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Whiplash is a relatively common injury that occurs to a person's neck following a sudden acceleration-deceleration force that causes unrestrained, rapid forward and backward movement of the head and neck, most commonly from motor vehicle accidents. The term "whiplash" was first used in 1928. The term "railway spine" was used to describe a similar condition that was common in persons involved in train accidents prior to 1928. The term "whiplash injury" describes damage to both the bone structures and soft tissues, while "whiplash associated disorders" describes a more severe and chronic condition.Fortunately, whiplash is typically not a life threatening injury, but it can lead to a prolonged period of partial disability. There are significant economic expenses related to whiplash that can reach 30 billion dollars a year in the United States, including:medical care,disability,sick leave,lost productivity, andlitigation.While most people involved in minor motor vehicle accidents recover quickly without any chronic symptoms, some continue to experience symptoms for years after the injury. This wide variation in symptoms after relatively minor injuries has led some to suggest that, in many cases, whiplash is not so much a real physiologic injury, but that symptoms are more created as a result of potential economic gain. Many clinical studies have investigated this issue. Unfortunately, while there will always be people willing to attempt to mislead the system for personal gain, whiplash is a real condition with real symptoms.


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Whipple disease is a rare bacterial infection that most often affects your gastrointestinal system. Whipple disease interferes with normal digestion by impairing the breakdown of foods, such as fats and carbohydrates, and hampering your body's ability to absorb nutrients.Whipple disease also can infect other organs, including your brain, heart, joints and eyes.Without proper treatment, Whipple disease can be serious or fatal. However, a course of antibiotics can treat Whipple disease

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White blood cells (leukocytes) orchestrate the host response to pathogens. Leukocytes are divided into myeloid (eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils) and lymphoid (B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells) elements. Monocytes and neutrophils mediate innate immune defenses and present antigens to lymphocytes, the principal effectors of the adaptive immune system. Eosinophils and basophils defend against parasitic pathogens, play important roles in inflammation, and mediate allergic reactions.Monocytes and neutrophils, as part of innate immunity, phagocytose bacteria and debris, eliminate virus-infected cells, and destroy parasites and fungi. Phagocytosis is assisted by serum complement proteins, which adhere to pathogens and promote chemotaxis and opsonization. Monocytes mature in tissue to become macrophages, where they, along with dendritic cells and B cells, serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs) to the adaptive immune system.B and T cells, as part of adaptive immunity, confer long-term protection against pathogens, especially extracellular bacterial infections. Adaptive immunity orchestrates both antibody-mediated humoral immunity and T-cell mediated cellular cytotoxicity. B cells secrete neutralizing antigen-specific antibodies (i.e. humoral) upon stimulation by the macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells. In contrast, T cells and NK cells, upon stimulation, can directly kill aberrant cells (i.e. cell-mediated). These aberrant cells include those infected with viruses, bacteria, and fungi, tumorigenic cells, and transplanted tissue.


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Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. In many people, it's marked by a severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like "whoop."Before the vaccine was developed, whooping cough was considered a childhood disease. Now whooping cough primarily affects children too young to have completed the full course of vaccinations and teenagers and adults whose immunity has faded.Deaths associated with whooping cough are rare but most commonly occur in infants. That's why it's so important for pregnant women — and other people who will have close contact with an infant — to be vaccinated against whooping cough.

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ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about body changes and other things that can signal a problem that may need medical care. To see other pages, use the menu.Children with a Wilms tumor may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, children with a Wilms tumor do not have any of these changes. Or, the cause of a symptom may be another medical condition that is not cancer.Usually, a Wilms tumor is found before it spreads to other parts of the body. A parent or relative may notice a large lump or feel a hard mass in the child’s belly or notice that the belly is much larger than usual. In some cases, a rapid change to a larger diaper size alerts parents to the presence of a tumor. A few children have abdominal pain. However, most of the time the tumor grows without causing pain, and the child feels and appears healthy.


