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In Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, an extra electrical pathway between your heart's upper and lower chambers causes a rapid heartbeat. The extra pathway is present at birth and fairly rare.The episodes of fast heartbeats usually aren't life-threatening, but serious heart problems can occur. Treatment can stop or prevent episodes of fast heartbeats. A catheter-based procedure (ablation) can permanently correct the heart rhythm problems.Most people with an extra electrical pathway experience no fast heartbeat. This condition, called Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, is discovered only by chance during a heart exam. Although WPW pattern is often harmless, doctors might recommend further evaluation before children with WPW pattern participate in high-intensity sports.

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X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a condition that affects the immune system and occurs almost exclusively in males. People with XLA have very few B cells, which are specialized white blood cells that help protect the body against infection. B cells can mature into the cells that produce special proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins. Antibodies attach to specific foreign particles and germs, marking them for destruction. Individuals with XLA are more susceptible to infections because their body makes very few antibodies.Children with XLA are usually healthy for the first 1 or 2 months of life because they are protected by antibodies acquired before birth from their mother. After this time, the maternal antibodies are cleared from the body, and the affected child begins to develop recurrent infections. In children with XLA, infections generally take longer to get better and then they come back again, even with antibiotic medications. The most common bacterial infections that occur in people with XLA are lung infections (pneumonia and bronchitis), ear infections (otitis), pink eye (conjunctivitis), and sinus infections (sinusitis). Infections that cause chronic diarrhea are also common. Recurrent infections can lead to organ damage. People with XLA can develop severe, life-threatening bacterial infections; however, affected individuals are not particularly vulnerable to infections caused by viruses. With treatment to replace antibodies, infections can usually be prevented, improving the quality of life for people with XLA.


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Zika (Zee-ka) virus disease is a mosquito-borne viral infection that primarily occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Most people infected with Zika virus have no signs and symptoms, while others report mild fever, rash and muscle pain. Other signs and symptoms may include headache, red eyes (conjunctivitis) and a general feeling of discomfort.


Zika virus infections during pregnancy have been linked to miscarriage and can cause microcephaly, a potentially fatal congenital brain condition. Zika virus also may cause other neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome.


Researchers are working on a Zika virus vaccine. For now the best prevention is to prevent mosquito bites and reduce mosquito habitats.

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The typical scenario for dry socket is the occurrence of throbbing pain about two to four days after the tooth is extracted. Dry socket pain is often accompanied by bad breath and a foul taste in the mouth. With this onset of pain, it is obvious that proper healing has been interrupted.


Dry socket is a condition in which there is inflammation of the jawbone (or alveolar bone) after a tooth extraction. It is also referred to as "alveolar osteitis" and is one of the many complications that can occur from a tooth extraction. The occurrence of dry socket is relatively rare, occurring in about 2% of tooth extractions. However, that percentage rises to at least 20% when it involves the removal of mandibular impacted third molars (lower wisdom teeth).

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Earwax blockage occurs when earwax (cerumen) accumulates in your ear or becomes too hard to wash away naturally.

Earwax is a helpful and natural part of your body's defenses. It cleans, lubricates and protects your ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria.

If earwax blockage becomes a problem, you or your doctor can take simple steps to remove the wax safely.

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Greenstick fractures occur when the force applied to a bone results in bending of the bone such that the structural integrity of the convex surface is overcome. The fact that the integrity of the cortex has been overcome results in fracture of the convex surface. However, the bending force applied does not break the bone completely and the concave surface of the bent bone remains intact.


This can occur following an angulated longitudinal force applied down the bone (e.g. an indirect trauma following a fall on an outstretched arm), or after a force applied perpendicular to the bone (e.g. a direct blow).


This fracture is very different, and much less common, than the torus fracture that results in buckling of the cortex on the concave side of the bend and an intact concave surface.

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A herniated disk refers to a problem with one of the rubbery cushions (disks) between the individual bones (vertebrae) that stack up to make your spine.


A spinal disk is a little like a jelly donut, with a softer center encased within a tougher exterior. Sometimes called a slipped disk or a ruptured disk, a herniated disk occurs when some of the softer "jelly" pushes out through a tear in the tougher exterior.


A herniated disk can irritate nearby nerves and result in pain, numbness or weakness in an arm or leg. On the other hand, many people experience no symptoms from a herniated disk. Most people who have a herniated disk don't need surgery to correct the problem.

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Think of your feet as your physical base; they're what keep you up and running. So if you're like most people, and don't think your feet need consistent care, think again. Cracked heels are one of the most common foot issues that can arise if you don't pay proper attention. But don't despair, baby soft foot skin is just one article away. Read on to learn more about how to get rid of annoying cracked skin around the heels.

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Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood illness that affects the blood vessels. The symptoms can be severe for several days and can look scary to parents. But then most children return to normal activities.


Kawasaki disease can harm the coronary arteries, which carry blood to the heart muscle. Most children who are treated recover from the disease without long-term problems. Your doctor will watch your child for heart problems for a few weeks to a few months after treatment.


The disease is most common in children ages 1 to 2 years and is less common in children older than age 8. It does not spread from child to child (is not contagious).

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Keratitis is the medical term for inflammation of the cornea. The cornea is the dome-shaped window in the front of the eye. When looking at a person's eye, one can see the iris and pupil through the normally clear cornea. The cornea bends light rays as a result of its curved shape and accounts for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power, with the lens of the eye contributing the remaining one-third. Only the very thin tear film lies between the front of the cornea and our environment.


The cornea is about 0.5 millimeter thick. The back of the cornea is bathed in the aqueous fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye. The cornea has a diameter of about 13 millimeters (½ inch) and, together with the sclera (the white part of the eye) forms the entire outer coat of the eye.

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We see through the cornea, which is the clear outer lens or "windshield" of the eye. Normally, the cornea has a dome shape, like a ball. Sometimes, however, the structure of the cornea is just not strong enough to hold this round shape and the cornea bulges outward like a cone. This condition is called keratoconus.

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Kidney cancer -- also called renal cancer -- is a disease in which kidney cells become malignant (cancerous) and grow out of control, forming a tumor. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. The good news is that most of kidney cancers are found before they spread (metastasize) to distant organs. And cancers caught early are easier to treat successfully. However, these tumors can grow to be quite large before they are detected.


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They lie in your lower abdomen on each side of your spine. Their main job is to clean your blood, removing waste products and making urine.

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A simple kidney cyst is a round pouch of smooth, thin-walled tissue or a closed pocket that is usually filled with fluid. One or more may form within the kidneys. Simple cysts are the most common type of kidney cyst. They are not the same thing as polycystic kidney disease, which is a progressive disease that can lead to kidney failure. Simple kidney cysts most often do not cause harm.

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Kleptomania (klep-toe-MAY-nee-uh) is the recurrent inability to resist urges to steal items that you generally don't really need and that usually have little value. Kleptomania is a rare but serious mental health disorder that can cause much emotional pain to you and your loved ones if not treated.


Kleptomania is a type of impulse control disorder — a disorder that's characterized by problems with emotional or behavioral self-control. If you have an impulse control disorder, you have difficulty resisting the temptation or drive to perform an act that's excessive or harmful to you or someone else.


Many people with kleptomania live lives of secret shame because they're afraid to seek mental health treatment. Although there's no cure for kleptomania, treatment with medication or talk therapy (psychotherapy) may help to end the cycle of compulsive stealing.

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A bursa is a closed, fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body. Bursae is plural for bursa. The major bursae are located adjacent to the tendons near the large joints, such as the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees. When a bursa becomes inflamed, the condition is known as bursitis. Most commonly, bursitis is caused by local soft-tissue trauma or strain injury, and there is no infection (aseptic bursitis). On rare occasions, particularly when the immune system is suppressed, the bursa can become infected with bacteria. This condition is called septic bursitis.

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Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy or galactosylceramide lipidosis, is an autosomal-recessive sphingolipidosis caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal hydrolase galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase (GALC). GALC degrades galactosylceramide, a major component of myelin, and other terminal beta-galactose–containing sphingolipids, including psychosine (galactosylsphingosine). Increased psychosine levels are believed to lead to widespread destruction of oligodendroglia in the CNS and to subsequent demyelination. [1, 2, 3]


Krabbe originally described a condition with infantile onset that was characterized by spasticity and a rapidly progressive neurologic degeneration leading to death. Since the original description, numerous cases have been documented that show a wide distribution in age of onset.

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The spine has a series of normal curves when viewed from the side. These curves help to better absorb the loads applied to the spine from the weight of the body. The cervical spine (neck) and lumbar spine (lower back) are have a normal inward curvature that is medically referred to as lordosisor "lordotic" curvature by which the spine is bent backward. The thoracic spine (upper back) has a normal outward curvature that is medically referred to as kyphosis or the "kyphotic" curve by which the spine is bent forward. In this discussion, the term kyphosis will be used to discuss abnormal kyphosis.


The spine is normally straight when looking from the front. An abnormal curve when viewed from the front is called scoliosis. Scoliosis can occur from bony abnormalities of the spine at birth, growth abnormalities especially with adolescence, degenerative spinal changes in adulthood, or abnormal twisting of the vertebrae because of muscle spasm after an injury.


The normal curves of the spine allow the head to be balanced directly over the pelvis. If one or more of these curves is either too great or too small, the head may not be properly balanced over the pelvis. This can lead to back pain, stiffness, and an altered gait or walking pattern.

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MCC usually develops on sun-exposed skin (e.g., head, neck, arms) as a painless, firm bump that can be red-purple or skin-colored. Patients frequently point out a new MCC to their doctor because a bump is growing rapidly and/or does not look like anything the patient has ever had before.  Most MCCs are diagnosed when a skin biopsy
The removal of cells or tissue in order to determine the presence, characteristics, or extent of a disease by a pathologist usually using microscopic analysis. is performed to rule out another sun-induced skin cancer
A term used to describe diseases in which abnormal cells continually divide without normal regulation. Cancerous cells may invade surrounding tissues and may spread to other regions of the body via blood and the lymphatic system.
 or to remove a presumed cyst. In the vast majority of cases, both the doctor and the patient are surprised by the diagnosis of MCC. For more examples of MCC tumors beyond those presented on this page, visit 
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Between 2 and 3 percent of children younger than 3 are allergic to milk. Although experts once believed that the vast majority of them would outgrow this allergy by the time they turned 3, recent studies contradict this theory. In one study, fewer than 20 percent of children had outgrown their allergy by age 4. Still, about 80 percent of children are likely to outgrow their milk allergy before they are 16.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.

Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.


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Your doctor can usually diagnose nickel allergy based on your skin's appearance, and a recent exposure to items that may contain nickel.If the cause of your rash isn't apparent, however, your doctor may recommend a patch test (contact hypersensitivity allergy test). He or she may refer you to an allergy specialist (allergist) or a skin specialist (dermatologist) for this test.

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Niemann-Pick is a rare, inherited disease that affects the body's ability to metabolize fat (cholesterol and lipids) within cells. These cells malfunction and, over time, die. Niemann-Pick disease can affect the brain, nerves, liver, spleen, bone marrow and, in severe cases, lungs.People with this condition experience symptoms related to progressive loss of function of nerves, the brain and other organs.Niemann-Pick can occur at any age but mainly affects children. The disease has no known cure and is sometimes fatal. Treatment is focused on helping people live with their symptoms.

