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The hamstrings are the tendons that attach the large muscles at the back of the thigh to bone. The hamstring muscles are the large muscles that pull on these tendons. It has become common in layman's terminology (and by some medical personnel) to refer to the long muscles at the back of the thigh as the "hamstrings" or "hamstring muscles." Academic anatomists refer to them as the posterior thigh muscles, and more specifically as the semimembranosus, the semitendinosus, and the biceps femoris muscles. These muscles span the thigh, crossing both the hip and the knee. They originate or begin at just below the buttocks, arising from the bone on which we sit (the ischium). They connect by means of their tendons onto the upper parts of the lower leg bones (the tibia and the fibula).


The origin of the word hamstring comes from the old English hamm, meaning thigh. String refers to the characteristic appearance and feel of the tendons just above the back of the knee. Although the tendons are sometimes involved in injuries, this article will refer to the "hamstrings" as the large muscle group at the back of the thigh because the most frequent problems involve this muscle group.

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Jaundice is particularly common in premature babies - boys more often than girls. It usually appears within the baby's first week of life.


In an otherwise healthy baby born at full term, infant jaundice is rarely a cause for alarm; it tends to go away on its own. However, if treatment is necessary, infants tend to respond to non-invasive therapy.


In rare cases, untreated infant jaundice may lead to brain damage and even death.

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Jellyfish are a common sea creature found in every ocean. There are many species of jellyfish, all of them with tentacles. Some carry poisonous venom in their tentacles as a method of self-defense against predators. It’s this venom that makes a jellyfish sting so painful.


Most types of jellyfish stings will cause some discomfort, but some can be life-threatening. According to the National Science Foundation, over 500,000 people are stung by jellyfish every year in North America’s Chesapeake Bay alone.

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Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study.

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njuries to peripheral nerves are extremely common in many types of upper limb trauma. Injury to peripheral nerves can cause extreme dysfunction in the hand for the patient disrupting their professional and leisure activities. It is therefore vital that adequate treatment is available to repair peripheral nerves to prevent permanent financial loss for the patient as well as the healthcare economy. Galen was the first to describe the concept of the nerve but it was Paulus Aegineta in the 7th century who documented the first nerve repair and wound closure as a military surgeon. Since this time immense research has taken place to understand nerve pathology and physiology. Currently surgical repair involves either reconstruction with direct end-to-end anastomosis or by the insertion of nerve grafts. Despite the long history and major microsurgical research and improvement peripheral nerve repair remains a challenge to surgeons and still has suboptimal outcomes. This review aims to discuss the pathophysiology of nerve injuries including the limitations of surgical repair at a biological level. We will subsequently describe the current techniques, problems and advances in the surgical management of nerve injuries.


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Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines your eyelid and covers the white part of your eyeball. When small blood vessels in the conjunctiva become inflamed, they're more visible. This is what causes the whites of your eyes to appear reddish or pink.

Pink eye is commonly caused by a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, or — in babies — an incompletely opened tear duct.Though pink eye can be irritating, it rarely affects your vision. Treatments can help ease the discomfort of pink eye. Because pink eye can be contagious, early diagnosis and treatment can help limit its spread.

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Premature ejaculation is uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration. It happens with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes. It may result in unsatisfactory sex for both partners. This can increase the anxiety that may add to the problem. It is one of the most common forms of male sexual dysfunction. It has probably affected every man at some point in his life.


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Ejaculation is the ejection of semen out of the urethra (passageway inside the penis) when a man has an orgasm. Under normal circumstances, ejaculation propels semen forward through a man's urethra and out the tip of his penis. This is because a tiny sphincter (circular muscle) at the entrance to the bladder shuts the opening to the bladder and prevents semen from entering. Retrograde ejaculation is when the semen travels backwards into the bladder.


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The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, keeping the head of your upper arm bone firmly within the shallow socket of the shoulder. A rotator cuff injury can cause a dull ache in the shoulder, which often worsens when you try to sleep on the involved side.Rotator cuff injuries occur most often in people who repeatedly perform overhead motions in their jobs or sports. Examples include painters, carpenters, and people who play baseball or tennis. The risk of rotator cuff injury also increases with age.Many people recover from rotator cuff disease with physical therapy exercises that improve flexibility and strength of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint.Sometimes, rotator cuff tears may occur as a result of a single injury. In those circumstances, medical care should be provided as soon as possible. Extensive rotator cuff tears may require surgical repair, transfer of alternative tendons or joint replacement


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Nonsuicidal self-injury, often simply called self-injury, is the act of deliberately harming the surface of your own body, such as cutting or burning yourself. It's typically not meant as a suicide attempt. Rather, this type of self-injury is an unhealthy way to cope with emotional pain, intense anger and frustration. While self-injury may bring a momentary sense of calm and a release of tension, it's usually followed by guilt and shame and the return of painful emotions. Although life-threatening injuries are usually not intended, with self-injury comes the possibility of more serious and even fatal self-aggressive actions.


