 1.4 million people in the U.S. are infected with the virus, most of whom are not aware that they are infected.

The course of HBV infections can vary from a mild form that lasts only a few weeks to a more serious chronic form lasting years. Sometimes chronic HBV leads to serious complications such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. Some of the various stages or forms of hepatitis B include:

  • Acute infection — presence of typical signs and symptoms with a positive screening test
  • Chronic infection — persistent infection with the virus detected by laboratory tests accompanied by inflammation of the liver
  • Carrier (inactive) state — persistent infection but no liver inflammation (a carrier is someone who may appear to be in good health but harbors the virus and can potentially infect others)
  • "Cleared" infection — no longer has any evidence of infection; viral antigen and DNA tests are negative and no signs or symptoms of liver inflammation (although, in many cases, the virus is present in an inactive state in the liver)
  • Reactivation — return of HBV infection with liver damage in a person who was a carrier or who had "cleared" infection; this most commonly occurs in persons treated with chemotherapy for cancer or with drugs that suppress the immune system used to treat autoimmune diseasesor following an organ transplant.

Though a potentially serious infection, acute HBV infection usually resolves on its own in most adults. Infants and children tend to develop a chronic infection more often than adults. Approximately 90% of infants infected with HBV will develop a chronic condition. For children between the ages of one and five, the risk of developing chronic hepatitis drops to between 25% and 50%. Over the age of five, only 6% to 10% of HBV infections become chronic.

The vast majority of those with chronic infections will have no symptoms. For acute infections, the symptoms are very similar to those of other types of acute hepatitis. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. With acute hepatitis, the liver is damaged and is not able to function normally. It may not process toxins or waste products such as bilirubin for their removal from the body. During the course of disease, bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may increase. While tests such as bilirubin or a liver panel can tell a health practitioner that someone has hepatitis, they will not indicate what is causing it. Tests that detect infection with a hepatitis virus may help determine the cause.

Hepatitis B testing can be used to screen for infection in the absence of symptoms, to determine whether infection is acute or chronic, or to monitor a chronic infection and the effectiveness of treatment. Initial testing may include the following, often performed together as a panel of tests:

  • Hepatitis B surface antigen
  • Hepatitis B surface antibody
  • Total hepatitis B core antibody (IgM and IgG)

Additional or follow-up testing may include:

  • IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen
  • Hepatitis B e-antigen
  • Anti-hepatitis B e antibody
  • Hepatitis B viral DNA
  • Hepatitis B genotyping

Two tests, hepatitis B surface Ag and hepatitis B core antibody, IgM, may be performed as part of an acute viral hepatitis panel.



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The cobalamins, also referred to as vitamin B12, are a group of closely related enzymatic cofactors involved in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A and in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia and neurological deficits. The latter may exist without anemia, or precede it. Adequate replacement therapy will generally improve or cure cobalamin deficiency. Unfortunately, many other conditions, which require different interventions, can mimic the symptoms and signs of vitamin B12 deficiency. Moreover, even when cobalamin deficiency has been established, clinical improvement may require different dosages or routes of vitamin B12 replacement, depending on the underlying cause. In particular, patients with pernicious anemia (PA), possibly the commonest type of cobalamin deficiency in developed countries, require either massive doses of oral vitamin B12 or parenteral replacement therapy. The reason is that in PA patients suffer from gastric mucosal atrophy, most likely caused by a destructive autoimmune process. This results in diminished or absent gastric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor (IF) production. Gastric acid and pepsin are required for liberation of cobalamin from binding proteins, while IF binds the free vitamin B12, carries it to receptors on the ileal mucosa, and facilitates its absorption. Most PA patients have autoantibodies against gastric parietal cells or intrinsic factor, with the latter being very specific but only present in approximately 50% of cases. By contrast, parietal cell antibodies are found in approximately 90% of PA patients, but are also found in a significant proportion of patients with other autoimmune diseases, and in approximately 2.5% (4th decade of life) to approximately 10% (8th decade of life) of healthy individuals.


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This group of tests measures the amount of cholesterol and other fats in your blood. Cholesterol and triglycerides are lipids, or fats. These fats are important for cell health, but they can be harmful when they build up in the blood. Sometimes they can lead to clogged, inflamed arteries, a condition call atherosclerosis. This may keep your heart from working normally if the arteries of your heart muscle are affected. This panel of tests helps predict your risk for heart disease and stroke.


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Liver function tests help determine the health of your liver by measuring the levels of proteins, liver enzymes, or bilirubin in your blood.


A liver function test is often given in the following situations: to screen for liver infections, such as hepatitis C

to monitor the side effects of certain medications known to affect the liver

if you already have a liver disease, to monitor the disease and how well a particular treatment is working

to measure the degree of scarring (cirrhosis) on the liver

if you’re experiencing the symptoms of a liver disorder

if you’re planning on becoming pregnant

Many tests can be performed on the liver, but most of them don’t measure the overall function of the liver. Commonly used tests to check liver function are the alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and bilirubin tests. The ALT and AST tests measure enzymes that your liver releases in response to damage or disease. The albumin and bilirubin tests measure how well the liver creates albumin, a protein, and how well it disposes of bilirubin, a waste product of the blood.

Having abnormal results on any of the liver function tests doesn’t necessarily mean you have liver disease or damage. Talk to your doctor about the results of your liver function test.

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Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, that’s transmitted to humans through a bite from an infected black-legged or deer tick. Symptoms can occur anywhere from 3 to 30 days after the bite, and symptoms can be wide-ranging, depending on the stage of the infection. The chances you might get Lyme disease from a tick bite depend on the kind of tick, where you were when the bite occurred, and how long the tick was attached to you, according to the CDC. Black-legged ticks must be attached to you for at least 24 hours to transmit Lyme disease.


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Malaria antigen detection tests are a group of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests of the rapid antigen test type that allow quick diagnosis of malaria by people who are not otherwise skilled in traditional laboratory techniques for diagnosing malaria or in situations where such equipment is not available. There are currently over 20 such tests commercially available (WHO product testing 2008). The first malaria antigen suitable as target for such a test was a soluble glycolytic enzyme Glutamate dehydrogenase.[1][2][3] None of the rapid tests are currently as sensitive as a thick blood film, nor as cheap. A major drawback in the use of all current dipstick methods is that the result is essentially qualitative. In many endemic areas of tropical Africa, however, the quantitative assessment of parasitaemia is important, as a large percentage of the population will test positive in any qualitative assay.

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Filariasis is a disease resulting from parasitization by thread like of filiform worms called filariae. The embryos circulate in lymphatic tissues and blood as microfilaria leading to Lymphangitis, Lymphadenitis, Elephantiasis and Tropical eosinophilia


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Mononucleosis is a viral infection caused by the Epstein Barr virus and is common in adolescents and young adults. Often times, there are no symptoms, but others feel tired, feverish, have a sore throat, etc. The Mononucleosis Test (Qualitative) will detect what’s called ‘heterophil antibodies’ in your blood (related to mono). Keep in mind, if you’ve had mononucleosis in the past, you will always test positive for it.