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Have you ever noticed how the skin on your elbows and knees is often darker than the rest of the skin on your arms and legs? It's a bit funny-looking, isn't it? Some people think it's the result of dirt (and sometimes it is), but you'd be surprised to find that dirt often has nothing to do with the dark spots on your elbows and knees.

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To lighten your dark lips, it is essential to know first what causes dark lips. If you can identify the reasons for your dark lips, you can easily treat your lips.

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Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. It develops gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. But while a tremor may be the most well-known sign of Parkinson's disease, the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

In the early stages of Parkinson's disease, your face may show little or no expression, or your arms may not swing when you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred. Parkinson's disease symptoms worsen as your condition progresses over time.

Although Parkinson's disease can't be cured, medications may markedly improve your symptoms. In occasional cases, your doctor may suggest surgery to regulate certain regions of your brain and improve your symptoms.

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Black neck is a term used to describe a condition in which the skin on your neck is noticeably darker than the surrounding skin, also referred to as “dark neck.” The change in color may be alarming and make you self-conscience, however, in most cases it isn’t cause for concern nor is it contagious.

In some cases, however, this skin darkening may be a warning sign of something more serious, so it’s important to see a doctor to determine the cause and begin any necessary treatment. Read on to learn more about black neck, what causes it, and how to treat it

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Dark underarms can be defined as the dark coloration of skin in the underarm region compared to the rest of the body. It is a problem many individuals find embarrassing. Ascertaining the reason can help to alleviate the problem effectively. 

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Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet. It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. If PKU is not treated, phenylalanine can build up to harmful levels in the body, causing intellectual disability and other serious health problems.The signs and symptoms of PKU vary from mild to severe. The most severe form of this disorder is known as classic PKU. Infants with classic PKU appear normal until they are a few months old. Without treatment, these children develop permanent intellectual disability. Seizures, delayed development, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders are also common. Untreated individuals may have a musty or mouse-like odor as a side effect of excess phenylalanine in the body. Children with classic PKU tend to have lighter skin and hair than unaffected family members and are also likely to have skin disorders such as eczema.


Less severe forms of this condition, sometimes called variant PKU and non-PKU hyperphenylalaninemia, have a smaller risk of brain damage. People with very mild cases may not require treatment with a low-phenylalanine diet.Babies born to mothers who have PKU and uncontrolled phenylalanine levels (women who no longer follow a low-phenylalanine diet) have a significant risk of intellectual disability because they are exposed to very high levels of phenylalanine before birth. These infants may also have a low birth weight and grow more slowly than other children. Other characteristic medical problems include heart defects or other heart problems, an abnormally small head size (microcephaly), and behavioral problems. Women with PKU and uncontrolled phenylalanine levels also have an increased risk of pregnancy loss.


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Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines your eyelid and covers the white part of your eyeball. When small blood vessels in the conjunctiva become inflamed, they're more visible. This is what causes the whites of your eyes to appear reddish or pink.

Pink eye is commonly caused by a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, or — in babies — an incompletely opened tear duct.Though pink eye can be irritating, it rarely affects your vision. Treatments can help ease the discomfort of pink eye. Because pink eye can be contagious, early diagnosis and treatment can help limit its spread.

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Radiation sickness is damage to your body caused by a large dose of radiation often received over a short period of time (acute). The amount of radiation absorbed by the body — the absorbed dose — determines how sick you'll be.Radiation sickness is also called acute radiation sickness, acute radiation syndrome or radiation poisoning. Common exposures to low-dose radiation, such as X-ray or CT examinations, don't cause radiation sickness.Although radiation sickness is serious and often fatal, it's rare. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, during World War II, most cases of radiation sickness have occurred after nuclear industrial accidents, such as the 1986 fire that damaged the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, Ukraine.


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Seborrheic keratosis (seb-o-REE-ik ker-uh-TOE-sis) is one of the most common noncancerous skin growths in older adults.A seborrheic keratosis usually appears as a brown, black or light tan growth on the face, chest, shoulders or back. The growth has a waxy, scaly, slightly elevated appearance. Seborrheic keratoses don't become cancerous and aren't thought to be related to sun exposure, but they can look like skin cancer. Seborrheic keratoses are normally painless and require no treatment. You may decide to have them removed if they become irritated by clothing or for cosmetic reasons.

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The best way to understand the way that skin discoloration occurs is to understand how the skin gets and maintains its color. The epidermis, the outer layer of your skin, contains a bunch of cells called melanocytes. These cells have many functions, but one of their main jobs is to protect the skin. When it comes to protecting the skin from the sun, the melanocytes do so by darkening it with a pigment called melanin.


Melanin is responsible for making the skin look darker when you are exposed to the sun, but the body, for some reason, will either stop producing melanin in specific areas of the skin, or put its production into overdrive. Sometimes the skin discoloration can affect the entire body, a specific part of the body, or it can occur in just a few random places on the skin

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The sinus node is a specialized group of cells in the upper chamber of the heart, the right atrium, that creates electrical signals that regulate the pace and rhythm of the heartbeat. Normally, the sinus node produces a regular, steady pattern of signals. With SSS, the pattern is irregular. The normal heart beat should increase with activity and decrease with rest and sleep.  With SSS, this function is disrupted, with a heart beat that is too slow for the patient's level of activity.


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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia — a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. Normally, your red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through your blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells become rigid and sticky and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body. There's no cure for most people with sickle cell anemia. But treatments can relieve pain and help prevent problems associated with the disease.

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Sleepwalking, formally known as somnambulism, is a behavior disorder that originates during deep sleep and results in walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep. It is much more common in children than adults and is more likely to occur if a person is sleep deprived. Because a sleepwalker typically remains in deep sleep throughout the episode, he or she may be difficult to awaken and will probably not remember the sleepwalking incident.

Sleepwalking usually involves more than just walking during sleep; it is a series of complex behaviors that are carried out while sleeping, the most obvious of which is walking. Symptoms of sleepwalking disorder range from simply sitting up in bed and looking around, to walking around the room or house, to leaving the house and even driving long distances. It is a common misconception that a sleepwalker should not be awakened. In fact, it can be quite dangerous not to wake a sleepwalker.

The prevalence of sleepwalking in the general population is estimated to be between 1% and 15%. The onset or persistence of sleepwalking in adulthood is common, and is usually not associated with any significant underlying psychiatric or psychological problems. Common triggers for sleepwalking include sleep deprivation, sedative agents (including alcohol), febrile illnesses, and certain medications.

The prevalence of sleepwalking is much higher for children, especially those between the ages of three and seven, and occurs more often in children with sleep apnea. There is also a higher instance of sleepwalking among children who experience bedwetting. Sleep terrors are a related disorder and both tend to run in families.


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Stickler syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes that are responsible for forming collagen, proteins which add strength and elasticity to connective tissue. Stickler syndrome affects connective tissue throughout the body, but most notably in the eyes (it is the most common cause of retinal detachment in children), ears, face, and joints.Stickler syndrome affects 1 out of every 7,500 people, but experts believe that it is widely under-diagnosed. While there is no medical cure for Stickler syndrome, when it is identified early, there is a lot that people can do to treat the problems it causes.

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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a weakening of the left ventricle, the heart's main pumping chamber, usually as the result of severe emotional or physical stress, such as a sudden illness, the loss of a loved one, a serious accident, or a natural disaster such as an earthquake. (For additional examples, see "Stressors associated with takotsubo cardiomyopathy.") That's why the condition is also called stress-induced cardiomyopathy, or broken-heart syndrome. The main symptoms are chest pain and shortness of breath.

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Dry skin: Abnormally dry skin. Can be caused by a dry climate, winter weather, severe deficiency of vitamin A, systemic illness, overexposure to sunlight, or medication. The skin loses moisture. It may crack and peel. Or it may become irritated, inflamed, and itch. Bathing frequently, especially with soaps, can contribute to dry skin.
With dry skin, it can help to keep baths or showers short in warm water with as little soap as possible, drying the skin gently -- pat without rubbing. Dry skin can also usually be addressed by the use of over-the-counter (OTC) topical preparations for dry skin. If these products do not relieve the condition, see a dermatologist for more specific remedies.

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Toxic shock syndrome is a rare but serious medical condition caused by a bacterial infection. It is caused when the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus gets into the bloodstream and produces toxins.Although toxic shock syndrome has been linked to superabsorbent tampon use in menstruating women, this condition can affect men, children, and people of all ages. 

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The idea behind functional training is that each exercise should be more natural and carry over into daily life. Functional training exercises tend to activate more muscles and therefore consume more energy. These multidimensional exercises also tend to improve your natural movement skills and enhance your general mobility.See how many of the below functional training exercises you can incorporate into your workouts for a more practical and fat burning workout.


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This beginner level workout features basic choreography. Gin Miller, the inventor of step aerobics, leads this video. In an article appearing on the IDEA Health and Fitness Association website, Miller says "Everbody Steps" is a top seller. It's a solid, complete introduction to step workouts. You burn fat while learning the step basics from Miller, an IDEA Instructor of the Year with 12 years of step experience. Miller makes the moves understandable and explains common step-aerobic terminology in laymen's terms. The video has six distinct segments that allow you to advance at your own pace and stop when you want. The workout begins with the simplest steps and the easiest patterns and progresses into classic step-aerobic combinations, such as straddles, turns and transitions.


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Look around. There are countless articles in magazines and online about gaining size and strength. Everyone wants to get strong, and everyone wants to add muscle, but most don’t achieve the goal. Why? A number of reasons, including ridiculous exercise selection, poor programming, and—from what I’ve seen as a coach for almost 25 years—bad form.If you’re willing to do the hard work and make the commitment to using perfect form, I’ve got the ultimate plan for you: an eight-week guide to getting stronger than you ever thought you could.It’s a simple plan based on compound movements, high-repetition heavy lifting, and maximum-effort training. Throw in the right assistance work and you’ve got a plan for success.


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Gym workouts can help you burn calories and lose fat, gain strength, tone muscle groups and develop an overall sense of well-being. To add a twist to your regular workout routine, get together with one or more others at your gym and play a few gym workout games. Be sure all game participants stay hydrated before, during and after the workout. Consult your physician before beginning an exercise program.


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A nine-to-five job shackled to your cubicle leaves you with hardly any stamina to hit the gym in the evenings. Add to that, lack of motivation and it can only spell doom for your waistline. In such a scenario, can a party workout be that much-needed boost The party workout is redefining the concept of the workout, which brings the dance club into the gym. Fitness clubs host disco-lit classes of boot-camp style routines set to pumping music played by DJs. It's the latest fitness fad hitting New York gyms, and is generally wrapped up with post-workout 'pretend'tinis made from vitamin water! While it sounds like the perfect fix for those who want a club experience minus the calories of cocktails, can it really work for you? We get experts to comment.