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Wilson's disease is a rare inherited disorder that causes copper to accumulate in your liver, brain and other vital organs. Most people with Wilson's disease are diagnosed between the ages of 5 and 35, but it can affect younger and older people, as well.Copper plays a key role in the development of healthy nerves, bones, collagen and the skin pigment melanin. Normally, copper is absorbed from your food, and excess is excreted through a substance produced in your liver (bile).But in people with Wilson's disease, copper isn't eliminated properly and instead accumulates, possibly to a life-threatening level. When diagnosed early, Wilson's disease is treatable, and many people with the disorder live normal lives.

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Most adults have 32 teeth, including 4 wisdom teeth that usually emerge between the ages of 17 and 21.

This final set of molars can play a useful part in the mouth for many people.

However, for others, if they don’t come through properly or don’t emerge at all, they may need to be removed.

Having wisdom teeth out is one of the most common dental procedures in the UK.


Wisdom Teeth


Wisdom teeth present potential problems when they are misaligned as they can position themselves horizontally, be angled toward or away from the second molars or be angled inward or outward. Poor alignment of wisdom teeth can crowd or damage adjacent teeth, the jawbone, and nerves. Wisdom teeth that lean toward the second molars make those teeth more vulnerable to decay by entrapping plaque and debris.


In addition, wisdom teeth can be entrapped completely within the soft tissue and/or the jawbone or only partially break through, or erupt, through the gum.


Teeth that remain partially or completely entrapped within the soft tissue or the jawbone are called impacted. Wisdom teeth that only partially erupt allow an opening for bacteria to enter around the tooth and cause an infection, which results in pain, swelling, jaw stiffness, and general illness. Partially erupted teeth are also more prone to tooth decay and gum disease because their hard-to-reach location and awkward positioning makes brushing and flossing difficult.

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In Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, an extra electrical pathway between your heart's upper and lower chambers causes a rapid heartbeat. The extra pathway is present at birth and fairly rare.The episodes of fast heartbeats usually aren't life-threatening, but serious heart problems can occur. Treatment can stop or prevent episodes of fast heartbeats. A catheter-based procedure (ablation) can permanently correct the heart rhythm problems.Most people with an extra electrical pathway experience no fast heartbeat. This condition, called Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, is discovered only by chance during a heart exam. Although WPW pattern is often harmless, doctors might recommend further evaluation before children with WPW pattern participate in high-intensity sports.

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A wrist fracture is a medical term for a broken wrist. The wrist is made up of eight small bones which connect with the two long forearm bones called the radius and ulna. Although a broken wrist can happen in any of these 10 bones, by far the most common bone to break is the radius. This is called a distal radius fracture by hand surgeons (Figure 1).Some wrist fractures are stable. “Non-displaced” breaks, in which the bones do not move out of place initially, can be stable. Some “displaced” breaks (which need to be put back into the right place, called “reduction” or “setting”) also can be stable enough to treat in a cast or splint. Other fractures are unstable. In unstable fractures, even if the bones are put back into position and a cast is placed, the bone pieces tend to move or shift into a bad position before they solidly heal. This can make the wrist appear crooked.Some fractures are more severe than others. Fractures that break apart the smooth joint surface or fractures that shatter into many pieces (comminuted fractures) may make the bone unstable. These severe types of fractures often require surgery to restore and hold their alignment. An open fracture occurs when a fragment of bone breaks and is forced out through the skin. This can cause an increased risk of infection in the bone.

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Wrist pain is often caused by sprains or fractures from sudden injuries. But wrist pain can also result from long-term problems, such as repetitive stress, arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome.Because so many factors can lead to wrist pain, diagnosing the exact cause can be difficult, but an accurate diagnosis is essential for proper treatment and healing.

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Yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers. Illness ranges in severity from a self-limited febrile illness to severe liver disease with bleeding. Yellow fever disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings, laboratory testing, and travel history, including the possibility of exposure to infected mosquitoes. There is no specific treatment for yellow fever; care is based on symptoms. Steps to prevent yellow fever virus infection include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and getting vaccinated.


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Dwarfism is a condition of short stature. It is defined by the advocacy group Little People of America (LPA) as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches or under, as a result of a medical or genetic condition. Although other groups may extend the criteria for certain forms of dwarfism to 5 feet, the average height of an adult with dwarfism is 4 feet.


There are two main categories of dwarfism -- disproportionate and proportionate. Disproportionate dwarfism is characterized by an average-size torso and shorter arms and legs or a shortened trunk with longer limbs. In proportionate dwarfism, the body parts are in proportion but shortened.