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Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. Enolase exists in the form of several tissue-specific isoenzymes, consisting of homo or heterodimers of 3 different monomer-isoforms (alpha, beta, and gamma). Neuron specific enolase (NSE) is a 78 kD gamma-homodimer and represents the dominant enolase-isoenzyme found in neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues. Its levels in other tissues, except erythrocytes, are negligible. The biological half-life of NSE in body fluids is approximately 24 hours.

Due to this organ-specificity, concentrations of NSE in serum or, more commonly, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), are often elevated in diseases which result in relative rapid (hours/days to weeks, rather than months to years) neuronal destruction. Measurement of NSE in serum of CSF can therefore assist in the differential diagnosis of a variety of neuron-destructive and neurodegenerative disorders. The most common application is in the differential diagnosis of dementias, where elevated CSF concentrations support the diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementias, such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease. NSE might also have utility as a prognostic marker in neuronal injury. There is, for example, increasing evidence that elevated serum NSE levels correlate with a poor outcome in coma, in particular when caused by hypoxic insult.

NSE is also frequently overexpressed by neural crest-derived tumors. Up to 70% of patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) have elevated serum NSE concentrations at diagnosis, and approximately 90% of patients with advanced SCLC will have serum levels above the healthy reference range. Other neuroendocrine tumors with frequent expression of NSE include carcinoids (up to 66% of cases), islet cell tumors (typically <40% of cases), and neuroblastoma (exact frequency of NSE expression unknown). NSE levels in NSE-secreting neoplasms correlate with tumor mass and tumor metabolic activity. High levels have therefore some negative prognostic value. Falling or rising levels are often correlated with tumor shrinkage or recurrence, respectively.

Serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) measurement has its greatest utility in the follow-up of patients with tumors of any type that have been shown to secrete NSE. With successful treatment, serum concentrations should fall with a half-life of approximately 24 hours. Persistent NSE elevations in the absence of other possible causes (see Cautions) suggest persistent tumor. Rising levels indicate tumor spread, or in patients who had previously become NSE negative, recurrence.

In the context of a patient with a lung mass, disseminated malignancy of unknown origin or symptoms suggestive of paraneoplastic disease without identifiable tumor, elevated NSE suggests an underlying small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).


In patients with suspected carcinoid, islet cell tumor, or neuroblastoma, who have no clear elevations in the primary tumor markers used to diagnose these conditions, an elevated serum NSE level supports the clinical suspicion.

1.Carcinoid: chromogranin A, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, serum/blood 5-hydroxytryptamine

2.Islet cell tumors: variety of peptide and amine-derived hormones, chromogranin A

3.Neuroblastoma: vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid


When considered alongside established outcome predictors of coma, such as Glasgow coma scale and other clinical predictors (papillary light responses, corneal reflexes, motor responses to pain, myoclonus, status epilepticus), electroencephalogram, sensory evoked potentials, measurement of serum NSE concentrations provides additional information. Elevated levels are indicative of a poor outcome. Currently, no established algorithms exist to combine serum NSE concentrations and the various other predictors into a composite score that gives clear predictive outcome information. The NSE measurement therefore needs to be considered in a qualitative or semi-quantitative fashion and carefully weighed against other predictors by a physician experienced in examining and managing coma patients.

All neuron-specific enolase (NSE) test results must be considered in the clinical context, and interferences or artifactual elevations should be suspected if the clinical NSE test results are at odds with the clinical picture or other tests. The laboratory should be contacted for assistance in these situations.

Hemolysis can lead to significant artifactual NSE elevations, since erythrocytes contain NSE.

Hemoglobin concentrations as low as 20 mg/dL were found to have an adverse effect on NSE testing.

Proton pump inhibitor treatment, hemolytic anemia, hepatic failure, and end stage renal failure can also result in artifactual NSE elevations.

Other false positives depend on the treating context. When performing NSE testing for tumor diagnosis or follow-up, epileptic seizure, brain injury, encephalitis, stroke, and rapidly progressive dementia might result in false-positive results. On the other hand, when NSE testing is performed to assist in neurological diagnosis, NSE-secreting tumors can represent a source of false-positive results.

NSE values can vary significantly between methods/assays. Serial follow-up should be performed with the same assay. If assays are changed, patients should be re-baselined. This assay is an immunometric assay, and can therefore in rare situations be affected by false low results in the presence of extremely high NSE concentrations ("hooking") or autoantibodies to NSE, as well as by false results in the presence of heterophile antibodies.


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Fatty acids are straight-chain carboxylic acids (either saturated or unsaturated). They are derived from the hydrolysis of fats or can be synthesized from two carbon units (acetyl- or malonyl-CoA) in the liver, mammary gland and, to some extent adipose tissue. Nearly all have an even number of carbon atoms. Individual fatty acids, free fatty acids (FFA), or the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), circulate primarily in association with albumin. They are an important metabolic fuel.

Fatty acids play a central role in providing energy to tissues, particularly during fasting. The liver, kidneys, myocardium, and skeletal muscles, but not the brain. The major storage form of fatty acids is in triglycerides (large amounts are also esterified to cholesterol or in phospholipids), and the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase hydrolyze the triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol, thereby releasing them as energy sources for the various tissues. FFA that have been released from triglyceride by the actions of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase are elevated in blood of subjects with central obesity, insulin resistance and type II diabetes.
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Spherocytes are osmotically fragile cells that rupture more easily in a hypotonic solution than do normal RBCs. Because they have a low surface area:volume ratio, they lyse at a higher osmolarity than do normal discocyte (RBCs). Cells that have a larger surface area:volume ratio, such as target cells or hypochromic cells are more resistant to lysing. After incubation, an increase in hemolysis is seen in spherocytes. Hereditary spherocytosis typically has greater number of spherocytes than other causes of spherocytosis. Therefore, the degree of lysis is usually more pronounced, but this is not always the case. Some rare disorders can also cause marked fragility and hereditary spherocytosis cases can display moderate fragility.
Spherocytes are osmotically fragile cells that rupture more easily in a hypotonic solution than do normal RBCs. Because they have a low surface area:volume ratio, they lyse at a higher osmolarity than do normal discocyte (RBCs). Cells that have a larger surface area:volume ratio, such as target cells or hypochromic cells are more resistant to lysing. After incubation, an increase in hemolysis is seen in spherocytes. Hereditary spherocytosis typically has greater number of spherocytes than other causes of spherocytosis. Therefore, the degree of lysis is usually more pronounced, but this is not always the case. Some rare disorders can also cause marked fragility and hereditary spherocytosis cases can display moderate fragility.

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The pericardium is a two-layered, sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart. Pericardial membranes produce pericardial fluid, a liquid that sits between the pericardium's membranes. The fluid acts as a lubricant for the movement of the heart, reducing friction as the heart pumps blood.

A variety of conditions and diseases can cause inflammation of the pericardium (pericarditis) and/or excessive accumulation of pericardial fluid (pericardial effusion). Pericardial fluid analysis is a group of tests that evaluate this liquid to help diagnose the cause of the increased fluid.