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 Inactivity is taking its toll on human beings. As fitness professionals, we are keenly aware that society is fascinated with the human body—with losing fat, specifically—and yet, getting people to exercise is still a major obstacle. Obesity, a significant and growing health problem, has been associated with heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and hyperinsulinemia, among other conditions. The numbers speak louder than words. Overweight is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9, obesity as having a BMI equal to or greater than 30. Fifty-five to 60 percent of adults over the age of 18 have a BMI of at least 25; approximately 22 percent have a BMI of 30 or higher (Jakicic et al. 2001).


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A brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test measures how your brain processes the sounds you hear. The BAER test records your brainwaves in response to clicks or other audio tones that are played for you. The test is also called a brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) or auditory brainstem response (ABR) test.


A BAER test can help to diagnose hearing loss and nervous system disorders, especially in newborns, young children, and others who may not be able to participate in a standard hearing test.


BAER tests are often administered to canines and are the only scientifically reliable way to test a dog’s ability to hear with one or both ears.

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A somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) is an evoked potential caused by a physical stimulus (usually a small electric pulse). Electrodes positioned over particular areas of the body record responses of the SSEP, these are then observed as a reading on an electroencephalogram (EEG).  A SSEP can most commonly involve stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist, or the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle. This investigation therefore tests the pathway of the sensory nerves to the sensory areas of the brain, even though the stimuli are non-physiological.


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Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) are electric signals recorded from the scalp or spine following stimulation to the peripheral nerves. They are time-locked responses, representing the function of the ascending sensory pathways. Early in the 1960s Larson et al introduced the use of somatosensory evoked potentials to monitor neural structure during neurosurgical procedures. It was utilized as a supplement to the wake-up test during correctional spinal surgeries for spinal deformities such as scoliosis to provide warning of compromised spinal cord function to the spine surgeons, as reported by McCallum et al and Nash et al in the 1970s. Since then SSEP has become one of the earliest and primary tools for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.


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Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) are electrical responses recorded from the nervous system following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve.  For example, stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist produces electrical activity that travels along the sensory pathway on its way to the brain. This activity can be recorded with electrodes positioned along that pathway.


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Visual Evoked Potential/ Response (VEP/VER) measures the electrical signal generated at visual cortex in response to visual stimulation. The visual cortex is primarily activated by the central visual field and there is a large presentation of the macula at occipital cortex. VEP depends on integrity of visual pathway including eye, optic nerve, chiasma, optic tract, optic radiation and cerebral cortex. Standard International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) protocols[1] assess the anterior visual pathway (eye, optic nerve anterior to the optic chiasma). For dysfunctions of posterior visual pathway extended multi-channel protocols are needed.


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Color Doppler is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible Pathology or Lesions. Colour Doppler is also used for the following applications:-

Carotid Colour Doppler to detect risk of stroke and paralysis by   evaluating the vessels   in the neck that supply blood to the brain.  Peripherial Arterial Colour Doppler.

Peripherial Venous Colour Doppler for detection of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).

Renal Doppler (especially for hypertensive patients and diabetics).

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You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner.


While inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you.


A computer creates many separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the head and neck area can be created by stacking the slices together.


You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.


Complete scans usually take only a few seconds. The newest scanners can image your entire body, head to toe, in less than 30 seconds.

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Direct examination via endoscopy remains the criterion standard for evaluation of laryngotracheobronchial pathologic conditions. Endoscopy allows for easy visualization and accurate diagnosis of mucosal and superficial submucosal lesions. However, the evaluation of deeper structures is capable only through CT imaging or MRI. CT imaging has become the most commonly used technique for general laryngeal imaging. It is readily available at most hospitals and even at some outpatient centers. The acquisition time for a CT image is extremely short (within a matter of seconds), which is quite useful for the laryngeal examination, as patients are generally required to hold their breath to reduce movement. [1, 2]


Nevertheless, small lesions may still be difficult to visualize. In these cases, active techniques such as the Valsalva maneuver and phonation can better delineate masses of the hypoglottis and vocal cords, respectively.


MRI has also become more widely available in the past decade, although it has not surpassed CT scanning for conventional laryngeal imaging. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages. For example, CT and MRI appear to be comparable in efficacy for defining the site and extent of disease in fat and muscle. MRI, however, is more sensitive for detecting pathologic involvement of cartilage (Glastonbury). CT imaging is best for evaluation of occult fractures and dislocations during laryngeal trauma. Furthermore, MRI seems to be the optimal method for examining cooperative patients, especially for preoperative larynx evaluation when partial laryngectomy is considered. CT imaging is more useful in patients who cannot lie still for the study (eg, inebriated, combative). The imaging study performed usually depends on the experience of the radiologist. Additionally, MRI avoids radiation exposure. For more information, please see the Medscape Reference articleMR Imaging of the Larynx.

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Ankle pain and ankle injuries are common. Physicians must carefully eliminate other conditions before making an ankle arthritis diagnosis. Physicians use a comprehensive approach that is verified by diagnostic imaging to arrive at a clinical diagnosis.Below is a description of the process physicians use to determine if a patient’s symptoms are caused by ankle osteoarthritis.

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Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has opened new horizons in the diagnosis and treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases of the ankle and foot. It demonstrates abnormalities in the bones and soft tissues before they become evident at other imaging modalities. The exquisite soft-tissue contrast resolution, noninvasive nature, and multiplanar capabilities of MR imaging make it especially valuable for the detection and assessment of a variety of soft-tissue disorders of the ligaments (eg, sprain), tendons (tendinosis, peritendinosis, tenosynovitis, entrapment, rupture, dislocation), and other soft-tissue structures (eg, anterolateral impingement syndrome, sinus tarsi syndrome, compressive neuropathies [eg, tarsal tunnel syndrome, Morton neuroma], synovial disorders). MR imaging has also been shown to be highly sensitive in the detection and staging of a number of musculoskeletal infections including cellulitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and osteomyelitis. In addition, MR imaging is excellent for the early detection and assessment of a number of osseous abnormalities such as bone contusions, stress and insufficiency fractures, osteochondral fractures, osteonecrosis, and transient bone marrow edema. MR imaging is increasingly being recognized as the modality of choice for assessment of pathologic conditions of the ankle and foot.


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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within the knee joint. It is typically used to help diagnose or evaluate pain, weakness, swelling or bleeding in and around the joint. Knee MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and it can help determine whether you require surgery. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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Head and neck MRI uses a strong magnetic field combined with radiofrequency waves to create highly detailed, cross-sectional images of internal structures in the head and neck area; these scans are examined for abnormalities. For certain studies, an MRI contrast dye such as gadolinium may be injected to provide better definition of soft tissues and blood vessels and thus enhance the images. Head and neck MRI is used to detect abnormalities outside of the skull.


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 Ultrasound imaging of the head uses sound waves to produce pictures of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. It is most commonly performed on infants, whose skulls have not completely formed. A transcranial Doppler ultrasound evaluates blood flow in the brain’s major arteries. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation.This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Your doctor will instruct you on how to prepare, including whether adults undergoing the exam should refrain from using nicotine-based products that may cause blood vessels to constrict. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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 X-ray beams are passed through the abdomen, producing images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder on a special type of film. KUB radiography is often used as a first step in diagnosing problems of the urinary system, and is usually done in conjunction with intravenous pyelography.

 

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Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland within the neck. It does not use ionizing radiation and is commonly used to evaluate lumps or nodules found during a routine physical or other imaging exam.This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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17-ketosteroids are substances that form when the body breaks down male steroid sex hormones called androgens and other hormones released by the adrenal glands in males and females, and by the testes in males.

A 24-hour urine sample is needed. You will need to collect your urine over 24 hours. Your health care provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly to ensure accurate results.

Your provider will ask you to temporarily stop any medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about all the medicines you take. These include:

1.Antibiotics

2.Aspirin (if you are on long-term aspirin)

3.Birth control pills

4.Diuretics (water pills)

5.Estrogen..


Increased levels of 17-ketosteroids may be due to:

1.Adrenal gland problems such as tumor, Cushing syndrome

2.Imbalance of sex hormones in females (polycystic ovary syndrome)

3.Ovarian cancer

4.Testicular cancer


Decreased levels of 17-ketosteroids may be due to:

1.Adrenal glands not making enough of their hormones (Addison disease)

2.Kidney damage

3.Pituitary gland not making enough of its hormones (hypopituitarism)

4.Removal of the testicles (castration)

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Approximately 90% of patients with myasthenia gravis MG) express antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (aChR), which can be divided into binding, blocking, and modulating antibody. Binding antibody can activate complement and lead to loss of aChR. Blocking antibody may impair aChR binding to the receptor, leading to poor muscle contraction. Modulating antibody causes receptor endocytosis resulting in loss of aChR expression, which correlates most closely with clinical severity of disease. Approximately 10% of individuals with confirmed myasthenia gravis have no measurable binding, blocking, or modulating antibody. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease in which an acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is the antibody target. The AChR in the motor end-plate of skeletal muscle is an integral membrane protein consisting of five subunits (a pentamer). The alpha chain carries both the binding site for cholinergic ligands (binding site for acetylcholine and bungarotoxin) and the main immunogenic region, a region against which a majority of the antibodies of MG patients are directed. In MG, acetylcholine-dependent neuromuscular transmission is impaired by a loss of signal transduction. The final result is that threshold potential in the cell is never reached and the muscle cannot contract. The patient experiences voluntary muscle weakness and fatigue characteristic of the disease, as well as difficulty in swallowing, diplopia, ptosis (in ocular MG), and, in severe cases, death. Individuals who manifest AChR antibodies generally do not express a single, monoclonal antibody population. The antibody population is divided into three classes: • Binding • Blocking • Modulating Binding antibodies are those that are epitopically directed toward the large hydrophilic domain of the receptor. This class of antibodies can activate the complement cascade, resulting in tissue damage and receptor loss. The AChR binding antibody radioimmunoassay detects a wide population of autoantibodies. The use of soluble receptor measures not only antibody directed against the extracellular region of the receptor, presumably the portion involved in the pathophysiology of the disease, but intracellular determinants of the receptor not normally exposed to immunoglobulins. The assay is incapable of differentiating general binding antibodies from the more specific modulating population. Moreover, the binding assay does not easily measure a blocking population. Blocking autoantibodies prevent the binding of acetylcholine to the receptor. They may act by direct steric interference or by an allosteric mechanism. The pathology associated with this type of antibody will result in the most rapid loss of receptor function. Modulating antibodies as a class accelerate endocytosis, resulting in loss of receptors. It is largely this class of antibodies to which clinical severity has been most closely associated. In fifty-three percent of samples with any measurable autoantibody, all three antibody populations were present. Addition of blocking and modulating antibody assays to the binding assay increased the number of samples that tested positive by approximately 10 percent. Studies show that the presence of modulating antibody generally compares more closely to disease severity than either binding or blocking classes. Drachman et al showed that the blocking population has a disease severity correlation nearly as high as that of modulating antibodies (88% vs. 91%). Approximately 90 percent of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) express antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which can be divided into binding, blocking, and modulating antibody. Binding antibody can activate complement and lead to loss of AChR. Blocking antibody may impair AChR binding to the receptor, leading to poor muscle contraction. Modulating antibody causes receptor endocytosis resulting in loss of AChR expression, which correlates most closely with clinical severity of disease. Approximately 10 percent of individuals with confirmed myasthenia gravis have no measurable binding, blocking, or modulating antibody.