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Sjögren syndrome is a systemic chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltrates in exocrine organs. Most individuals with Sjögren syndrome present with sicca symptoms, such as xerophthalmia (dry eyes), xerostomia (dry mouth), and parotid gland enlargement, which is seen in the image below. [1] (See Presentation.)

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A spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord. It’s an extremely serious type of physical trauma that’s likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life.The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves and other tissue that the vertebrae of the spine contains and protects. The vertebrae are the bones stacked on top of each other that make up the spine. The spine contains many nerves, and extends from the brain’s base down the back, ending close to the buttocks.The spinal cord is responsible for sending messages from the brain to all parts of the body. It also sends messages from the body to the brain. We’re able to perceive pain and move our limbs because of messages sent through the spinal cord.If the spinal cord sustains an injury, some or all of these impulses may not be able to “get through.” The result is a complete or total loss of sensation and mobility below the injury. A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout a larger part of the body than one in the lower back area.

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The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the joint that connects your mandible (lower jaw) to your skull. The joint can be found on both sides of your head in front of your ears. It allows your jaw to open and close, enabling you to speak and eat.This abbreviation is also used to refer to a group of health problems related to your jaw. These disorders can cause tenderness at the joint, facial pain, and difficulty moving the joint. According to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, as many as 10 million Americans suffer from TMJ. TMJ is more common among women than men. These disorders are treatable, but there are many different possible causes. This can make diagnosis difficult.Keep reading to learn more about TMJ. You should discuss any concerns with your doctor.

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex injury with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. The impact on a person and his or her family can be devastating. The purpose of this site is to educate and empower caregivers and survivors of traumatic brain injuries. This site aims to ease the transition from shock and despair at the time of a brain injury to coping and problem solving. Bookmark this site for the latest medical breakthroughs and brain research, the highest quality treatment for brain damage, the symptoms of brain injuries and the nation's best traumatic brain injury rehabilitation centers and resource information.


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A doctor or physician may order a CT scan of the leg to make detailed pictures and analyze the internal structure. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning is useful to get a very detailed 3D image of certain parts of legs.


The process begins by taking many different X-ray views at various different angles, which are then combined with the use of computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissue inside of your body, including tissues inside of solid organ. Ordinary X-ray testing does not show clear images of soft tissue, so doctors often request CT scanning to get a good image of soft tissue including organs, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and the brain. Sometimes a contrast dye is used as it shows up clearer on the screen.


A quality CT scan of the leg will use multiple x-rays to make cross sectional pictures of the leg.

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Ankle pain and ankle injuries are common. Physicians must carefully eliminate other conditions before making an ankle arthritis diagnosis. Physicians use a comprehensive approach that is verified by diagnostic imaging to arrive at a clinical diagnosis.Below is a description of the process physicians use to determine if a patient’s symptoms are caused by ankle osteoarthritis.

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Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has opened new horizons in the diagnosis and treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases of the ankle and foot. It demonstrates abnormalities in the bones and soft tissues before they become evident at other imaging modalities. The exquisite soft-tissue contrast resolution, noninvasive nature, and multiplanar capabilities of MR imaging make it especially valuable for the detection and assessment of a variety of soft-tissue disorders of the ligaments (eg, sprain), tendons (tendinosis, peritendinosis, tenosynovitis, entrapment, rupture, dislocation), and other soft-tissue structures (eg, anterolateral impingement syndrome, sinus tarsi syndrome, compressive neuropathies [eg, tarsal tunnel syndrome, Morton neuroma], synovial disorders). MR imaging has also been shown to be highly sensitive in the detection and staging of a number of musculoskeletal infections including cellulitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and osteomyelitis. In addition, MR imaging is excellent for the early detection and assessment of a number of osseous abnormalities such as bone contusions, stress and insufficiency fractures, osteochondral fractures, osteonecrosis, and transient bone marrow edema. MR imaging is increasingly being recognized as the modality of choice for assessment of pathologic conditions of the ankle and foot.