The two main reasons for fluid accumulation in the pericardial space are:

1.An imbalance between the pressure within blood vessels—which drives fluid out of blood vessels—and the amount of protein in blood—which keeps fluid in blood vessels. The fluid that accumulates in this case is called a transudate. Transudates are most often caused by congestive heart failure or cirrhosis.

2.An injury or inflammation of the pericardium, in which case the fluid that accumulates is called an exudate. Conditions such as infections, malignancies (metastatic cancer, lymphoma, mesothelioma), or autoimmune disease may cause the accumulation of exudate.

Determining if the increased fluid is transudate or exudate is important because it helps narrow down the possible causes of pericardial fluid buildup. Healthcare practitioners and laboratorians use an initial set of tests, including cell count, protein or albumin level, and appearance of the fluid, to distinguish between transudates and exudates. Once the fluid is determined to be one or the other, additional tests may be performed to further pinpoint the disease or condition causing pericarditis and/or pericardial effusion.

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Pleural fluid is a liquid derived from the blood in the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) in the lungs. It is found in small quantities between the layers of the pleurae – membranes that cover the chest cavity and the outside of each lung. It serves as a lubricant for the movement of the lungs during breathing.
A variety of conditions and diseases can cause inflammation of the pleurae (pleuritis) and/or excessive accumulation of pleural fluid (pleural effusion). Pleural fluid analysis is a group of tests that evaluate this liquid to determine the cause of the increased fluid.

The two main reasons for fluid accumulation in the pleural space are:

1.An imbalance between the pressure of the liquid within blood vessels, which drives fluid out of blood vessels, and the amount of protein in blood, which keeps fluid in blood vessels. The fluid that accumulates in this case is called a transudate. This type of fluid more commonly involves both sides of the chest and is most frequently a result of either congestive heart failure or cirrhosis.
2.An injury to or inflammation of the pleurae, in which case the fluid that accumulates is called an exudate. It more commonly involves one side of the chest and may be seen in infections (pneumonia, tuberculosis), malignancies (lung cancer, metastatic cancer, lymphoma, mesothelioma), or other causes of inflammation (sarcoidosis, autoimmune diseases).
 
Determining the type of fluid present is important because it helps to shorten the list of possible causes of pleural effusion. Healthcare practitioners and laboratorians use an initial set of tests (cell count, protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level, and appearance of the fluid) to distinguish between transudates and exudates. If the fluid is an exudate, additional tests may be performed to further pinpoint the disease or condition causing pleuritis and/or pleural effusion. See the "The Test" tab for more on this.


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Hay fever affects up to 30% of all people worldwide, including up to 10% of U.S. children under 17 years of age and 7.8% of U.S. adults. The medical cost of allergic rhinitis is approximately $3.4 billion, mostly due to the cost of prescription medications. These figures are probably an underestimate because many of those affected may attribute their discomfort to a chronic cold. Although childhood hay fever tends to be more common, this condition can occur at any age and usually occurs after years of repeated inhalation of allergic substances. The incidence of allergic disease has dramatically increased in the U.S. and other developed countries over recent decades.

"Hay fever" is a misnomer. Hay is not a usual cause of this problem, and it does not cause fever. Early descriptions of sneezing, nasal congestion, and eye irritation while harvesting field hay promoted this popular term. Allergic rhinitis is the correct term used to describe this allergic reaction, and many different substances cause the allergic symptoms noted in hay fever. Rhinitis means "inflammation of the nose" and is a derivative of rhino, meaning nose. Allergic rhinitis that occurs during a specific season is called "seasonal allergic rhinitis." When it occurs throughout the year, it is called "perennial allergic rhinitis." Rhinosinusitis is the medical term that refers to inflammation of the nasal lining as well as the lining tissues of the sinuses. This term is sometimes used because the two conditions frequently occur together.

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The III academic programme aims to deliver world class interdisciplinary research for children with infectious, immunological and inflammatory disease, children with life threatening respiratory disease, children in pain and critically ill children on intensive care.

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In general, infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant (conceive) after one year of unprotected sex. Women who do not have regular menstrual cycles, or are older than 35 years and have not conceived during a 6-month period of trying, should consider making an appointment with a reproductive endocrinologist - an infertility specialist. These doctors may also be able to help women with recurrent pregnancy loss - 2 or more spontaneous miscarriages.

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Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia — a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues.


As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron. Without enough iron, your body can't produce enough of a substance in red blood cells that enables them to carry oxygen (hemoglobin). As a result, iron deficiency anemia may leave you tired and short of breath.


You can usually correct iron deficiency anemia with iron supplementation. Sometimes additional tests or treatments for iron deficiency anemia are necessary, especially if your doctor suspects that you're bleeding internally.

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Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal infection that usually begins between the toes. It commonly occurs in people whose feet have become very sweaty while confined within tightfitting shoes.Signs and symptoms of athlete's foot include a scaly rash that usually causes itching, stinging and burning. Athlete's foot is contagious and can be spread via contaminated floors, towels or clothing.Athlete's foot is closely related to other fungal infections such as ringworm and jock itch. It can be treated with over-the-counter antifungal medications, but the infection often recurs. Prescription medications also are available.

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The cause of chronic kidney disease isn't always known. But any condition or disease that damages blood vessels or other structures in the kidneys can lead to kidney disease. The most common causes of chronic kidney disease are:

Diabetes . High blood sugar levels caused by diabetes damage blood vessels in the kidneys. If the blood sugar level remains high over many years, this damage gradually reduces the function of the kidneys.
High blood pressure (hypertension). Uncontrolled high blood pressure damages blood vessels, which can lead to damage in the kidneys. And blood pressure often rises with chronic kidney disease, so high blood pressure may further damage kidney function even when another medical condition initially caused the disease.

 

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.

Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. Symptoms sometimes lessen with age. However, some people never completely outgrow their ADHD symptoms. But they can learn strategies to be successful.

While treatment won't cure ADHD, it can help a great deal with symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications and behavioral interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can make a big difference in outcom


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Fatigue is a constant state of tiredness, even when you’ve gotten your usual amount of sleep. This symptom develops over time and causes a drop in your physical, emotional, and psychological energy levels. You’re also more likely to feel unmotivated to participate in or do activities you normally enjoy.

Loss of appetite means you don’t have the same desire to eat as you used to. Signs of decreased appetite include not wanting to eat, unintentional weight loss, and not feeling hungry. The idea of eating food may make you feel nauseous, as if you might vomit after eating. Long-term loss of appetite is also known as anorexia, which can have a medical or psychological cause.


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Olfaction (the sense of smell) is an important function of the nasal cavity and skull base that has become increasingly investigated due to its role in behavior, cognition, disease severity, quality of life (QOL), and sinonasal disease. Smelling is critical and important to our daily lives. For instance, the sense of smell can alert us to the smoke of a fire or the odor of a natural gas leak, dangerous fumes, or rotten/spoiled food. Importantly, 80% of our taste is related to smell. Remember the smell of your spouse’s perfume or cologne or the taste of your mother’s cooking? Taste and smell unlock some of our deepest memories. They are critical to our perception of the outside world, factor into almost all important social interactions in our society, and the loss of taste and smell can negatively affect one’s QOL.