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Are you in search of how to make your eyelashes grow?  Like the hair on your scalp. eyelashes naturally grow in cycles and have a genetically determined growth phase which determines the full potential your lashes can reach.  However, only about 24% of your eyelashes ever reach full length? That’s because your lashes will sustain damage from curling, cleansing, wearing makeup and encountering environmental elements over time. So, while you may not be able to reverse damage to your eyelashes. You can learn how to protect and condition them so they can reach their full fluttery potential.

Infinite Lash has a revolutionary formula infused with a blend of vitamins, minerals, polypeptides, and botanicals that nourish and rejuvenate your natural lashes. It also contains natural antioxidants that protect against dryness and damage.

Not all of us are blessed with long, thick, luscious lashes but here are some essential tips you could try – if you ever wanted to know how to make your eyelashes grow.


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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein that is produced in early fetal life by the liver and by a variety of tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the ovary and testis (eg, yolk sac and embryonal carcinoma). Most studies report elevated AFP concentrations in approximately 70% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Elevated AFP concentrations are found in 50% to 70% of patients with nonseminomatous testicular tumors.(1)


AFP is elevated during pregnancy. Persistence of AFP in the mother following birth is a rare hereditary condition.(2) Neonates have markedly elevated AFP levels (>100,000 ng/mL) that rapidly fall to below 100 ng/mL by 150 days and gradually return to normal over their first year.(2)


Concentrations of AFP above the reference range also have been found in serum of patients with benign liver disease (eg, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis), gastrointestinal tract tumors and, along with carcinoembryonic antigen in ataxia telangiectasia.

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For several decades, nonspecific methods, which depend upon raised globulin levels, have been used in the diagnosis of VL. Some of the tests used for detecting these nonspecific immunoglobulins are Napier's formol gel or aldehyde test and the Chopra antimony test. Since these tests depend upon raised globulin levels, results can be positive in a host of conditions (13, 14). Lack of specificity, as well as varying sensitivities, renders them highly unreliable.


Several immunodiagnostic methods which are more sensitive and specific have been developed. They are useful in identifying specific cases and can be used for community surveillance. The human body makes an attempt to fight against VL by producing some of the highest levels of antibodies found in response to any disease, all to no avail. This is due to polyclonal activation of the B cells, resulting in marked elevation of levels (in serum) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM against various nonspecific proteins and haptens (23). The consistent presence of high levels of antibodies against parasite antigens can simplify diagnosis of VL. Several serological techniques are based on detection of these antibodies. The specificity of the antibody depends upon the antigen or epitope used in the test, as the parasite stimulates production of a wide array of antibodies, including group-, genus-, and species-specific antibodies. Therefore, the sensitivity may depend upon the test and its methodology, but the specificity will depend on the antigen rather than the serological procedure used. In most serological tests, the sensitivity and specificity data are compared against demonstration of parasites in various tissues.


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Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase is one of the isoenzymes of Alkaline Phosphatase.

Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphataseit is associated with osteoblast cell function and thought to have a role in bone mineralization.

The measurement of Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase provides information useful in the evaluation and treatment of people with Paget’s disease, osteoporosis, and metastases to bone.

Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is the bone-specific isoform of alkaline phosphatase. A glycoprotein that is found on the surface of osteoblasts, BAP reflects the biosynthetic activity of these bone-forming cells. BAP has been shown to be a sensitive and reliable indicator of bone metabolism.(1)

Normal bone is constantly undergoing remodeling in which bone degradation or resorption is balanced by bone formation. This process is necessary for maintaining bone health. If the process becomes uncoupled and the rate of resorption exceeds the rate of formation, the resulting bone loss can lead to osteoporosis and, consequently, a higher susceptibility to fractures.

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and abnormal bone microarchitecture. It can result from a number of clinical conditions including states of high bone turnover, endocrine disorders (primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and thyrotoxicosis), osteomalacia, renal failure, gastrointestinal diseases, long-term corticosteroid therapy, multiple myeloma, and cancer metastatic to the bones.

Paget disease is another common metabolic bone disease caused by excessive rates of bone remodeling resulting in local lesions of abnormal bone matrix. These lesions can result in fractures or neurological involvement. Antiresorptive therapies are used to restore the normal bone structure.



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The skin of the inner forearm is the usual test site for allergy testing using the Skin Prick Test method. One can also take a blood sample for allergy testing and measure Total Immunoglobulin E (IgE) which is the marker antibody for allergy sensitisation. Then there are the Phadiatop inhalant screen, Food Allergy screens and over 450 individual RAST or ImmunoCAP tests available.


We can quantify allergy severity with another cellular marker, this is the Eosinophil cell in the blood stream. Eosinophils are also found in the allergy sufferer’s phlegm, gullet secretions and nasal mucous. Lung function tests are important in asthma diagnosis, and tests include Peak Flow (PF), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). Measurement of Nitric Oxide (NO) in exhaled air is another measure of allergic inflammation and indicates poor control or ineffective treatment

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Chikungunya virus (ChikV) is a single-stranded RNA alphavirus and a member of the Togaviridae family of viruses. The name Chikungunya is derived from the language of the Makonde ethnic groups in southeast Africa and means "that which bends" or "stooped walk." This is in reference to the hunched-over appearance of infected individuals due to the characteristically painful and incapacitating arthralgia caused by the virus. ChikV is endemic throughout Africa, India, and more recently the Caribbean islands. In 2014, the first case of autochthonous or local transmission in the United States occurred in Florida. 


Humans are the primary reservoir for ChikV and Aedes species mosquitos are the primary vectors for transmission. Unlike other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue, the majority of individuals who are exposed to ChikV become symptomatic, with the most severe manifestations observed at the extremes of age and in those with suppressed immunity. Once exposed to ChikV virus, individuals develop lasting immunity and protection from reinfection.


The incubation period, prior to development of symptoms, ranges on average from 3 to 7 days. Infected patients typically present with sudden onset high fever, incapacitating joint pain, and often a maculopapular rash lasting anywhere from 3 to 10 days. Notably, symptom relapse can occur in some individuals 2 to 3 months following resolution of initial symptoms. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines and treatment is strictly supportive care.

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When pregnancy screening tests are abnormal; whenever signs of a chromosomal abnormality-associated disorder are present; as indicated to detect chromosomal abnormalities in a person and/or detect a specific abnormality in family members; sometimes when a person has leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, myelodysplasia or another cancer and an acquired chromosome abnormality is suspected

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Coxsackie viruses are enteroviruses belonging to the Picornavirus family, which is comprised of strains A and B as well as various serotypes A1-22, 24, and B1-6. Following incubation, a variety of well known diseases can manifest themselves within the host. Coxsackie A is commonly associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease, which primarily affects children younger than 10 years of age. In rare cases, Coxsackie infections may produce mild or subclinical symptoms, yet most infections trigger the onset of flu-like ailments but may include symptoms of other diseases along the lines of pneumonia, hepatitis, and meningitis.
A positive test result does not necessarily indicate current or recent infection as antibodies to Coxsackie species can be detected in uninfected individuals due to moderate passive exposure to infected hosts. It is, therefore, crucial that results from all Coxsackie A serologies correlate with the clinical history of the patient and all other data available to the physician. Samples collected at the early stage of infection (primarily in children) may not yield detectable antibodies. If a recent infection is suspected, a second specimen should be collected 10 to 20 days following the initial collection and tested.
Coxsackie A viruses are mainly associated with human hand, foot and mouth disease.
Coxsackie Bviruses can cause mild signs and symptoms, similar to a "cold", but these viruses also can lead to more serious diseases, including myocarditis (inflammation of the heart); pericarditis (inflammation of the sac lining the heart); meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that line the brain and spinal cord); and pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas).
Infection is common but most frequent in summer and autumn in temperate climates but all year round in the tropics. They tend to affect those under 16 but adults are also affected. Spread is usually from the faeco-oral route with an incubation period of 2 to 6 days.

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Creatine Kinase Total test is performed on a sample of blood to measure level of Creatine Kinase in blood.It is performed to confirm Myocardial Infraction, Myocardial Injury and Skeletal Muscle Injury and also during treatment and after treatment of Myocardial Infraction, Myocardial Injury and Skeletal Muscle Injury.

Also known as

CK - Total Spectrophotometric method Blood, CPK - Total, Creatine Phosphokinase Total Spectrophotometric method Blood, Serum CPK Test, CK - Total, Creatine Kinase Total, Creatine Phosphokinase Total, Serum CPK.

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Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) is a form of an enzyme found primarily in heart muscle cells. This test measures CK-MB in the blood.


CK-MB is one of three forms (isoenzymes) of the enzyme creatine kinase (CK). These isoenzymes include:


CK-MM (found in skeletal muscles and the heart)

CK-MB (found mostly in the heart, but small amounts found in skeletal muscles)

CK-BB (found mostly in the brain and smooth muscle, such as the intestines and uterus)

CK is released from muscle cells and is detectable in the blood whenever there is muscle damage. The small amount of CK that is normally in the blood is primarily CK-MM. CK-BB almost never gets into the blood, and CK-MB will typically only be present in significant amounts when the heart is damaged. A CK test measures the total level but does not distinguish between the three isoenzymes. When there is an increased amount of CK present in the blood, the CK-MB test can be used to determine whether it is due to heart damage or is more likely to be related to skeletal muscle injury.

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Freckles, sometimes called ephelides (singular ephelis), are clusters of concentrated melaninized cells which are most easily visible on people with a fair complexion. Freckles do not have an increased number of the melanin-producing cells, or melanocytes, but instead have melanocytes that overproduce melanin granules (melanosomes) changing the coloration of the outer skin cells (keratinocytes). As such, freckles are different from lentigines and moles


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Fungal Smear test is performed on a sample of skin to measure the level of Fungal Smear (Skin) in the skin.It is performed to confirm Fungal Infection of Skin and also during the treatment and after the treatment of Fungal Infection of Skin and Immunosuppressive Condition.

No special preparation is needed for Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin. Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin. Your doctor depending on your condition will give specific instructions.

The normal result for Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin for Fungal Smear (Skin) is A normal KOH test result shows no Fungi. A stained slide fluoresce is observed if positive for fungus. A positive test indicates Fungal infection but it cannot identify the organism. If KOH test is positive then, specimen is inoculated into culture media. for Unisex gender and for All age groups.


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Inhibin is a hormone secreted by granulosa cells in the ovarian follicles and by Sertoli cells in the testis. Its physiological role is to suppress secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by the pituitary.Inhibin exists as two different isoforms, inhibin A and inhibin B. Both isoforms are comprised of 2 subunits, the alpha and beta subunits. The alpha subunit is the same for both inhibin A and B, but the beta subunit differs. Inhibin A contains a beta-A subunit and inhibin B contains a beta-B subunit. Plasma levels of inhibin A and B fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. At menopause, serum inhibin A and B decrease to very low or undetectable levels.