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Earwax blockage occurs when earwax (cerumen) accumulates in your ear or becomes too hard to wash away naturally.

Earwax is a helpful and natural part of your body's defenses. It cleans, lubricates and protects your ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria.

If earwax blockage becomes a problem, you or your doctor can take simple steps to remove the wax safely.

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Golfers elbow or medial epicondylitis is an overuse injury similar to tennis elbow (on the outside of the arm) but causing pain on the inside of the elbow instead. It is sometimes known as throwers elbow or little league elbow. We explain the symptoms, causes and treatment to return you back to full fitness in the shortest time.

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Growing pains are often described as an ache or throb in the legs — often in the front of the thighs, the calves or behind the knees. Growing pains tend to affect both legs and occur at night, and may even wake a child from sleep.


Although these pains are called growing pains, there's no evidence that growth hurts. Growing pains may be linked to a lowered pain threshold or, in some cases, to psychological issues.


There's no specific treatment for growing pains. You can make your child more comfortable by putting a warm heating pad on the sore muscles and massaging them.

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Ingrown toenails occur when the edges or corners of your nails grow into the skin next to the nail. Your big toe is most likely to get an ingrown toenail.


You can treat ingrown toenails at home. However, they can cause complications that might require medical treatment. Your risk of complications is higher if you have diabetes or other conditions that cause poo

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Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood illness that affects the blood vessels. The symptoms can be severe for several days and can look scary to parents. But then most children return to normal activities.


Kawasaki disease can harm the coronary arteries, which carry blood to the heart muscle. Most children who are treated recover from the disease without long-term problems. Your doctor will watch your child for heart problems for a few weeks to a few months after treatment.


The disease is most common in children ages 1 to 2 years and is less common in children older than age 8. It does not spread from child to child (is not contagious).

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Oh, what a beautiful smile you have there. Every time you smile, your eyes light up. Ah, those crinkles at the corners of the eyes make you look prettier still.


Crow’s feet may or may not look charming, but if I’m guessing right, you would still want to iron them out. Want to know the best treatment for crows feet? Worry not! Have a look at these remedies I’ve gathered, and you can have your wish come true in no time.

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Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a progressive brain disorder in which Lewy bodies (abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein) build up in areas of the brain that regulate behavior, cognition, and movement.

 

A complex disease, LBD can present with a range of symptoms including problems with thinking, memory, moving, sleep and/or changes in behavior, to name a few of the physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms.

 

LBD also affects autonomic body functions, such as blood pressure control, temperature regulation, and bladder and bowel function. Progressively debilitating, LBD can also cause people to experience visual hallucinations or act out their dreams.

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Answer: Low sperm count implies that the fluids (semen) you ejaculate in the course of an orgasm consist of lesser sperm when compared with normal.


A low sperm count can be referred to as oligospermia. A total lack of sperm is known as Azoospermia. Your own sperm count is regarded as less than normal when you have less than fifteen million sperm per millilitre of semen.


Having a low sperm count reduces the chances that one of your own sperm will certainly fertilize the partner’s egg, leading to pregnancy. Nevertheless, numerous males that have a low sperm count will still be in a position to father a baby.

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Migraine with aura (also called classic migraine) is a headache that strikes after or along with sensory disturbances called aura. These disturbances can include flashes of light, blind spots and other vision changes or tingling in your hand or face.Treatments for migraine with aura and migraine without aura (also called common migraine) are usually the same. You can try to prevent migraine with aura with the same medications and self-care measures used to prevent migraine.

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Have you ever noticed how the skin on your elbows and knees is often darker than the rest of the skin on your arms and legs? It's a bit funny-looking, isn't it? Some people think it's the result of dirt (and sometimes it is), but you'd be surprised to find that dirt often has nothing to do with the dark spots on your elbows and knees.

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A pinworm infection is one of the most common types of human intestinal worm infections. Pinworms are tiny, narrow worms. They’re white in color and less than half an inch long. A pinworm infection, also known as enterobiasis or oxyuriasis, is the most common type of worm infection in humans in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Pinworm infections can spread easily. They’re most common in children between the ages of 5 and 10, people who live in institutions, and those who have regular, close contact with individuals in these groups. An effective treatment for pinworm infections is medication, though reinfection is possible. Serious complications and long-term health effects are rare.