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There are no shortcuts to growing luscious, long locks. On average, hair grows about a half an inch per month. Your general health, well-being, and genetic factors affect your rate of hair growth.You can encourage hair growth by maintaining healthy hair through a good diet and proper hair care. Certain herbs can help make your hair grow faster, too.

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A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby’s mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis. Mastitis also occurs in women who aren’t breastfeeding, but this is not as common.Infection typically affects the fatty tissue in the breast, causing swelling, lumps, and pain. Although most infections are due to breastfeeding or clogged milk ducts, a small percentage of breast infections are associated with rare kinds of breast cancer.


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Numbness in one or both hands describes a loss of sensation or feeling in your hand or fingers. Often, hand numbness may be accompanied by other changes, such as a pins-and-needles sensation, burning or tingling. Your arm, hand or fingers may feel clumsy or weak.

Numbness can occur along a single nerve in one hand, or it may occur symmetrically in both hands.

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1. The Golden Rule

Do: Make sure you always (and we mean always) remove your makeup before hitting the sheets. The skin needs to breathe overnight. And makeup prevents that, as leaving it on overnight clogs the pores which may cause blemishes and/or blackheads. Don’t possess a makeup remover? Just put some olive oil on a cotton pad and gently massage the oil onto your face to get rid of the makeup and dirt.
Don’t: Forget that exfoliation is indispensable. At least once or twice a week, exfoliate your skin to remove the layers of dead skin, sure to leave you with a more healthy glow and brighter skin. You can also apply a paste of walnut in powder form with yogurt to exfoliate your skin, as the antioxidants present in walnuts help remove dirt and promote radiant skin.
 

Never forget to exfoliate your skin and remove the makeup before calling it a night.

2. Sun and Skin

Do: Apply sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 that blocks both UVA and UVB rays. Since a lifetime of sun exposure can cause wrinkles, age spots and other skin problems, you have to protect your skin from the sun. Make sure the label reads ‘noncomedogenic’ or ‘nonacnegenic’ so that the product does not tend to block pores.  

Don’t: Skip the sunscreen, whether it's cloudy or cold outside (no excuses). If you’re heading to a beach or around reflective surfaces like snow or ice, lather your skin up with some more sunscreen with SPF of at least 30.
 

Sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 that blocks both UVA and UVB rays.

3. You are What You Eat

Do: Keep a note of what you put on your plate. Eat fresh fruits, greens, sufficient protein and vitamins. A diet rich in vitamin C and low in fats and sugar promotes radiant skin. Consider a low-sugar diet, which can keep insulin levels down, allowing cells to maintain a healthy balance.

"Don’t: Eat spicy and fermented foods, salt, citrus fruits, fried food. Instead favour blander foods such as rice, oatmeal and applesauce”, advises American author and Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad, in The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies.


Fresh fruits and greens is what healthy skin needs.

4. Sweat It Out!

Do: Exercise regularly. Running, jogging and yoga will give your body the necessary blood circulation, and also accelerate the cleansing process of your entire body. You will notice a glow on your face after working out. Racing against time? Just take a brisk walk around the block.

Don’t: Skip skincare before and after a workout. Apply a toner to help minimize oil production before heading out. Exfoliate after, and then apply shea butter or olive oil to moisturize the skin.
 
Running, jogging and yoga will accelerate the cleaning process of your body.

5. Beauty Sleep

Do: Try to sleep at least 8 hours every night. If you don’t get enough shut eye, your skin gets tired just like you - it sags and you get bags. So don’t risk it. You can also apply honey on your face twice or thrice a week to naturally soothe and heal your skin.

“Don’t: Forget to wash and moisturize your face before going to bed”, recommends Dr. Rahul Nagar, Dermatologist, Max Hospitals. “For dry skin, use milder cleansers that are free from alcohol. Apply lots of moisturizer, and avoid hot water as it dries out the skin excessively.”
 

Never forget to wash your face before sleeping and moisturize well.

6. H2O to The Rescue

Do: Hydrate yourself. Drink lots of water daily, at least 8 glasses if not more. Also, eats fruits and vegetables that have a high water content such as watermelon, cucumber, orange, strawberry, grapefruit and cantaloupe. Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad recommends to “drink water from a blue coloured bottle”, since it has a cooling effect.

Don’t: Ignore rose water. It helps prevent and reduce eye puffiness in the morning, maintains pH balance and naturally hydrates your skin if you spritz it on during the day.
 
Rose water maintains pH balance and  naturally hydrates the skin.

7. Goodbye Acne

“Do: Wash your face with warm water, three times a day, and gently massage your face in circular motions, ensuring that the cleanser contains alpha hydroxyl acid or beta hydroxyl acid. Face packs that contain multani mitti (fuller’s earth) work really well too. After cleansing, pat dry and apply a lotion which contains benzoyl peroxide”, suggests Dr. Zaheer Ahmed, Dermatologist, Max Hospitals. Benzoyl peroxide appears to be effective due to its antibacterial actions.

Don’t: Pop pimples because it can lead to more swelling, redness, and even scarring. Feel a pimple is on its way? Just clean the area with rose water, and place a chilled green tea bag for 10 minutes. Also, if you wear glasses or sunglasses, make sure you clean them frequently to keep oil from clogging the pores around your eyes and nose.
 
Never pop your pimples. Use rose water or chilled green tea bags.

8. Go Back to Your Roots

Do: Use Ayurvedic scrubs to nourish the skin, and help it breathe better. Luckily for you, everything you need is already in your kitchen. 2 tbsp chickpea flour, ½ tsp turmeric powder, a pinch of camphor and sandalwood with some rose water/milk/water is your perfect skincare pack. Yes, the secrets of beauty lies in ancient Ayurveda.

Don’t: Neglect the basics. Make Sudarshan Kriya your beauty mantra. Yes, it’s that easy. Just breathing right could rid you of spots and pimples. Nidhi Gureja, Art of Living, says “Sudarshan Kriya is a breathing technique which incorporates specific natural rhythms of the breath that harmonize the body, mind and emotions. This helps releasing accumulated stresses, and each individual’s experience is different.”
 
Sudarshan Kriya is a breathing technique which incorporates specific natural rhythms that helps in releasing accumulated stresses.

9. Spa Day Everyday?

Do: Have a regular skin care regimen. “For dry skin, use a fresh cherry mask. Apply the pulp of fresh cherries on your face before going to bed. Leave for 15 minutes and wash with lukewarm water”, adds American author Vasant Lad.

Don’t: Forget to pamper yourself. A gentle facial massage with oils could work wonders. Depending on your skin type, choose oils from mustard, coconut, almond or Kumkadi as they are excellent nourishing agents which help to get glowing skin. Better still – switch on some soothing instrumental music. After 20 minutes, what do you have? Beautiful skin and a relaxed you.

Pamper yourself occasionally with spa treatments.

10. Healthy Habits

Do: Take out time for yourself, and try to avoid stress as much as possible. Have you ever noticed that when you are stressed, you tend to break out more? This is because stress causes your body to produce cortisol and other hormones, making the skin more oily. Practice stress management techniques like breathing exercises, yoga and meditation. The more you meditate, the more you radiate.