Ninety five percent of ovarian cancers are derived from epithelial cells. The remaining 5% are germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors. Inhibin A is elevated up to 6 times the upper limit of the reference range in approximately 70% of granulosa cell tumors. Inhibin A is also elevated in about 20% of patients with epithelial tumors of the mucinous type. Inhibin is a better tumor marker for these two types of ovarian cancer than cancer antigen 125 (CA 125). Inhibin A is most useful as a tumor marker in postmenopausal women, because plasma levels are normally very low. Inhibin A levels are much harder to interpret in premenopausal women, because plasma levels are higher and fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle. Because of its low sensitivity, a normal inhibin A level does not rule-out a mucinous or granulosa ovarian cell tumor. Inhibin B might be elevated in these cases.


Inhibin A level decreases shortly after surgery for ovarian cancer. Patients in remission have normal levels of inhibin A. Elevations of inhibin A after treatment are suggestive of residual or recurrent disease. Inhibin A may become elevated prior to onset of clinical symptoms. Inhibin A levels are increased in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia and Down syndrome.Specimen requirement is blood collected into a red top tube. Reference range using a Beckman Coulter Unicel chemiluminescent assay is <2.1 pg/mL for males, <97.5 pg/mL for premenopausal females and <6.9 pg/mL for postmenopausal females. 


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The cobalamins, also referred to as vitamin B12, are a group of closely related enzymatic cofactors involved in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A and in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia and neurological deficits. The latter may exist without anemia, or precede it. Adequate replacement therapy will generally improve or cure cobalamin deficiency. Unfortunately, many other conditions, which require different interventions, can mimic the symptoms and signs of vitamin B12 deficiency. Moreover, even when cobalamin deficiency has been established, clinical improvement may require different dosages or routes of vitamin B12 replacement, depending on the underlying cause. In particular, patients with pernicious anemia (PA), possibly the commonest type of cobalamin deficiency in developed countries, require either massive doses of oral vitamin B12 or parenteral replacement therapy. The reason is that in PA patients suffer from gastric mucosal atrophy, most likely caused by a destructive autoimmune process. This results in diminished or absent gastric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor (IF) production. Gastric acid and pepsin are required for liberation of cobalamin from binding proteins, while IF binds the free vitamin B12, carries it to receptors on the ileal mucosa, and facilitates its absorption. Most PA patients have autoantibodies against gastric parietal cells or intrinsic factor, with the latter being very specific but only present in approximately 50% of cases. By contrast, parietal cell antibodies are found in approximately 90% of PA patients, but are also found in a significant proportion of patients with other autoimmune diseases, and in approximately 2.5% (4th decade of life) to approximately 10% (8th decade of life) of healthy individuals.


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Visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar) is a disseminated intracellular protozoal infection that targets primarily the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen, bone marrow) and is caused by Leishmania donovani, Leishmania chagasi, or Leishmania infantum (Leishmania donovani complex).  Transmission is by the bite of sandflies. Clinical symptoms include fever, weight loss, and splenomegaly; pancytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia are often present. Most (90%) new cases each year arise in rural areas of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sudan, and Brazil but the disease has a worldwide distribution, including the Middle East.  Definitive diagnosis has required the microscopic documentation of characteristic intracellular amastigotes in stained smears from culture of aspirates of tissue (spleen, lymph node) or bone marrow. The detection of serum antibodies to the recombinant K39 antigen of Leishmania donovani is an alternative noninvasive sensitive (95%-100%) method for the diagnosis of active, visceral leishmaniasis.


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A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) test is a laboratory test that can be conducted on a sample of your blood. Your doctor can order it to measure the amount of alkaline phosphatase, a group of enzymes, in certain white blood cells. Before the advent of more advanced tests, the LAP test was commonly use to diagnose chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This is a type of cancer than affects white blood cells. If you have CML, the level of alkaline phosphatase in your white blood cells will be lower than normal. Some doctors still order the LAP test to check for signs of CML. It can also help them rule out other disorders. But it’s now generally accepted that a cytogenetic test (a test of your cells and chromosomes) is needed to confirm a CML diagnosis. As a result, the LAP test is used less often now than in the past.


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Diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease begins with a thorough physical exam, which can show an early warning sign such as an enlarged liver or spleen. Your doctor will also take a detailed medical history and discuss symptoms and family health history. Niemann-Pick disease is rare, and its symptoms can be confused with other diseases. Diagnostic techniques depend on the type of Niemann-Pick disease.

1.Type A or B. Using a blood or skin sample (biopsy), experts measure how much sphingomyelinase is in white blood cells to confirm the diagnosis.

2.Type C. Experts take a small sample of skin to test for Niemann-Pick to assess how the cells move and store cholesterol.


Other tests also may be done, such as:

1.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI of the brain may show loss of brain cells. But in the early stages of Niemann-Pick, an MRI may be normal because symptoms typically occur before the loss of brain cells.

2.Eye exam. An eye exam can show signs that may be an indication of Niemann-Pick disease, such as eye movement difficulties.

3.Genetic testing. DNA testing of a blood sample may show the specific abnormal genes that cause Niemann-Pick types A, B and C. DNA tests can show who the carriers are for all types of Niemann-Pick disease if the mutations have been described in the first person identified in a family (the index case).

4.Prenatal testing. Ultrasound can detect the enlarged liver and spleen that's caused by type C. And amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling may be used to confirm a diagnosis of Niemann-Pick.


No cure exists for Niemann-Pick disease. No effective treatment is available to people with type A or B. For people with mild to moderate type C, a drug called miglustat (Zavesca) may be an option. An international study of 92 people with type C Niemann-Pick showed improved neurological symptoms after taking miglustat regularly for an average of two years.

Physical therapy is an important part of treatment to help maintain mobility as long as possible. People with Niemann-Pick disease need to see their doctors regularly, because the disease progresses and symptoms worsen.


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The packed cell volume (PCV) is a measurement of the proportion of blood that is made up of cells. The value is expressed as a percentage or fraction of cells in blood. For example, a PCV of 40% means that there are 40 millilitres of cells in 100 millilitres of blood. 
Red blood cells account for nearly all the cells in the blood. The PCV rises when the number of red blood cells increases or when the total blood volume is reduced, as in dehydration. The PCV falls to less than normal, indicating anaemia, when your body decreases its production of red blood cells or increases its destruction of red blood cells.

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Don’t wait to get help if you experience any of these heart attack warning signs. Although some heart attacks are sudden and intense, most start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort. Pay attention to your body .


Chest discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain.

Discomfort in other areas of the upper body. Symptoms can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach.

Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort.

Other signs may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness.

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Heatstroke is a condition caused by your body overheating, usually as a result of prolonged exposure to or physical exertion in high temperatures. This most serious form of heat injury, heatstroke, can occur if your body temperature rises to 104 F (40 C) or higher. The condition is most common in the summer months.


Heatstroke requires emergency treatment. Untreated heatstroke can quickly damage your brain, heart, kidneys and muscles. The damage worsens the longer treatment is delayed, increasing your risk of serious complications or death.

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There are many questions regarding safe s*x and the spread of STD, an infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. Confusion often arises around how exactly AIDS spreads, as it is often generalized to “bodily fluids.” However, this categorization is too broad when considering hickey and the risks for HIV. You cannot contract it from the exchange of saliva through kissing or giving or receiving hickey. Hickeys, or “love bites,” are bruises and do not break the skin, so there is not access to the bloodstream. Even if the skin were to break, HIV could not spread through saliva. To be infected with HIV, already infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions must enter your body.

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Itchy skin is an uncomfortable, irritating sensation that makes you want to scratch. Also known as pruritus (proo-RIE-tus), itchy skin is usually caused by dry skin. It's common in older adults, as skin tends to become drier with age.

Depending on the cause of your itchy skin, it may appear normal. Or it may be red or rough or have bumps or blisters. Repeated scratching can cause raised, thickened areas of skin that may bleed or become infected.

Self-care measures such as moisturizing, using anti-itch products and taking cool baths can help relieve itchy skin. Long-term relief requires identifying and treating the cause of itchy skin. Itchy skin treatments include medications, wet dressings and light therapy.


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Tinea cruris, most commonly known as jock itch, is a fungal infection of the skin. It belongs to a group of fungal skin infections called tinea. Like other tinea infections, jock itch is caused by mold-like fungi, which are known as dermatophytes. These microscopic fungi naturally live on the skin as well as on the hair and nails. They’re typically harmless, but they can multiply quickly and cause infections when they’re allowed to thrive in warm, moist areas. This is why jock itch usually develops in the skin around the groin, inner thighs, and buttocks.Jock itch is most common in men and adolescent boys. The infection causes a rash that often itches or burns. The affected areas can also be red, flaky, or scaly.Though jock itch can be bothersome, it’s typically a mild infection. Treating it quickly will minimize symptoms and keep the infection from spreading. Most people find relief simply by applying topical antifungal medications and by keeping the affected area clean and dry.


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When skin is injured, fibrous tissue called scar tissue forms over the wound to repair and protect the injury. In some cases, scar tissue grows excessively, forming smooth, hard growths called keloids. Keloids can be much larger than the original wound. They’re most commonly found on the chest, shoulders, earlobes, and cheeks. However, keloids can affect any part of the body. Although keloids aren’t harmful to your health, they may create cosmetic concerns.

 
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A keloid is an abnormal proliferation of scar tissue that forms at the site of cutaneous injury (eg, on the site of a surgical incision or trauma); it does not regress and grows beyond the original margins of the scar. Keloids should not be confused with hypertrophic scars, which are raised scars that do not grow beyond the boundaries of the original wound and may reduce over time. [1] See the image below.

keloids are benign dermal fibroproliferative tumors with no malignant potential. The first description of abnormal scar formation in the form of keloids was recorded in the Smith papyrus regarding surgical techniques in Egypt around 1700 BC. [2] The term keloid, meaning "crab claw," was first coined by Alibert in 1806, in an attempt to illustrate the way the lesions expand laterally from the original scar into normal tissue. [3] Since that time, physicians have attempted to characterize normal scars, hypertrophic scars, and keloids.


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Keratosis pilaris (ker-uh-TOE-sis pih-LAIR-is) is a common, harmless skin condition that causes dry, rough patches and tiny bumps, usually on the upper arms, thighs, cheeks or buttocks. The bumps generally don't hurt or itch.Keratosis pilaris is often considered a variant of normal skin. It can't be cured or prevented. But you can treat it with moisturizers and prescription creams to help improve the appearance of the skin. The condition usually disappears by age 30.


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When you know the symptoms of chronic kidney disease (CKD), you can get treatment and feel your best. CKD symptoms can be subtle. Some people don’t have any symptoms — or don’t think they do. If you have one or more of the 15 symptoms below, or worry about kidney problems, see a doctor for blood and urine tests. Many of the symptoms on this list can be caused by other health problems. The only way to know the cause of YOUR symptoms is to see your doctor.




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The cause of chronic kidney disease isn't always known. But any condition or disease that damages blood vessels or other structures in the kidneys can lead to kidney disease. The most common causes of chronic kidney disease are:

Diabetes . High blood sugar levels caused by diabetes damage blood vessels in the kidneys. If the blood sugar level remains high over many years, this damage gradually reduces the function of the kidneys.
High blood pressure (hypertension). Uncontrolled high blood pressure damages blood vessels, which can lead to damage in the kidneys. And blood pressure often rises with chronic kidney disease, so high blood pressure may further damage kidney function even when another medical condition initially caused the disease.