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People with Prader-Willi syndrome typically have mild to moderate intellectual impairment and learning disabilities. Behavioral problems are common, including temper outbursts, stubbornness, and compulsive behavior such as picking at the skin. Sleep abnormalities can also occur. Additional features of this condition include distinctive facial features such as a narrow forehead, almond-shaped eyes, and a triangular mouth; short stature; and small hands and feet. Some people with Prader-Willi syndrome have unusually fair skin and light-colored hair. Both affected males and affected females have underdeveloped genitals. Puberty is delayed or incomplete, and most affected individuals are unable to have children (infertile).

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Ringworm of the body is a fungal infection that develops on the top layer of your skin. It's characterized by a red circular rash with clearer skin in the middle. It may itch. Ringworm gets its name because of its appearance. No actual worm is involved. Also called tinea corporis, ringworm of the body is closely related to athlete's foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris) and ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis). Ringworm often spreads by direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or animal. Mild ringworm often responds to antifungal medications that you apply to your skin. For more-severe infections, you may need to take antifungal pills for several weeks


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Ringworm is a common skin disorder otherwise known as “tinea” or “dermatophytosis.” It is caused by a fungus that can live on skin, surfaces like locker room floors, and household items like towels, bedding, and clothes. While there are multiple forms of ringworm, the most common forms affect:


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A schwannoma is a type of nerve tumor of the nerve sheath. It's the most common type of benign peripheral nerve tumor in adults. It can occur anywhere in your body, at any age.


A schwannoma typically comes from a single bundle (fascicle) within the main nerve and displaces the rest of the nerve. When a schwannoma grows larger, more fascicles are affected, making removal more difficult. In general, a schwannoma grows slowly.


If you develop a schwannoma in an arm or leg, you may notice a painless lump. Schwannomas are rarely cancerous, but they can lead to nerve damage and loss of muscle control. See your doctor if you have any unusual lumps or numbness.

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Your bowels are made up of two parts -- the large intestine, also called the colon, and the small intestine. Short bowel syndrome usually affects people who’ve had a lot of their small intestine removed. Without this part, your body can’t get enough nutrients and water from the food you eat. This causes bowel troubles, like diarrhea, which can be dangerous if you go without treatment.If you learn you have short bowel syndrome, know that doctors can do a lot of things to ease your symptoms and make sure you get the right nutrition. People who have the disease can lead active lives.Over time, your body may adjust to having a shorter small intestine, and you may be able to take fewer medicines. The key is to stick to your treatment plan and get the support you need.


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Sleepwalking, formally known as somnambulism, is a behavior disorder that originates during deep sleep and results in walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep. It is much more common in children than adults and is more likely to occur if a person is sleep deprived. Because a sleepwalker typically remains in deep sleep throughout the episode, he or she may be difficult to awaken and will probably not remember the sleepwalking incident.

Sleepwalking usually involves more than just walking during sleep; it is a series of complex behaviors that are carried out while sleeping, the most obvious of which is walking. Symptoms of sleepwalking disorder range from simply sitting up in bed and looking around, to walking around the room or house, to leaving the house and even driving long distances. It is a common misconception that a sleepwalker should not be awakened. In fact, it can be quite dangerous not to wake a sleepwalker.

The prevalence of sleepwalking in the general population is estimated to be between 1% and 15%. The onset or persistence of sleepwalking in adulthood is common, and is usually not associated with any significant underlying psychiatric or psychological problems. Common triggers for sleepwalking include sleep deprivation, sedative agents (including alcohol), febrile illnesses, and certain medications.

The prevalence of sleepwalking is much higher for children, especially those between the ages of three and seven, and occurs more often in children with sleep apnea. There is also a higher instance of sleepwalking among children who experience bedwetting. Sleep terrors are a related disorder and both tend to run in families.


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The small bowel makes up most of the digestive tract. Cancers of the small bowel are rare. Cancers that have spread to the small bowel from another part of the body, are called secondary cancers. Look at the information about where the cancer started (the primary cancer) because the treatment is the same. 