Don’t: Neglect your jawline and facial muscles. For just 5 minutes a day, perform a few facial exercises. You can jut out your lower lip in such a way that wrinkles are created on the chin, then lower your chin to your chest. Another exercise that works wonders is to look up towards the ceiling and pout. It stretches out the muscles making the skin more firm. “18 till I die”, why not?
 
The more you meditate, the more you radiate.

You’re dressed to perfection, yet you need something to complete the look. Your smile! While we spend so much time and energy on honing our bodies and looks, we forget to express our inner joy and happiness. “Keeping a smile on your face will help maintain the tone of your facial muscles and skin. People may say you look 10 years younger than you are!”, adds the Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad.
   

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Painful urination (dysuria) is discomfort or burning with urination, usually felt in the tube that carries urine out of your bladder (urethra) or the area surrounding your genitals (perineum).

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Skin peeling on fingertips is a very common problem. Skin around fingertips is sensitive and if you don't take proper care then there are many factors which can cause the skin to peel off. In the cold climate the skin looses moisture, becomes dry and begin to flak, so don't let your skin become dry. Skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis, sunburn and skin infections can  also cause peeling of skin around fingertips. Allergies, diabetes and vitamin B deficiency, use of harsh chemical and even frequent wasting of hands can cause peeling of fingertips skin. There are a number of natural home remedies that can repair your peeling of fingertip skin. 

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Plantar fasciitis is a disorder that results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot. The pain is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin and may be worsened by a tight Achilles tendon. The condition typically comes on slowly. In about a third of people both legs are affected.

The causes of plantar fasciitis are not entirely clear. Risk factors include overuse such as from long periods of standing, an increase in exercise, and obesity. It is also associated with inward rolling of the foot and a lifestyle that involves little exercise. While heel spurs are frequently found it is unclear if they have a role in causing the condition. Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the insertion site of the ligament on the bone characterized by micro tears, breakdown of collagen, and scarring. As inflammation plays a lesser role, many feel the condition should be renamed plantar fasciosis. The diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms with ultrasound sometimes used to help. Other conditions with similar symptoms include osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, heel pad syndrome, and reactive arthritis.
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The premature graying problem is largely genetic. Hair follicles contain pigment cells that produce melanin, which gives your tresses their color. When your body stops generating melanin, hair presents itself as gray, white, or silver

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Probiotics are the latest health obsession thanks to their seemingly endless list of health benefits. But the hype may be warranted; these friendly bacteria are the real deal. Various probiotic strains have been shown to support the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, prevent inflammation, boost immunity and alleviate conditions ranging from allergies to diarrhea, although more research needs to be done to sort out specific strains, outcomes and dosages. “Conventionally, when people hear about probiotics, they typically think of yogurt or supplements,” says Dr. B.J. Hardick, founder of the Centre for Maximized Living in London, Ontario. “Most people are unfortunately unaware of several other incredible -- and typically better -- sources of healthy gut bacteria.” Among those sources is a wide array of cultured and fermented foods. On the next slides, we’ll describe the benefits of 13 probiotic foods – some may surprise you

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Periorbital puffiness, also known as "puffy eyes", or swelling around the eyes, is the appearance of swelling in the tissues around the eyes, called the orbits. It is almost exclusively caused by fluid buildup around the eyes, or periorbital edema. Minor puffiness usually detectable below the eyes only (although at times they could be present all around) is often called eye bags. Such transient puffiness is distinct from the age related and gradual increase in the size of the fat pad lying below the lower eyelids (suborbicularis oculi fat – "SOOF") which can also be colloquially referred to as eye bags.
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Pulmonary fibrosis (literally "scarring of the lungs") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems. Scar formation, the accumulation of excess fibrous connective tissue (the process called fibrosis), leads to thickening of the walls, and causes reduced oxygen supply in the blood. As a consequence patients suffer from perpetual shortness of breath.

In some patients the specific cause of the disease can be diagnosed, but in others the probable cause cannot be determined, a condition called idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There is no known cure for the scars and damage in the lung due to pulmonary fibrosis.
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Dirt, bacteria, fungus, and other germs can get trapped inside your belly button and start to multiply. This can cause an infection. You might notice white, yellow, brown, or bloody discharge seeping out of your belly button. That discharge might also have an unpleasant smell. Here are a few of the causes of belly button discharge, and how to treat them.


Causes of belly button discharge include infections, surgery, and cysts.

Bacterial infection

The average belly button is home to nearly 70 different types of bacteria. If you don’t clean the area well, these bacteria could cause an infection. Piercings in your navel can also get infected.

Bacterial infections cause a yellow or green, foul-smelling discharge. You can also have swelling, pain, and a scab around your belly button.


Yeast infection

Candidiasis is a yeast infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast that typically grows in damp, dark areas of the body. It can occur between skin folds, such as in your groin area and under your arms. Yeast can also take up residence in your belly button, especially if you don’t keep it clean and dry.

Candidiasis in your belly button causes a red, itchy rash on your navel and may also cause a thick, white discharge.
Diabetes

People with diabetes are more likely to get yeast infections. This is because yeast feeds on sugar, and high blood sugar is a hallmark of poorly treated diabetes. A study of Brazilian woman showed that women with diabetes were more prone to vaginal yeast infections than women who didn’t have diabetes.

Other studies suggest that other forms of yeast infections, including yeast infections in the belly button, may be more common among people with diabetes.


Surgery

If you’ve recently had abdominal surgery, such as hernia repair, you might notice pus draining from your belly button. If this happens, call your doctor. It could be a sign of an infection that needs to be treated.

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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, vomiting, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth. Complications include esophagitis, esophageal strictures, and Barrett's esophagus.

Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatus hernia, and taking certain medicines. Medications involved include antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, antidepressants, and sleeping medication. It is due to poor closure of the lower esophageal sphincter (the junction between the stomach and the esophagus).Diagnosis among those who do not improve with simpler measures may involve gastroscopy, upper GI series, esophageal pH monitoring, or esophageal manometry.

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Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is a feeling like one cannot breathe well enough. The American Thoracic Society defines it as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity", and recommends evaluating dyspnea by assessing the intensity of the distinct sensations, the degree of distress involved, and its burden or impact on activities of daily living. Distinct sensations include effort/work, chest tightness, and air hunger (the feeling of not enough oxygen).

Dyspnea is a normal symptom of heavy exertion but becomes pathological if it occurs in unexpected situations or light exertion. In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety. Treatment typically depends on the underlying cause.
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It's inflammation or swelling of your sinuses. Normally they're filled with air. When they become blocked and filled with fluid, bacteria can grow there and cause infection. The result: a sinus infection. You may hear your doctor refer to it as sinusitis. 

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Neck stiffness, stiff neck and nuchal rigidity are terms often used interchangeably to describe the medical condition when one experiences discomfort or pain when trying to turn, move, or flex the neck. Possible causes include muscle strain or sprain, cervical spine disorders, meningitis, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nuchal rigidity due to irritation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord is one of the main symptoms of meningitis.
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Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that involves the stomach and small intestine. Signs and symptoms include some combination of diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur. This typically lasts less than two weeks. It is unrelated to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu".