 

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Kidney stones (renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis) are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys.Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.

Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they're recognized in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances — for example, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or cause complications — surgery may be needed.Your doctor may recommend preventive treatment to reduce your risk of recurrent kidney stones if you're at increased risk of developing them again.


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When you get a kidney transplant, a healthy kidney is placed inside your body to do the work your own kidneys can no longer do.  On the plus side, there are fewer limits on what you can eat and drink, but you should follow a heart-healthy diet. Your health and energy should improve.  In fact, a successful kidney transplant may allow you to live the kind of life you were living before you got kidney disease. Studies show that people with kidney transplants live longer than those who remain on dialysis.On the minus side, there are the risks of surgery.  You will also need to take anti-rejection medicines for as long as your new kidney is working, which can have side effects.  You will have a higher risk for infections and certain types of cancer.Although most transplants are successful and last for many years, how long they last can vary from one person to the next. Many people will need more than one kidney transplant during a lifetime.

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Our bodies produce several kinds of wastes, including sweat, carbon dioxide gas, feces (stool or poop), and urine (pee). These wastes leave the body in different ways. Sweat is released through pores in the skin. Water vapor and carbon dioxide are exhaled from the lungs. And undigested food materials are formed into feces in the intestines and excreted from the body as solid waste in bowel movements.

Urine, which is produced by the kidneys, contains the byproducts of metabolism — salts, toxins, and water — that end up in the blood. The kidneys and urinary tract (which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra) filter and eliminate these waste substances from our blood. Without the kidneys, waste products and toxins would soon build up in the blood to dangerous levels.


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Knee pain is a common complaint that affects people of all ages. Knee pain may be the result of an injury, such as a ruptured ligament or torn cartilage. Medical conditions — including arthritis, gout and infections — also can cause knee pain.Many types of minor knee pain respond well to self-care measures. Physical therapy and knee braces also can help relieve knee pain. In some cases, however, your knee may require surgical repair.

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His is the medical term for a definite kind of vaginal discharge that is most common during pregnancy as well as at additional times during the reproductive years. If an individual has leukorrhea, it may be a sticky as well as thick vaginal discharge that is yellow, green or white. It may vary with the menstrual cycle of the woman as her hormone levels change.

Discharges from the vagina are normally a sign of vaginal yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, or sexually transmitted diseases. Leukorrhea may or may not be an indication of the presence of an infection, and it is not normally accompanied by any other symptoms or signs, such as itching, pain, irritation or burning, or redness of the tissue. Only a qualified medical professional can advise a woman whether there is an infection.

If a woman has any type vaginal discharge which is unusual during pregnancy or at any other time, she should always consult with her primary care physician before using any over-the-counter therapy or home remedies.


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If you are concerned about your uneven tone complexion or pigmentation spots on your face, you have come to the right place. In this article you will find tips about how to lighten skin naturally.By following our skin lightening tips you can get even tone skin complexion with lighter and brighter skin. We will tell you about natural skin lightening tips that can actually make a difference.


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The pathophysiology of lower back pain is a source of fascination, frustration, and, often, confusion by clinicians and scientists who both treat and study patients who have this problem. The statement that we do not know the origin of low back pain in the majority of cases has become a mantra to any introduction to the topic. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) Guidelines on Low Back Problems and similar guidelines in other countries have given up on attempts to define the origin of the pain in patients who have this problem and have instead resorted to differentiating between so-called Red Flag pathologic conditions and patients who have nonspecific low back pain, with or without leg symptoms.


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There are no shortcuts to growing luscious, long locks. On average, hair grows about a half an inch per month. Your general health, well-being, and genetic factors affect your rate of hair growth.You can encourage hair growth by maintaining healthy hair through a good diet and proper hair care. Certain herbs can help make your hair grow faster, too.

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A normal mole is usually an evenly colored brown, tan, or black spot on the skin. It can be either flat or raised. It can be round or oval. Moles are generally less than 6 millimeters (about ¼ inch) across (about the width of a pencil eraser). Some moles can be present at birth, but most appear during childhood or young adulthood. New moles that appear later in life should be checked by a doctor.

Once a mole has developed, it will usually stay the same size, shape, and color for many years. Some moles may eventually fade away.Most people have moles, and almost all moles are harmless. But it’s important to recognize changes in a mole – such as in its size, shape, or color – that can suggest a melanoma may be developing.


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Back pain is a common reason for absence from work and doctor visits. Although back pain may be painful and uncomfortable, it is not usually serious.

Even though back pain can affect people of any age, it is significantly more common among adults aged between 35 and 55 years. Experts say that back pain is associated with the way our bones, muscles and ligaments in our backs work and connect together.

Pain in the lower back may be linked to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, lower back muscles, abdomen and pelvic internal organs, and the skin around the lumbar area. Pain in the upper back may be due to disorders of the aorta, tumors in the chest, and spine inflammation.

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Motion sickness is the feeling you get when the motion you sense with your inner ear is different from the motion you visualize. It is a common condition that occurs in some people who travel by car, train, airplane or boat. Many people suffer from this condition if they ride on a roller coaster or other similar amusement park rides. Motion sickness progresses from a feeling of uneasiness to sweating and/or dizziness. This is usually quickly followed by nausea and/or vomiting

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Neck pain is the sensation of discomfort in the neck area. Neck pain can result from disorders of any of the structures in the neck, including the cervical vertebrae and intervertebral discs, nerves, muscles, blood vessels, esophagus, larynx, trachea, lymphatic organs, thyroid gland, or parathyroid glands. Neck pain arises from numerous different conditions and is sometimes referred to as cervical pain.

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Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, also called non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is cancer that originates in your lymphatic system, the disease-fighting network spread throughout your body. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, tumors develop from lymphocytes — a type of white blood cell.

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is more common than the other general type of lymphoma — Hodgkin lymphoma.

Many different subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma exist. The most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma

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1. The Golden Rule

Do: Make sure you always (and we mean always) remove your makeup before hitting the sheets. The skin needs to breathe overnight. And makeup prevents that, as leaving it on overnight clogs the pores which may cause blemishes and/or blackheads. Don’t possess a makeup remover? Just put some olive oil on a cotton pad and gently massage the oil onto your face to get rid of the makeup and dirt.
Don’t: Forget that exfoliation is indispensable. At least once or twice a week, exfoliate your skin to remove the layers of dead skin, sure to leave you with a more healthy glow and brighter skin. You can also apply a paste of walnut in powder form with yogurt to exfoliate your skin, as the antioxidants present in walnuts help remove dirt and promote radiant skin.
 

Never forget to exfoliate your skin and remove the makeup before calling it a night.

2. Sun and Skin

Do: Apply sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 that blocks both UVA and UVB rays. Since a lifetime of sun exposure can cause wrinkles, age spots and other skin problems, you have to protect your skin from the sun. Make sure the label reads ‘noncomedogenic’ or ‘nonacnegenic’ so that the product does not tend to block pores.  

Don’t: Skip the sunscreen, whether it's cloudy or cold outside (no excuses). If you’re heading to a beach or around reflective surfaces like snow or ice, lather your skin up with some more sunscreen with SPF of at least 30.
 

Sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 that blocks both UVA and UVB rays.

3. You are What You Eat

Do: Keep a note of what you put on your plate. Eat fresh fruits, greens, sufficient protein and vitamins. A diet rich in vitamin C and low in fats and sugar promotes radiant skin. Consider a low-sugar diet, which can keep insulin levels down, allowing cells to maintain a healthy balance.

"Don’t: Eat spicy and fermented foods, salt, citrus fruits, fried food. Instead favour blander foods such as rice, oatmeal and applesauce”, advises American author and Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad, in The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies.


Fresh fruits and greens is what healthy skin needs.

4. Sweat It Out!

Do: Exercise regularly. Running, jogging and yoga will give your body the necessary blood circulation, and also accelerate the cleansing process of your entire body. You will notice a glow on your face after working out. Racing against time? Just take a brisk walk around the block.

Don’t: Skip skincare before and after a workout. Apply a toner to help minimize oil production before heading out. Exfoliate after, and then apply shea butter or olive oil to moisturize the skin.
 
Running, jogging and yoga will accelerate the cleaning process of your body.

5. Beauty Sleep

Do: Try to sleep at least 8 hours every night. If you don’t get enough shut eye, your skin gets tired just like you - it sags and you get bags. So don’t risk it. You can also apply honey on your face twice or thrice a week to naturally soothe and heal your skin.

“Don’t: Forget to wash and moisturize your face before going to bed”, recommends Dr. Rahul Nagar, Dermatologist, Max Hospitals. “For dry skin, use milder cleansers that are free from alcohol. Apply lots of moisturizer, and avoid hot water as it dries out the skin excessively.”
 

Never forget to wash your face before sleeping and moisturize well.

6. H2O to The Rescue

Do: Hydrate yourself. Drink lots of water daily, at least 8 glasses if not more. Also, eats fruits and vegetables that have a high water content such as watermelon, cucumber, orange, strawberry, grapefruit and cantaloupe. Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad recommends to “drink water from a blue coloured bottle”, since it has a cooling effect.

Don’t: Ignore rose water. It helps prevent and reduce eye puffiness in the morning, maintains pH balance and naturally hydrates your skin if you spritz it on during the day.
 
Rose water maintains pH balance and  naturally hydrates the skin.

7. Goodbye Acne

“Do: Wash your face with warm water, three times a day, and gently massage your face in circular motions, ensuring that the cleanser contains alpha hydroxyl acid or beta hydroxyl acid. Face packs that contain multani mitti (fuller’s earth) work really well too. After cleansing, pat dry and apply a lotion which contains benzoyl peroxide”, suggests Dr. Zaheer Ahmed, Dermatologist, Max Hospitals. Benzoyl peroxide appears to be effective due to its antibacterial actions.

Don’t: Pop pimples because it can lead to more swelling, redness, and even scarring. Feel a pimple is on its way? Just clean the area with rose water, and place a chilled green tea bag for 10 minutes. Also, if you wear glasses or sunglasses, make sure you clean them frequently to keep oil from clogging the pores around your eyes and nose.
 
Never pop your pimples. Use rose water or chilled green tea bags.

8. Go Back to Your Roots

Do: Use Ayurvedic scrubs to nourish the skin, and help it breathe better. Luckily for you, everything you need is already in your kitchen. 2 tbsp chickpea flour, ½ tsp turmeric powder, a pinch of camphor and sandalwood with some rose water/milk/water is your perfect skincare pack. Yes, the secrets of beauty lies in ancient Ayurveda.

Don’t: Neglect the basics. Make Sudarshan Kriya your beauty mantra. Yes, it’s that easy. Just breathing right could rid you of spots and pimples. Nidhi Gureja, Art of Living, says “Sudarshan Kriya is a breathing technique which incorporates specific natural rhythms of the breath that harmonize the body, mind and emotions. This helps releasing accumulated stresses, and each individual’s experience is different.”
 