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Down syndrome is a set of physical and mental traits caused by a gene problem that happens before birth. Children who have Down syndrome tend to have certain features, such as a flat face and a short neck. They also have some degree of intellectual disability. This varies from person to person. But in most cases it is mild to moderate.


Down syndrome is a lifelong condition. But with care and support, children who have Down syndrome can grow up to have healthy, happy, productive lives.

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Sweet’s syndrome (also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is an uncommon skin disorder characterised by a fever and the appearance of tender red lumps on the skin. It is a reactive condition with a number of potential triggers. It is not contagious and cannot be transferred from one person to another.

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Affecting the outer ear, swimmer’s ear (also called acute otitis externa) is a painful condition resulting from inflammation, irritation, or infection. These symptoms often occur after water gets trapped in your ear, with subsequent spread of bacteria or fungal organisms. Because this condition commonly affects swimmers, it is known as swimmer’s ear. Swimmer’s ear often affects children and teenagers, but can also affect those with eczema (a condition that causes the skin to itch), or excess earwax. Your doctor will prescribe treatment to reduce your pain and to treat the infection.

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Swimmer's itch, also called cercarial dermatitis, appears as a skin rash caused by an allergic reaction to certain microscopic parasites that infect some birds and mammals. These parasites are released from infected snails into fresh and salt water (such as lakes, ponds, and oceans). While the parasite's preferred host is the specific bird or mammal, if the parasite comes into contact with a swimmer, it burrows into the skin causing an allergic reaction and rash. Swimmer's itch is found throughout the world and is more frequent during summer months.

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Swimmer's itch is an itchy rash that can occur after you go swimming or wading outdoors. Also known as cercarial dermatitis, swimmer's itch is most common in freshwater lakes and ponds, but it occasionally occurs in salt water.Swimmer's itch is a rash usually caused by an allergic reaction to parasites that burrow into your skin while you're swimming or wading in warm water.The parasites that cause swimmer's itch normally live in waterfowl and some animals. These parasites can be released into the water. Humans aren't suitable hosts, so the parasites soon die while still in your skin.Swimmer's itch is uncomfortable, but it usually clears up on its own in a few days. In the meantime, you can control itching with over-the-counter or prescription medications.


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Swollen lymph nodes usually occur as a result of exposure to bacteria or viruses. When swollen lymph nodes are caused by an infection, this is known as lymphadenitis (lim-fad-uh-NIE-tis). Rarely, swollen lymph nodes are caused by cancer.Your lymph nodes, also called lymph glands, play a vital role in your body's ability to fight off infections. They function as filters, trapping viruses, bacteria and other causes of illnesses before they can infect other parts of your body. Common areas where you might notice swollen lymph nodes include your neck, under your chin, in your armpits and in your groin.In some cases, the passage of time and warm compresses may be all you need to treat swollen lymph nodes. Treatment of lymphadenitis depends on the cause.

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Tapeworms are long, segmented worms of the class Cestoda, which comprise 1 of 3 classes of parasitic worms (worms that require a host within which to mature). The other classes are Nematoda and Trematoda. These worms lack an intestinal tract and instead can absorb nutrients through their integument.The adult consists of a head (scolex), where the worms attach to the mucosa of the intestine; a neck; and a segmented body that contains both male gonads and female gonads (proglottids).

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The idea behind functional training is that each exercise should be more natural and carry over into daily life. Functional training exercises tend to activate more muscles and therefore consume more energy. These multidimensional exercises also tend to improve your natural movement skills and enhance your general mobility.See how many of the below functional training exercises you can incorporate into your workouts for a more practical and fat burning workout.


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A natural wax-like substance secreted by special glands in the skin on the outer part of the ear canal. It repels water, and traps material such as dust and sand particles. Usually a small amount of wax accumulates, and then dries up and falls out of the ear canal carrying with it unwanted particles. Ear wax is helpful in normal amounts and serves to coat the skin of the ear canal where it acts as a temporary water repellent. The absence of ear wax may result in dry, itchy ears, and even infection.