Gastroenteritis can be due to infections by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungus. The most common cause is viruses. In children rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease. In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common. Transmission may occur due to eating improperly prepared foods, drinking contaminated water, or through close contact with an individual who is infected. Testing to confirm the diagnosis is typically not needed.
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The presence of increased secretions and mucus in the nasal passages, most commonly arising as a result of a common cold, allergic reaction, or inflammation or infection of the paranasal sinuses (sinus infection).

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Sanskrit: सूर्यनमस्कार IPA: Sun Salutation, is a Yoga warm up routine based on a sequence of gracefully linked asanas. The nomenclature refers to the symbolism of Sun as the soul and the source of all life. It was developed in the 20th century.

A yogi may develop a personalized yoga warm up routine as surya-namaskar to precede his or her asana practice.
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Swine influenza is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H911,H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.

The Swine flu was initially seen in humans in Mexico in 2009, where the strand of the particular virus was a marriage of 3 types of strands. Six of the genes are very similar to the H1N2 influenza virus that was found in pigs around 2000.

Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human flu, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection.
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Swine flu (swine influenza) is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Swine flu can last about one to two weeks in pigs that survive. Swine influenza virus was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in the U.S. and has been recognized by pork producers and veterinarians to cause infections in pigs worldwide. In a number of instances, people have developed the swine flu infection when they are closely associated with pigs (for example, farmers, pork processors), and likewise, pig populations have occasionally been infected with the human flu infection. In most instances, the cross-species infections (swine virus to man; human flu virus to pigs) have remained in local areas and have not caused national or worldwide infections in either pigs or humans. Unfortunately, this cross-species situation with influenza viruses has had the potential to change. Investigators decided the 2009 so-called "swine flu" strain, first seen in Mexico, should be termed novel H1N1 flu since it was mainly found infecting people and exhibits two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1) and N1 (neuraminidase type1). The eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains

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A dark spot refers to a hyper-pigmentation of the skin commonly occurring in middle aged women. Dark spots, aka pigmentations, occur when a localized patch of melanin produced accumulates on a specific area on the skin. It can be located on the forehead, face or cheek bone area. Some dark spots could mean serious skin problems and thus you should consult a dermatologist if you become suspicious. 

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Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail. This condition may affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common.

Treatment may be based on the signs. Treatment may be with the medication terbinafine.

It occurs in about 10 percent of the adult population. It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about half of all nail abnormalities.
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Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days. Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur. Diarrhea is uncommon and vomiting is not usually severe. Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots. In severe cases there may be confusion. Without treatment symptoms may last weeks or months. Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others. Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever along with paratyphoid fever.

The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, growing in the intestines and blood. Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Risk factors include poor sanitation and poor hygiene. Those who travel to the developing world are also at risk and only humans can be infected. Diagnosis is by either culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacterium's DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow. Culturing the bacterium can be difficult. Bone marrow testing is the most accurate. Symptoms are similar to that of many other infectious diseases. Typhus is a different disease.
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A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection (pyelonephritis). Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder. Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. Rarely the urine may appear bloody. In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific.

The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause. Risk factors include female anatomy, sexual intercourse, diabetes, obesity, and family history. Although sexual intercourse is a risk factor, UTIs are not classified as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Kidney infection, if it occurs, usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a blood-borne infection. Diagnosis in young healthy women can be based on symptoms alone. In those with vague symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult because bacteria may be present without there being an infection. In complicated cases or if treatment fails, a urine culture may be useful.
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A vaginal yeast infection is an infection caused by yeast (a type of fungus). Vaginal yeast infection is sometimes referred to as yeast vaginitis, Candidal vaginitis, or Candidal vulvovaginitis. The scientific name for the yeast that causes vaginitis is Candida. Over 90% of vaginal yeast infections are caused by the species known as Candida albicans. Other Candida species make up the remainder of yeast infections.

Candida species can be present in healthy women in the vagina without causing any symptoms. In fact, it is estimated that 20% to 50% of women have Candida already present in the vagina. For an infection to occur, the normal balance of yeast and bacteria is disturbed, allowing overgrowth of the yeast. While yeast can be spread by sexual contact, vaginal yeast infection is not considered to be a sexually-transmitted disease because it can also occur in women who are not sexually active, due to the fact that yeast can be present in the vagina of healthy women.


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Food allergy is an immune system reaction that occurs soon after eating a certain food. Even a tiny amount of the allergy-causing food can trigger signs and symptoms such as digestive problems, hives or swollen airways. In some people, a food allergy can cause severe symptoms or even a life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis.

Food allergy affects an estimated 6 to 8 percent of children under age 3 and up to 3 percent of adults. While there's no cure, some children outgrow their food allergy as they get older.

It's easy to confuse a food allergy with a much more common reaction known as food intolerance. While bothersome, food intolerance is a less serious condition that does not involve the immune system.


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Gastroesophageal reflux disease, commonly referred to as GERD or acid reflux, is a condition in which the liquid content of the stomach regurgitates (backs up or refluxes) into the esophagus. The liquid can inflame and damage the lining (esophagitis) although visible signs of inflammation occur in a minority of patients. The regurgitated liquid usually contains acid and pepsin that are produced by the stomach. (Pepsin is an enzyme that begins the digestion of proteins in the stomach.) The refluxed liquid also may contain bile that has backed-up into the stomach from the duodenum. The first part of the small intestine attached to the stomach. Acid is believed to be the most injurious component of the refluxed liquid. Pepsin and bile also may injure the esophagus, but their role in the production of esophageal inflammation and damage is not as clear as the role of acid.


GERD is a chronic condition. Once it begins, it usually is life-long. If there is injury to the lining of the esophagus (esophagitis), this also is a chronic condition. Moreover, after the esophagus has healed with treatment and treatment is stopped, the injury will return in most patients within a few months. Once treatment for GERD is begun it will need to be continued indefinitely although. However, some patients with intermittent symptoms and no esophagitis can be treated only during symptomatic periods.

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A vitamin deficiency can cause a disease or syndrome known as an avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis. This usually refers to a long-term deficiency of a vitamin. When caused by inadequate nutrition it can be classed as a primary deficiency, and when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it can be classed as a secondary deficiency. An underlying disorder may be metabolic as in a defect converting tryptophan to niacin. It can also be the result of lifestyle choices including smoking and alcohol consumption.

Examples are vitamin A deficiency, folate deficiency, (scurvy), vitamin D deficiency, vitamin E deficiency, and vitamin K deficiency. In the medical literature, any of these may also be called by names on the pattern of hypovitaminosis or avitaminosis + [letter of vitamin], for example, hypovitaminosis A, hypovitaminosis C, hypovitaminosis D.
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Continuing the theme of transitions from some of my  have you noticed that in times of transition (like when summer turns to fall, or winter turns to spring) you are particularly susceptible to feeling off balance? It seems to me that in months like September and June, when there’s a lot of change going on, I hear the phrase, “There’s just not enough time in the day to do everything I need to do…” even more often than most other times of the year.
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The flawless, blemish and acne-free skin that you've always desired is no more a dream, but reality.Here are brilliant face care tips to get that glow you've always wanted. Browse through our beauty secrets, tackle your skincare issues and follow our tricks regularly to get beautiful skin naturally. Excited, happy or stressed, it’s your face that gives you away. So we’ve rounded up expert tips on daily skin care, keeping blemishes at bay and enhancing your natural beauty. Whether you have time for intensive skin care or not, pamper yourself by acing the basics.