Sudarshan Kriya is a breathing technique which incorporates specific natural rhythms that helps in releasing accumulated stresses.

9. Spa Day Everyday?

Do: Have a regular skin care regimen. “For dry skin, use a fresh cherry mask. Apply the pulp of fresh cherries on your face before going to bed. Leave for 15 minutes and wash with lukewarm water”, adds American author Vasant Lad.

Don’t: Forget to pamper yourself. A gentle facial massage with oils could work wonders. Depending on your skin type, choose oils from mustard, coconut, almond or Kumkadi as they are excellent nourishing agents which help to get glowing skin. Better still – switch on some soothing instrumental music. After 20 minutes, what do you have? Beautiful skin and a relaxed you.

Pamper yourself occasionally with spa treatments.

10. Healthy Habits

Do: Take out time for yourself, and try to avoid stress as much as possible. Have you ever noticed that when you are stressed, you tend to break out more? This is because stress causes your body to produce cortisol and other hormones, making the skin more oily. Practice stress management techniques like breathing exercises, yoga and meditation. The more you meditate, the more you radiate.

Don’t: Neglect your jawline and facial muscles. For just 5 minutes a day, perform a few facial exercises. You can jut out your lower lip in such a way that wrinkles are created on the chin, then lower your chin to your chest. Another exercise that works wonders is to look up towards the ceiling and pout. It stretches out the muscles making the skin more firm. “18 till I die”, why not?
 
The more you meditate, the more you radiate.

You’re dressed to perfection, yet you need something to complete the look. Your smile! While we spend so much time and energy on honing our bodies and looks, we forget to express our inner joy and happiness. “Keeping a smile on your face will help maintain the tone of your facial muscles and skin. People may say you look 10 years younger than you are!”, adds the Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad.
   

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It can be a natural consequence of the ageing process, as sebum production slows down. oily skin. Oily skin is characterised by an increased amount of lipids on the skin surface due to overactive sebaceous glands. It is shiny and thick, often with enlarged pores. Oily skin is prone to blackheads and other blemishes.

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Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen. The maximum degree of symptoms occurs within minutes. Typically they last for about 30 minutes but the duration can vary from seconds to hours. There may be a fear of losing control or chest pain. Panic attacks themselves are not dangerous physically.

Panic attacks can occur due to number of disorders including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, drug use disorder, depression, and medical problems. They can either be triggered or occur unexpectedly. Risk factors include smoking and psychological stress. Diagnosis should involve ruling out other conditions that can produce similar symptoms including hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, heart disease, lung disease, and drug use.

Treatment of panic attacks should be directed at the underlying cause. In those with frequent attacks, counselling or medications may be used. Breathing training and muscle relaxation techniques may also help. Those affected are at a higher risk of suicide.
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Peeling skin syndrome (also known as "Acral peeling skin syndrome," "Continual peeling skin syndrome," "Familial continual skin peeling," "Idiopathic deciduous skin," and "Keratolysis exfoliativa congenita") is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lifelong peeling of the stratum corneum, and may be associated with pruritus, short stature, and easily removed anagen hair.
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Also called conjunctivitis. Redness or irritation of the conjunctivae, the membranes on the inner part of the eyelids and the membranes covering the whites of the eyes. These membranes react to a wide range of bacteria, viruses, allergy-provoking agents, irritants and toxic agents. Viral and bacterial forms of conjunctivitis are common in childhood.

The leading cause of a red eye is virus infection. Viral pink eye is usually associated with more of a watery discharge, not green or yellow in color, and is frequently associated with viral cold-like symptoms. The eyelids may be swollen. Sometimes looking at bright lights is painful. While viral pink eye, may not require an antibiotic, the doctor should see the child, as occasionally this form of pink eye can be associated with infection of the cornea, (the clear portion of the front of the eyeball). This infection must be correctly detected and treated. Viral pink eye is highly contagious.

The bacteria that most commonly cause pink eye are staphylococcus, pneumococcus, and streptococcus. Symptoms include eye pain, swelling, redness, and a moderate to large amount of discharge, usually yellow or greenish in color. The discharge commonly accumulates after sleep. The eyelids may be stuck together requiring a warm wash cloth applied to the eyes to remove the discharge. This bacterial pink eye responds to repeated warm wash cloths applied to the eyes and antibiotic eye drops or ointment.

Chlamydia is a form a bacterial that is an uncommon form of pink eye in the U.S., but is very common in Africa and the Middle Eastern countries. It can cause pink eye in adults and neonates. It is a cause of pink eye in adolescents and adults that can be sexually transmitted. Chlamydia pink eye is typically treated with tetracycline (except in children less than eight years old, because of possible teeth discoloration) or erythromycin.


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Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney. These cysts may begin to develop before birth or in infancy, in childhood, or in adulthood. Cysts are non-functioning tubules filled with fluid pumped into them, which range in size from microscopic to enormous, crushing adjacent normal tubules and eventually rendering them non-functional also.

PKD is caused by abnormal genes which produce a specific abnormal protein which has an adverse affect on tubule development. PKD is a general term for two types, each having their own pathology and genetic cause: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). The abnormal gene exists in all cells in the body: as a result, cysts may occur in the liver, seminal vesicles, and pancreas. This genetic defect can also cause aortic root aneurysms, and aneurysms in the circle of Willis cerebral arteries, which if they rupture, can cause a subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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Prickly heat is the common name for the medical term "miliaria rubia." It is also known as heat rash. The rash creates an area of red skin with many tiny raised bumps. This area may also blister.

The face, neck, shoulders, and chest are the most common places for prickly heat to occur, although it may show up anywhere. While it can affect anyone, children are more likely to get prickly heat than adults.

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You eat organic almost exclusively and try to steer clear of anything made of plastic (especially The 4 Most Dangerous Types Of Plastic). But there’s just one unhealthy habit you can’t shake: smoking.

You may even tell yourself that the “natural” tobacco you use isn’t as bad for you, but even without the additives found in common cigarette brands, tobacco smoke contains a panoply of dangerous chemicals such as carbon monoxide and dozens of other known carcinogens.

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Collagen and elastin help keep your skin firm. You may develop sagging skin with age as your skin loses its natural elasticity. According to Skincarephysicians.com, intrinsic aging is a natural part of the aging process that reduces collagen and elastin production in your skin. Extrinsic factors such as repetitive facial expressions, sleeping positions, smoking and sun exposure can prematurely age your skin and lead to sagging. Extreme or rapid weight loss may also contribute to saggy skin.

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Sensitive skin is a skin condition in which skin is prone to itching and irritation experienced as a subjective sensation when using cosmetics and toiletries. When questioned, over 50% of women in the UK and US, and 38% of men, report that they have sensitive skin.
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Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation.

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Skin rejuvenation helps rectify skin irregularities on the face and elsewhere on the body. La belle's Skin rejuvenation treatments have been developed considering the general needs and the various problems that could possibly affect the skin. We aim to help restore and promote the wellness of your skin and spirit. Our experts suggest the appropriate skin rejuvenation treatments after examining your skin type and identifying your requirement. Facial rejuvenation is a treatment aims to restore a youthful appearance to the human face cosmetically and can be carried out by surgical and/or non-surgical options

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A skin tag is a small growth on the skin that is usually benign (harmless). It may have a short narrow stalk which connects it to the skin. They are usually small but may grow up to a half-inch long.
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Skin  is our largest organ. If the skin of a typical 150-pound (68-kilogram) adult male were stretched out flat, it would cover about 2 square yards (1.7 square meters) and weigh about 9 pounds (4 kilograms). Our skin protects the network of muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and everything else inside our bodies. Our eyelids have the thinnest skin, the soles of our feet the thickest.


Hair  is actually a modified type of skin. Hair grows everywhere on the human body except the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and lips. Hair grows more quickly in summer than winter, and more slowly at night than during the day.


Nails  are a type of modified skin. Nails protect the sensitive tips of fingers and toes. Human nails aren't necessary for living, but they do provide support for the tips of the fingers and toes, protect them from injury, and aid in picking up small objects. Without them, we'd have a hard time scratching an itch or untying a knot. Nails can be an indicator of a person's general health, and illness often affects their growth.

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The human skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals. Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it can appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin (hairless). The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin).

Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.

In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to oily. Such skin variety provides a rich and diverse habitat for bacteria that number roughly 1000 species from 19 phyla, present on the human skin.
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A sprained ankle, also known as an twisted ankle, rolled ankle, floppy ankle, or just ankle injury, is a common injury where sprain occur on one or more ligaments of the ankle.

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Neck stiffness, stiff neck and nuchal rigidity are terms often used interchangeably to describe the medical condition when one experiences discomfort or pain when trying to turn, move, or flex the neck. Possible causes include muscle strain or sprain, cervical spine disorders, meningitis, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nuchal rigidity due to irritation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord is one of the main symptoms of meningitis.
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Stretch marks, also known as striae, are a form of scarring on the skin with an off-color hue. Over time they may diminish, but will not disappear completely. Stretch marks that form during pregnancy, usually during the last trimester, and usually on the belly, but also commonly occurring on the breasts, thighs, hips, lower back and buttocks, are known as striae gravidarum.

Stretch marks are caused by tearing of the dermis. This is often from the rapid stretching of the skin associated with rapid growth or rapid weight changes. Stretch marks may also be influenced by hormonal changes associated with puberty, pregnancy, bodybuilding, or hormone replacement therapy.

There is no evidence that creams used during pregnancy prevent stretch marks. Once they have formed there is no clearly useful treatment, though various methods have been tried.
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A stroke is a "brain attack". It can happen to anyone at any time. It occurs when blood flow to an area of brain is cut off. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of oxygen and begin to die. When brain cells die during a stroke, abilities controlled by that area of the brain such as memory and muscle control are lost.

How a person is affected by their stroke depends on where the stroke occurs in the brain and how much the brain is damaged. For example, someone who had a small stroke may only have minor problems such as temporary weakness of an arm or leg. People who have larger strokes may be permanently paralyzed on one side of their body or lose their ability to speak. Some people recover completely from strokes, but more than 2/3 of survivors will have some type of disability.

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Stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.

The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically with medical imaging such as a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan along with a physical exam. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.
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Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned. It is most often a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or from artificial sources, such as a tanning lamp found in indoor tanning beds. People who deliberately tan their skin by exposure to the sun engage in a passive recreational activity of sun bathing. Some people use chemical products which can produce a tanning effect without exposure to ultraviolet radiation, known as sunless tanning.

Moderate exposure to the sun contributes to the production of melanin and vitamin D by the body, but excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays has negative health effects, including sunburn and increased risk of skin cancer, as well as depressed immune system function and accelerated aging of the skin. Some people tan or sunburn more easily than others. This may be the result of different skin types and natural skin color, and these may be a result of genetics.

Several cases of tanning addiction have been reported by medical researchers. Though the mechanism by which tanning addiction occurs is unknown, some evidence indicates that the release of endorphins during the tanning process causes the pleasurable effects that underlie the addiction.
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Sanskrit: सूर्यनमस्कार IPA: Sun Salutation, is a Yoga warm up routine based on a sequence of gracefully linked asanas. The nomenclature refers to the symbolism of Sun as the soul and the source of all life. It was developed in the 20th century.