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This beginner level workout features basic choreography. Gin Miller, the inventor of step aerobics, leads this video. In an article appearing on the IDEA Health and Fitness Association website, Miller says "Everbody Steps" is a top seller. It's a solid, complete introduction to step workouts. You burn fat while learning the step basics from Miller, an IDEA Instructor of the Year with 12 years of step experience. Miller makes the moves understandable and explains common step-aerobic terminology in laymen's terms. The video has six distinct segments that allow you to advance at your own pace and stop when you want. The workout begins with the simplest steps and the easiest patterns and progresses into classic step-aerobic combinations, such as straddles, turns and transitions.


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Look around. There are countless articles in magazines and online about gaining size and strength. Everyone wants to get strong, and everyone wants to add muscle, but most don’t achieve the goal. Why? A number of reasons, including ridiculous exercise selection, poor programming, and—from what I’ve seen as a coach for almost 25 years—bad form.If you’re willing to do the hard work and make the commitment to using perfect form, I’ve got the ultimate plan for you: an eight-week guide to getting stronger than you ever thought you could.It’s a simple plan based on compound movements, high-repetition heavy lifting, and maximum-effort training. Throw in the right assistance work and you’ve got a plan for success.


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If you are bored of lifting heavy weights, doing yoga and other regular stretching exercises then AEROBICS is the right option for you. You will not only enjoy doing it but also reap several health benefits out of it. Aerobics is a kind of cardio workout that causes you to breathe harder, makes you sweat and gets your heart pumping faster than at rest. Dance moves you perform in this, makes the heart and lungs work harder as the body’s need for oxygen is increased. So, get your heart pumping with Bong beauty Bipasha Basu, performing aerobics dance workout.


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Gym workouts can help you burn calories and lose fat, gain strength, tone muscle groups and develop an overall sense of well-being. To add a twist to your regular workout routine, get together with one or more others at your gym and play a few gym workout games. Be sure all game participants stay hydrated before, during and after the workout. Consult your physician before beginning an exercise program.


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A nine-to-five job shackled to your cubicle leaves you with hardly any stamina to hit the gym in the evenings. Add to that, lack of motivation and it can only spell doom for your waistline. In such a scenario, can a party workout be that much-needed boost The party workout is redefining the concept of the workout, which brings the dance club into the gym. Fitness clubs host disco-lit classes of boot-camp style routines set to pumping music played by DJs. It's the latest fitness fad hitting New York gyms, and is generally wrapped up with post-workout 'pretend'tinis made from vitamin water! While it sounds like the perfect fix for those who want a club experience minus the calories of cocktails, can it really work for you? We get experts to comment.


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 Inactivity is taking its toll on human beings. As fitness professionals, we are keenly aware that society is fascinated with the human body—with losing fat, specifically—and yet, getting people to exercise is still a major obstacle. Obesity, a significant and growing health problem, has been associated with heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and hyperinsulinemia, among other conditions. The numbers speak louder than words. Overweight is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9, obesity as having a BMI equal to or greater than 30. Fifty-five to 60 percent of adults over the age of 18 have a BMI of at least 25; approximately 22 percent have a BMI of 30 or higher (Jakicic et al. 2001).


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Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure that evaluates the health condition of muscles and the nerve cells that control them. These nerve cells are known as motor neurons. They transmit electrical signals that cause muscles to contract and relax. An EMG translates these signals into graphs or numbers, helping doctors to make a diagnosis.


A doctor will usually order an EMG when someone is showing symptoms of a muscle or nerve disorder. These symptoms may include tingling, numbness, or unexplained weakness in the limbs. EMG results can help the doctor diagnose muscle disorders, nerve disorders, and disorders affecting the connection between nerves and muscles.


There are two components to an EMG test: the nerve conduction study and needle EMG. The nerve conduction study is the first part of the procedure. It involves placing small sensors called surface electrodes on the skin to assess the ability of the motor neurons to send electrical signals. The second part of the EMG procedure, known as needle EMG, also uses sensors to evaluate electrical signals. The sensors are called needle electrodes, and they are directly inserted into muscle tissue to evaluate muscle activity when at rest and when contracted.


During each part of the EMG procedure, one electrode releases a very mild electrical signal while the other electrodes measure how long it takes for the signal to reach them. This mimics the natural electrical signals sent by the nerves to the muscles. The distance between the electrodes and time it takes for a signal to reach them is used to determine the speed at which the nerves are able to send and receive signals. An abnormal speed usually indicates a muscle or nerve disorder.