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Flu is a common infectious viral illness spread by coughs and sneezes. It can be very unpleasant, but you'll usually begin to feel better within about a week.

You can catch flu – short for influenza – all year round, but it's especially common in winter, which is why it's also known as "seasonal flu".

It's not the same as the common cold. Flu is caused by a different group of viruses and the symptoms tend to start more suddenly, be more severe and last longer.

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UTIs are a key reason we're often told to wipe from front to back after using the bathroom. That's because the urethra -- the tube that transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body -- is located close to the anus. Bacteria from the large intestine, such as E. coli, are in the perfect position to escape the anus and invade the urethra. From there, they can travel up to the bladder, and if the infection isn't treated, continue on to infect the kidneys. Women may be especially prone to UTIs because they have shorter urethras, which allow bacteria quick access to the bladder. Having sex can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract, too.

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RINGWORM OVERVIEW


Despite its name, ringworm is not caused by a worm. Ringworm is actually an infection caused by a fungus. It is called ringworm because it can cause a ring-shaped, red, itchy rash on the skin. Ringworm is also called tinea.


There are several different types of ringworm infections, which are named from the body-part that is affected:


●Tinea capitis affects the top of the head, or scalp, and is found mostly in children


●Tinea pedis affects the feet, and is also called "athlete's foot"


●Tinea cruris affects the groin, and is also called "jock itch"


●Tinea faciei affects the face


●Tinea barbae affects the beard area


●Tinea manuum affects the hands


●Tinea corporis is the catch-all term for tinea infections on other body surfaces


You can catch ringworm from someone else who is infected, or even from an infected dog or cat. You can also catch it from objects, such as a shower stall, locker room floor, or pool area that has the fungus. Plus, you can spread ringworm from one body part (such as your feet) to another (such as your groin or hand).


If you have ringworm, your healthcare provider may be able to diagnose it just by looking at your rash. In some cases, s/he will take some scrapings of the rash and look at it under a microscope to check for the fungus. Rarely, a healthcare provider may need to send scrapings from the rash for a fungal culture (a test used to identify fungus by growing it in a microbiology laboratory).


This article will discuss the symptoms and treatment of each type of ringworm infection. More detailed information about tinea is available by subscription  Fungal nail infections are also discussed separately. 


ATHLETE'S FOOT (TINEA PEDIS)

Tinea pedis causes the skin on the feet – often between the toes – to become itchy, red, cracked, tender, and scaly . Sometimes it also causes blisters to form. People who have tinea pedis often also have the infection on the palms of their hands, in their nails, or on their groin.

Unlike tinea capitis, tinea pedis responds to most topical antifungal treatments, many of which are available without a prescription. The cream/gel/lotion/powder is usually applied once or twice daily for four weeks . In severe or long-lasting cases, your healthcare provider may suggest an oral antifungal drug (which is available only by prescription).

To improve comfort and reduce the chances of repeat infection, it is a good idea to use antifungal foot powders, both on the feet and in the shoes, and to wear open shoes when feasible, at least while the feet heal.

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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced in the liver of a developing fetus. During a baby's development, some AFP passes through the placenta and into the mother's blood. An AFP test measures the level of AFP in pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy. Too much or too little AFP in a mother's blood may be sign of a birth defect or other condition. These include:

  • neural tube defect, a serious condition that causes abnormal development of a developing baby's brain and/or spine
  • Down syndrome, a genetic disorder that causes intellectual disabilities and developmental delays
  • Twins or multiple births, because more than one baby is producing AFP
  • Miscalculation of due date, because AFP levels change during pregnancy

Other names: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; msAFP screen

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A blood differential test measures the amount of each type of white blood cell (WBC) that you have in your body. White blood cells (leukocytes) are part of your immune system, a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect you from infection. There are five different types of white blood cells:

  • Neutrophils are the most common type of white blood cell. These cells travel to the site of an infection and release substances called enzymes to fight off invading viruses or bacteria.
  • Lymphocytes. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B cells and T cells. B cells fight off invading viruses, bacteria, or toxins. T cells target and destroy the body's own cells that have been infected by viruses or cancer cells.
  • Monocytes remove foreign material, remove dead cells, and boost the body's immune response.
  • Eosinophils fight infection, inflammation, and allergic reactions. They also defend the body against parasites and bacteria.
  • Basophils release enzymes to help control allergic reactions and asthma attacks.

However, your test results may have more than five numbers. For example, the lab may list the results as counts as well as percentages.

Other names for a blood differential test: Complete blood count (CBC) with differential, Differential, White blood cell differential count, Leukocyte differential count.

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A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at a sample of your stool (feces) to check for blood. Occult blood means that you can't see it with the naked eye. Blood in the stool means there is likely some kind of bleeding in the digestive tract. It may be caused by a variety of conditions, including:

  • Polyps
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Diverticulosis
  • Ulcers
  • Colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease

Blood in the stool may also be a sign of colorectal cancer, a type of cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and the third most common cancer in men and in women. A fecal occult blood test is a screening test that may help find colorectal cancer early, when treatment is most effective.

Other names: FOBT, stool occult blood, occult blood test, Hemoccult test, guaiac smear test, gFOBT, immunochemical FOBT, iFOBT; FIT

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Yeast is a type of fungus that can live on the skin, mouth, digestive tract, and genitals. Some yeast in the body is normal, but if there is an overgrowth of yeast on your skin or other areas, it can cause an infection. A yeast test can help determine whether you have a yeast infection. Candidiasis is another name for a yeast infection.

Other names: potassium hydroxide preparation, fungal culture; fungal antigen and antibody tests, calcofluor white stain, fungal smear.

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A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby's mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis.A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby's mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis.

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The goal of wildlife rehabilitation is to provide professional care to sick, injured, and orphaned wild animals so ultimately they can be returned to their natural habitat. Wild animals that sustain injuries or illnesses preventing them from living successfully in the wild usually are euthanized (have their suffering ended in a humane fashion). Occasionally, individual animals that have recovered from their injuries but are not able to survive in the wild are placed in educational facilities.

Wildlife rehabilitation is not an attempt to turn wild animals into pets. Patients are held in captivity only until able to live independently in the wild. Fear of humans is a necessary survival trait for wild animals and every effort is made to minimize human contact and prevent the taming of rehabilitation patients. Often wildlife rehabilitation is an elaborate and time-consuming process.

Wildlife rehabilitators work with veterinarians to assess injuries and diagnose a variety of illnesses. Due to the important differences between wild animals and domestic animals, rehabilitators need extensive knowledge about the species in care, including natural history, nutritional requirements, behavioral issues, and caging considerations. They also need to understand any dangers the animals may present to rehabilitators. Rehabilitators must also be able to administer basic first aid and physical therapy, and understand any dangers the animals may present to rehabilitators.