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The anatomy of the craniovertebral junction, although complex, may be well visualized by routine MR imaging. This essay discusses the anatomy of the complex articulations of the craniovertebral junction. Representative MR images and gross anatomic photographs are presented to illustrate the intricate ligamentous and articular anatomy. Knowledge of the normal anatomy of the occipitoatlantoaxial region is necessary in order to understand the common disorders that affect this area. The most common disorders are trauma and arthropathies, but also include congenital abnormalities and neoplasm. The resultant abnormal mechanics may lead to neurologic sequelae or pain

 

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within the knee joint. It is typically used to help diagnose or evaluate pain, weakness, swelling or bleeding in and around the joint. Knee MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and it can help determine whether you require surgery. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the bones, tendons, muscles and blood vessels within the shoulder joint. It is primarily used to assess injuries. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is a common condition that is best evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The first step in MR imaging of the TMJ is to evaluate the articular disk, or meniscus, in terms of its morphologic features and its location relative to the condyle in both closed- and open-mouth positions. Disk location is of prime importance because the presence of a displaced disk is a critical sign of TMJ dysfunction. However, disk displacement is also frequently seen in asymptomatic volunteers, so that other findings may be required to help make the diagnosis. These findings include thickening of an attachment of the lateral pterygoid muscle, rupture of retrodiskal layers, and joint effusion and can serve as indirect early signs of TMJ dysfunction. It is important for the radiologist to detect early MR imaging signs of dysfunction, thereby avoiding the evolution of this condition to its final stage, an advanced and irreversible phase that is characterized by osteoarthritic changes such as condylar flattening or osteophytes. Further studies conducted with the latest MR imaging techniques will allow a better understanding of the sources of TMJ pain and of any discrepancy between imaging findings and patient symptoms.


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The purpose of this study was to correlate disc position and the type of disc displacement, intra-capsular effusion and degenerative changes of the condyle as demonstrated in MRI studies. In this study, 126 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 63 patients with TMJ disorders were investigated using clinical examination and MRI. One hundred and twelve TMJs were found to have internal derangement as disc displacement. The angle between the posterior margin of the disc and the vertical line drawn through the centre of the condyle was measured on MRI for each TMJ. The positions of the discs were normal, 0 degrees-10 degrees, in 11.11%; slightly displaced, 11 degrees-30 degrees, in 37.30%; mildly displaced 31 degrees-50 degrees, in 15.08%; moderately displaced, 51 degrees-80 degrees, in 7.14% of the TMJs with anterior displacement with reduction (ADDR). The disc position was severely displaced anteriorly, as over 80 degrees, in all TMJs with anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADD), constituting 27.78% of all cases. We found that the smaller the degree of disc displacement the milder the internal derangement and that the intra-capsular effusion was more frequently associated with TMJ with ADDR. The degenerative condylar changes were more severe with an increased degree of anterior disc displacement.


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The Bence-Jones protein (BJP) test measures the level of BJP in your urine. Bence-Jones proteins are named for Henry Bence-Jones, a physician and chemist who first isolated them in 1847. These proteins are not present in healthy urine samples and are usually a sign of multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is a type of bone marrow cancer that is most common in people who are older than 60 years.


Your bone marrow is found in the center of your larger bones. It makes red and white blood cells as well as platelets. Multiple myeloma is a condition where your bone marrow makes too much of a type of white blood cell.


Normally, white blood cells make many different types of antibodies. They play an important role in your immune system. However, when you have multiple myeloma, one white blood cell line grows out of control. It produces only one type of antibody. These cells then crowd out the normal cells. Your body is then vulnerable to illness.

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Jaundice is a term used to describe the yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. It's caused by a build-up of a substance called bilirubin in the blood and body's tissues. Any condition that disrupts the movement of bilirubin from the blood to the liver and out of the body can cause jaundice. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is formed by the breakdown of dead red blood cells (RBC) in the liver. There are several ways that a build- up of bilirubin can occur:

If red blood cells broke down too early, the spleen gets overloaded and hence too much bilirubin is produced to be handled by the liver. Unprocessed bilirubin accumulates in the bloodstream and eventually the skin and eyes looks yellow. This condition is called hemolytic anemia. At times this condition is inherited. Hemolytic anemia may also occur as a side-effect of certain drugs.
Sometimes the trouble is in the liver cells. If there is a faulty uptake, processing or excretion of bilirubin it will result in an accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Newborn babies can be temporarily jaundiced because of lack of mature enzymes needed to process bilirubin. In adults, alcoholism is a common cause of damage to liver cells. Other toxins and certain drugs can also cause acute damage to the liver.
A blockage in the bile duct can also result in a build-up of fully processed bilirubin. This can spill over into the urine and cause it to become very dark. The blockage is most commonly caused by a gallstone.