A yogi may develop a personalized yoga warm up routine as surya-namaskar to precede his or her asana practice.
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Black eye facts

    A black eye often results from injury to the face or the head, and is caused when blood and other fluids collect in the space around the eye. Swelling and dark discoloration result in a "black eye."
    Most black eyes are relatively minor injuries. Many heal on their own in a few days, but they may signify a more serious injury.
    The most common cause of a black eye is a blow to the eye, nose, or forehead.
    Pain and swelling are the most common signs and symptoms of a black eye.
    Call a doctor if the injured individual has changes in vision, severe pain, or swelling that does not go away, the swelling around the eyes is not related to an injury, there are signs of infection (for example, fever, warmth, redness, pus-like drainage), if the person has behavioral changes, forgetfulness or lethargy, nausea, vomiting and/or dizziness, loss of vision (especially double vision), or an inability to move the eye itself (i.e., unable to look in different directions).
    Home remedies for black eye include rest and ice applied early after the injury help to decrease swelling and pain. Do not use raw meat on an eye injury, this creates potential for infection.
    Avoid a black eye with basic injury prevention. Wear the appropriate protective gear for any athletic or work-related activity.
    Complications include traumatic iritis and uveitis, hyphema, glaucoma, orbital floor fracture (blowout fracture), and retinal detachment.

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The eyebrow is an area of thick, delicate hairs above the eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals. Their main function is hypothesized to prevent sweat, water, and other debris from falling down into the eye socket, but they are also important to human communication and facial expression. It is not uncommon for people to modify their eyebrows by means of hair addition, removal and makeup.

According to the 2016 United States census, roughly 3% of the population suffers from a disease called madarosis, which is a deficiency where individuals cannot grow eyebrows or eyelashes.
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A dark spot refers to a hyper-pigmentation of the skin commonly occurring in middle aged women. Dark spots, aka pigmentations, occur when a localized patch of melanin produced accumulates on a specific area on the skin. It can be located on the forehead, face or cheek bone area. Some dark spots could mean serious skin problems and thus you should consult a dermatologist if you become suspicious. 

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Blackheads are small bumps that appear on your skin due to clogged hair follicles. These bumps are called blackheads because the surface looks dark or black. Blackheads are a mild type of acne that usually form on the face, but they can also appear on the following body parts:


back

chest

neck

arms

shoulders

Acne affects nearly 50 million Americans and is the most common skin disorder in the United States, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions. The causes are many and can be divided into conditions that have true or perceived muscle weakness. True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy. It occurs in neuromuscular junction disorders, such as myasthenia gravis.
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Vitiligo is a long term skin condition characterized by patches of the skin losing their pigment. The patches of skin affected become white and usually have sharp margins. The hair from the skin may also become white. Inside the mouth and nose may also be involved. Typically both sides of the body are affected. Often the patches begin on areas of skin that are exposed to the sun. It is more noticeable in people with dark skin. Vitiligo may result in psychological stress and those affected may be stigmatized.

The cause is typically unknown. It is believed to be due to genetic susceptibility that is triggered by an environmental factor such that an autoimmune disease occurs. This results in the destruction of skin pigment cells. Risk factors include a family history of the condition or other autoimmune diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, alopecia areata, and pernicious anemia. It is not contagious. Vitiligo is classified into two main types: segmental and non-segmental. Most cases are non-segmental, meaning they affect both sides; and in these cases, the affected area of the skin typically expands with time. About 10% of cases are segmental, meaning they mostly involve one side of the body; and in these cases, the affected area of the skin typically does not expand with time. Diagnosis can be confirmed by tissue biopsy.

There is no known cure for vitiligo. For those with light skin, sunscreen and makeup are all that is typically recommended. Other treatment options may include steroid creams or phototherapy to darken the light patches. Alternatively, efforts to lighten the unaffected skin, such as with hydroquinone, may be tried. A number of surgical options are available for those who do not improve with other measures. A combination of treatments generally has better outcomes. Counselling to provide emotional support may be useful.

Globally about 1% of people are affected by vitiligo. Some populations have rates as high as 2–3%. Males and females are equally affected. About half show the disorder before age 20 and most develop it before age 40. Vitiligo has been described since ancient history.
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A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin or on fabric. Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of aging processes such as glycation, habitual sleeping positions, loss of body mass, or temporarily, as the result of prolonged immersion in water. Age wrinkling in the skin is promoted by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors.
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Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. They can include nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure and appropriate use of emollients. Practices that enhance appearance include the use of cosmetics, botulinum, exfoliation, fillers, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, peels, retinol therapy. Skin care is a routine daily procedure in many settings, such as skin that is either too dry or too moist, and prevention of dermatitis and prevention of skin injuries.
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If you have ever experienced any pain in your neck or back, you’ve probably heard the term “pinched nerve.” In fact, if you have seen a doctor about neck or back pain that did not go away on its own after a few weeks, you’ve probably been diagnosed with a spinal pinched nerve. A pinched nerve is often the result of any type of degenerative spine condition that causes pain and other symptoms. Though this is a common occurrence for most people at some point in their lives, a pinched nerve can be difficult to treat because there are so many potential causes for nerve compression.


The best thing you can do when you start to develop pain that you believe comes from a pinched nerve is to schedule an appointment with your doctor. If diagnosed in time, you may be able to find pain relief with several weeks or months of conservative treatment. Take a moment to read below about what causes a pinched nerve and some warning signs you should be aware of to know whether or not you should see a doctor.

As part of the body’s nervous system, nerves branch out from the brain and spinal cord to carry instructions to every area of the body. Essentially, the nerves are like electrical wires that allow signals to travel from the brain to the spinal cord to the organs and extremities, and back again.

Nerves within the brain and spinal cord are part of the central nervous system, while nerves that run from the spine to other areas of the body are called peripheral nerves. The peripheral nerves originate as nerve roots that exit the spinal cord and then branch off to spread throughout the body. The nerves that travel to muscles allow the muscles to move. Nerves also pass to the skin, providing the ability to feel.


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An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in your blood. ALP is an enzyme found throughout the body, but it is mostly found in the liver, bones, kidneys, and digestive system. When the liver is damaged, ALP may leak into the bloodstream. High levels of ALP can indicate liver disease or bone disorders.

Other names: ALP, ALK, PHOS, Alkp, ALK PHOS

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The test measures ketone levels in your urine. Normally, your body burns glucose (sugar) for energy. If your cells don't get enough glucose, your body burns fat for energy instead. This produces a substance called ketones, which can show up in your blood and urine. High ketone levels in urine may indicate diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a complication of diabetes that can lead to a coma or even death. A ketones in urine test can prompt you to get treatment before a medical emergency occurs.

Other names: ketones urine test, ketone test, urine ketones, ketone bodies

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The kidneys function as our body’s filters, cleaning the blood of waste and impurities. They also release hormones that regulate blood pressure, control production of red blood cells, and promote growth of healthy bones.

Those people who need kidney transplants have suffered from some form of kidney failure, which can be a result of diabetes, high blood pressure or a number of diseases that can be inherited. If left untreated, kidney failure can be fatal.


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Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child. Milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, either exclusively or in combination with other foods from around six months of age when solid foods may be introduced.

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Regular health exams and tests can help find problems before they start. They also can help find problems early, when your chances for treatment and cure are better. Which exams and screenings you need depends on your age, health and family history, and lifestyle choices such as what you eat, how active you are, and whether you smoke.


To make the most of your next check-up, here are some things to do before you go:

Review your family health history

Find out if you are due for any general screenings or vaccinations

Write down a list of issues and questions to take with you


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Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. The sacroiliac joints are located at the base of the low back where the sacrum (the bone directly above the tailbone) meets the iliac bones (bones on either side of the upper buttocks) of the pelvis. Chronic inflammation in these areas causes pain and stiffness in and around the spine, including the neck, middle back, lower back, and buttocks. Over time, chronic inflammation of the spine (spondylitis) can lead to a complete cementing together (fusion) of the vertebrae, a process referred to as ankylosis. Ankylosis causes loss of mobility of the spine.

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Age spots are the result of an excess production of melanin, or skin pigment. Doctors don't always know why age spots develop. Skin aging, sun exposure, or other forms of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, such as tanning beds, are all possible causes.

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You probably know that smoking tobacco isn’t great for your health. A recent report by the U.S. surgeon general attributes nearly half a million deaths annually to smoking. Your lungs are one of the organs that’s most impacted by tobacco. Here’s how smoking affects your lungs and your overall health.


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Canker sores, also called aphthous ulcers, are small, shallow lesions that develop on the soft tissues in your mouth or at the base of your gums. Unlike cold sores, canker sores don't occur on the surface of your lips and they aren't contagious. They can be painful, however, and can make eating and talking difficult.

Most canker sores go away on their own in a week or two. Check with your doctor or dentist if you have unusually large or painful canker sores or canker sores that don't seem to heal.

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An actinic keratosis (ak-TIN-ik ker-uh-TOE-sis) is a rough, scaly patch on your skin that develops from years of exposure to the sun. It's most commonly found on your face, lips, ears, back of your hands, forearms, scalp or neck.

Also known as a solar keratosis, an actinic keratosis enlarges slowly and usually causes no signs or symptoms other than a patch or small spot on your skin. These patches take years to develop, usually first appearing in people over 40.

A small percentage of actinic keratosis lesions can eventually become skin cancer. You can reduce your risk of actinic keratoses by minimizing your sun exposure and protecting your skin from ultraviolet (UV) rays.

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Chickenpox, also called varicella, is characterized by itchy red blisters that appear all over the body. A virus causes this condition. It often affects children, and was so common it was considered a childhood rite of passage.

It’s very rare to have the chickenpox infection more than once. And since the chickenpox vaccine was introduced in the mid-1990s, cases have declined.

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Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

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Chubby Cheeks is a nursery rhyme about rosy lips, curly hair and lovely blue eyes... But who is this beauty? Sing the song (or read the lyrics below) to find out!

Chubby Cheeks can be used with both boys and girls, but it actually a typical "girlish" nursery rhyme. Why not use it as a mother-daughter-thing? Try to sing "Chubby Cheek" loud next time you are driving car with your daughter? Or sing it and dance next time you are hoime alone? Good luck - and enjoy!

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Your skin care regimen and lifestyle habits are the primary predictors of your skin’s health. Some of the leading factors that take a toll on the quality and texture of your skin are stress, lack of sleep, poor nutrition, pollution, damage from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, excessive smoking and drinking alcohol.

There are thousands of skin and beauty care products that promise to give you clear and glowing skin. Instead of relying on these products, you can try some simple and easy home remedies to improve the overall health and appearance of your skin.

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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a cancer that affects a type of white blood cell called a "lymphocyte."

Lymphocytes help your body fight infection. They're made in the soft center of your bones, called the marrow. If you have CLL, your body makes an abnormally high number of lymphocytes that aren't working right.

More adults get CLL than any other type of leukemia. It usually grows slowly, so you may not have symptoms for years.

Some people never need treatment, but if you do, it can slow the disease and ease symptoms. People who get medical care live longer today, because doctors are diagnosing CLL earlier.

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