Almost all birds are protected by federal law; state laws protect most other kinds of wildlife. To work with mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, wildlife rehabilitators must be issued special permits from their state wildlife agencies. Before receiving these permits, individuals must meet various requirements such as specialized training, participation in mentorship programs, facility inspections, and written or oral exams. Rehabilitators who wish to care for birds also must get permits from the US Fish & Wildlife Service. Once they receive the permits, conscientious rehabilitators continue their education by attending conferences, seminars, and workshops, keeping up with published literature, and networking with others in the field. 



Because of their training, wildlife rehabilitators can help concerned people decide whether an animal truly needs help. Young birds and mammals should be returned to their families if at all possible; even well trained rehabilitators are not equivalent replacements for biological parents. Rehabilitators can provide instructions on how to reunite wildlife families, keeping the safety of the animals and the rescuers in mind, and they can suggest humane, long-term solutions when conflicts arise between humans and their wild neighbors. 



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Seasonal affective disorder* is a form of depression also known as SAD, seasonal depression or winter depression. People with SAD experience mood changes and symptoms similar to depression. The symptoms usually occur during the fall and winter months when there is less sunlight and usually improve with the arrival of spring. The most difficult months for people with SAD in the U.S. tend to be January and February. While it is much less common, some people experience SAD in the summer.SAD is more than just “winter blues.” The symptoms can be distressing and overwhelming and can interfere with daily functioning. However, it can be treated. About 5 percent of adults in the U.S. experience SAD and it typically lasts about 40 percent of the year. It is more common among women than men.SAD has been linked to a biochemical imbalance in the brain prompted by shorter daylight hours and less sunlight in winter. As seasons change, people experience a shift in their biological internal clock or circadian rhythm that can cause them to be out of step with their daily schedule. SAD is more common in people living far from the equator where there are fewer daylight hours in the winter.


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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term used to describe disorders that involve chronic inflammation of your digestive tract. Types of IBD include:


Ulcerative colitis. This condition causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Crohn's disease. This type of IBD is characterized by inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract, which often spreads deep into affected tissues.

Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease usually involve severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue and weight loss.

IBD can be debilitating and sometimes leads to life-threatening complications.

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A burning sensation in your feet may be caused by nerve damage in the legs, also called neuropathy. Although many medical conditions can cause burning feet, diabetes is the most common. Most burning feet treatments focus on preventing further nerve damage and reducing pain.

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Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases characterized by abnormal structure and function of the liver. The diseases that lead to cirrhosis do so because they injure and kill liver cells, after which the inflammation and repair that is associated with the dying liver cells causes scar tissue to form. The liver cells that do not die multiply in an attempt to replace the cells that have died. This results in clusters of newly-formed liver cells (regenerative nodules) within the scar tissue. There are many causes of cirrhosis including chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain medications), viruses, toxic metals (such as iron and copper that accumulate in the liver as a result of genetic diseases), and autoimmune liver disease in which the body's immune system attacks the liver.

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Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses transmitted by mosquitoes. It is an acute illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), and rash. The presence of fever, itchy rash, and headache (the "dengue triad") is characteristic of dengue. Other signs of dengue fever include bleeding gums, severe pain behind the eyes, and red palms and soles.

Dengue (pronounced DENG-gay) can affect anyone but tends to be more severe in people with compromised immune systems. Because it is caused by one of five serotypes of the dengue virus, it is possible to get dengue fever multiple times. However, an attack of dengue produces immunity for a lifetime to that particular viral serotype to which the patient was exposed.

Dengue goes by other names, including "breakbone fever" or "dandy fever." Victims of dengue often have contortions due to the intense pain in the joints, muscles, and bones, hence the name breakbone fever. Slaves in the West Indies who contracted dengue were said to have dandy fever because of their postures and gait.

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Staph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria, types of germs commonly found on the skin or in the nose of even healthy individuals. Most of the time, these bacteria cause no problems or result in relatively minor skin infections.

But staph infections can turn deadly if the bacteria invade deeper into your body, entering your bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs or heart. A growing number of otherwise healthy people are developing life-threatening staph infections.

Treatment usually involves antibiotics and drainage of the infected area. However, some staph infections no longer respond to common antibiotics.

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Calluses are hard and rough-feeling areas of skin that can develop on hands, feet or anywhere there is repeated friction - even on a violinist's chin. Like corns, calluses have several variants. The common callus usually occurs when there has been a lot of rubbing against the hands or feet. A plantar callus is found on the bottom of the foot.Calluses are hard and rough-feeling areas of skin that can develop on hands, feet or anywhere there is repeated friction - even on a violinist's chin. Like corns, calluses have several variants. The common callus usually occurs when there has been a lot of rubbing against the hands or feet. A plantar callus is found on the bottom of the foot.

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an umbrella term for a range of liver conditions affecting people who drink little to no alcohol. As the name implies, the main characteristic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is too much fat stored in liver cells.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a potentially serious form of the disease, is marked by liver inflammation, which may progress to scarring and irreversible damage. This damage is similar to the damage caused by heavy alcohol use. At its most severe, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can progress to cirrhosis and liver failureNonalcoholic fatty liver disease is increasingly common around the world, especially in Western nations. In the United States, it is the most common form of chronic liver disease, affecting an estimated 80 to 100 million people.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occurs in every age group but especially in people in their 40s and 50s who are at high risk of heart disease because of such risk factors as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The condition is also closely linked to metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of abnormalities including increased abdominal fat, poor ability to use the hormone insulin, high blood pressure and high blood levels of triglycerides, a type of fat.


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Women frequently ask what symptoms they can anticipate during menopause. In reality, each woman experiences menopause differently. Some women have changes in several areas of their lives. It is not always possible to tell if these changes are related to aging, menopause or both. While one woman is certain that insomnia is a menopause symptom for her, another feels joint aches are her primary menopause symptom. Doctors find it difficult to communicate to their patients about menopause and what could be a host of uncomfortable symptoms. For example, medical science cannot explain how declining hormone levels during menopause could cause joint pain. Menopause is not an illness, but a natural transition when a woman's reproductive ability ends. Yet many of the menopausal symptoms may mimic signs caused by diseases. When do women undergoing menopause need treatment in the first place? The same pattern of hot flashes in two women can have a very different psychological impact. For one woman, they can greatly disturb her daily functioning, while another may hardly be bothered.


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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder characterized by extreme fatigue or tiredness that doesn’t go away with rest and can’t be explained by an underlying medical condition. CFS can also be referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID).

The causes of CFS aren’t well-understood. Some theories include viral infection, psychological stress, or a combination of factors. Because no single cause has been identified, and because many other illnesses produce similar symptoms, CFS can be difficult to diagnose. There are no tests for CFS, so your doctor will have to rule out other causes for your fatigue.

While CFS has in the past been a controversial diagnosis, it’s now widely accepted as a real medical condition. CFS can affect anyone, though it’s most common among women in their 40s and 50s. There is currently no cure, so treatment for CFS focuses on relieving your symptoms.

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Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

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