 

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Tinea cruris, most commonly known as jock itch, is a fungal infection of the skin. It belongs to a group of fungal skin infections called tinea. Like other tinea infections, jock itch is caused by mold-like fungi, which are known as dermatophytes. These microscopic fungi naturally live on the skin as well as on the hair and nails. They’re typically harmless, but they can multiply quickly and cause infections when they’re allowed to thrive in warm, moist areas. This is why jock itch usually develops in the skin around the groin, inner thighs, and buttocks.Jock itch is most common in men and adolescent boys. The infection causes a rash that often itches or burns. The affected areas can also be red, flaky, or scaly.Though jock itch can be bothersome, it’s typically a mild infection. Treating it quickly will minimize symptoms and keep the infection from spreading. Most people find relief simply by applying topical antifungal medications and by keeping the affected area clean and dry.


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Joints are the parts of your body where your bones meet. Joints allow the bones of your skeleton to move. Joints include:

shoulders
hips
elbows
knees
Joint pain refers to discomfort, aches, and soreness in any of the body’s joints. Joint pain is a common complaint. It doesn’t typically require a hospital visit. Sometimes, joint pain is the result of an illness or injury. Arthritis is also a common cause of joint pain. However, it can also be due to other conditions or factors.

 

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Bones give people shape. They hold the body upright, and also protect organs like the heart and the kidneys. They store the minerals calcium and phosphorus, and also contain bone marrow, where new blood cells are made.


There are different types of muscles and joints, each with different functions.


Skeletal muscle is muscle that you can consciously control. When your brain tells a muscle to contract, it shortens, pulling one bone towards another across a joint. Muscles work in pairs – when one shortens, a corresponding muscle lengthens. Physical activity maintains or increases the strength of skeletal muscles.


Smooth muscle sits in and around blood vessels and organs. You can’t consciously control smooth muscle. It helps regulate your blood pressure, airways and digestion.


The heart is made of special muscle called cardiac muscle. You can’t control it consciously. It contracts to make your heart beat.


Joints in the arms and legs are synovial joints which means they have fluid in them (synovial fluid) so bones can move over each other.


Joints in the spine and pelvis are cartilaginous joints – they provide more stability and less movement.


There are also fibrous joints that allow no movement at all – just stability. You have fibrous joints in your skull.

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Skin rejuvenation helps rectify skin irregularities on the face and elsewhere on the body. La belle's Skin rejuvenation treatments have been developed considering the general needs and the various problems that could possibly affect the skin. We aim to help restore and promote the wellness of your skin and spirit. Our experts suggest the appropriate skin rejuvenation treatments after examining your skin type and identifying your requirement. Facial rejuvenation is a treatment aims to restore a youthful appearance to the human face cosmetically and can be carried out by surgical and/or non-surgical options

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The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are the two joints connecting the jawbone to the skull. It is a bilateral synovial articulation between the temporal bone of the skull above and the mandible below; it is from these bones that its name is derived.
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Sjogren's (SHOW-grins) syndrome is a disorder of your immune system identified by its two most common symptoms — dry eyes and a dry mouth.The condition often accompanies other immune system disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. In Sjogren's syndrome, the mucous membranes and moisture-secreting glands of your eyes and mouth are usually affected first — resulting in decreased tears and saliva.Although you can develop Sjogren's syndrome at any age, most people are older than 40 at the time of diagnosis. The condition is much more common in women. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms.

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Newborn jaundice is a yellowing of a baby’s skin and eyes. Newborn jaundice is very common and can occur when babies have a high level of bilirubin, a yellow pigment produced during normal breakdown of red blood cells. In older babies and adults, the liver processes bilirubin, which then passes it through the intestinal tract. However, a newborn’s still-developing liver may not be mature enough to remove bilirubin.


The good news is that in most cases, newborn jaundice goes away on its own as a baby’s liver develops and as the baby begins to feed, which helps bilirubin pass through the body.


In most cases, jaundice will disappear within 2 to 3 weeks. Jaundice that persists longer than three weeks may be a symptom of an underlying condition. Additionally, high levels of bilirubin can put a baby at risk for deafness, cerebral palsy, or other forms of brain damage. That’s why the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all newborn babies be examined for jaundice every time their vital signs are measured (or at least every 8 to 12 hours), before discharge from the hospital, and again a few days after discharge.

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Jet lag, also called desynchronosis and flight fatigue, is a temporary disorder that causes fatigue, insomnia, and other symptoms as a result of air travel across time zones. It is considered a circadian rhythm sleep disorder, which is a disruption of the internal body clock.

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