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This test is used to test the nerves and muscles in your entire lower extremity. Your doctor will usually order this test when he suspects that there may be some type of problem with the nerve supply to your foot and leg. Commonly the EMG/NCV test is used to diagnosis one of the following: Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome, Peripheral Neuropathy, Neuromuscular disorders, Nerve palsy or Paralysis, and Radioculopathy. Your doctor typically will refer you to either a hospital or a neurologist to have the test preformed.

The EMG portion of the test is used to record the electrical activity in your muscles. It can diagnose diseases of the nerves and muscles. It can detect conditions such as tarsal tunnel syndrome, inflamed muscles and pinched nerves. A tiny needle, called an electrode, is inserted directly into a specific muscle belly. The electrode then records the activity during the insertion, while the muscle is at rest, and while the muscle contracts. Nerve and muscle diseases alter the pattern of electrical activity in these muscles, which is record both audibly and on a computer screen. After the first muscle is tested, the electrode may be inserted into another muscle. Muscles chosen for the testing vary with the patient's symptoms and may be modified, depending on the results from the first muscles tested. Total testing time may range from just a few minutes to more than an hour, depending upon how many muscles are tested. After the exam, you may feel tenderness in the tested muscles. There is a slight risk of minor, localized inflammation in muscles during the test. This usually lasts only a few hours. Other common patient complaints are pain with insertion of the electrode.

Most of the time the Nerve Conduction Velocity Test will accompany the EMG Test. The NCV evaluates the health of the peripheral nerve by recording how fast electrical impulse travels through it. A peripheral nerve transmits information between the spinal cord and the muscles. You will be resting on a cart or bed and electrodes will be taped to your skin. A stimulator will be held against your skin, which sends out a small electrical charge along the nerve. You may feel a tingle or your muscles may twitch but this shock is not harmful. Each test will take only a few minutes. After the exam the electrodes will be removed and your skin cleaned. The time between the stimulation and response will be recorded to determine how quickly and thoroughly that the impulse is sent. A number of nervous system diseases may reduce the speed of this impulse. Each nerve test takes just a few minutes to an hour, depending upon how many nerves are being tested.

While the hospital or neurologist's office will give you instructions for the day of the examination, a few general preparations will help. Eat normally and take medication as you usually would. If you are taking a blood thinner, make sure you inform the testing facility and ask the ordering physician about the use of the medication and the timing of the test. Bath or shower the morning of the examination. Avoid bath oils or any skin lotions or emollients the day of the examination.


A typical EMG/NCV of the lower extremity takes approximately 45 minutes. This test is an important tool for diagnosing diseases of the nervous system, you can help ensure the best results if you relax and cooperate with the technicians. Make sure that you ask any questions that you have about the test before it is performed. Your physician will discuss the results with you. If you have any further questions regarding why this test was ordered for you, please ask your physician.



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A nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test is used to assess nerve damage and dysfunction. Also known as a nerve conduction study, the procedure measures how quickly electrical signals move through your peripheral nerves.Your peripheral nerves are located outside of your brain and along your spinal cord. These nerves help you control your muscles and experience the senses. Healthy nerves send electrical signals more quickly and with greater strength than damaged nerves.The NVC test helps your doctor differentiate between an injury to the nerve fiber and an injury to the myelin sheath, the protective covering surrounding the nerve. It can also help your doctor tell the difference between a nerve disorder and a condition where a nerve injury has affected the muscles.Making these distinctions is important for proper diagnosis and determining your course of treatment.

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Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) are electric signals recorded from the scalp or spine following stimulation to the peripheral nerves. They are time-locked responses, representing the function of the ascending sensory pathways. Early in the 1960s Larson et al introduced the use of somatosensory evoked potentials to monitor neural structure during neurosurgical procedures. It was utilized as a supplement to the wake-up test during correctional spinal surgeries for spinal deformities such as scoliosis to provide warning of compromised spinal cord function to the spine surgeons, as reported by McCallum et al and Nash et al in the 1970s. Since then SSEP has become one of the earliest and primary tools for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.


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Barium tests are used to help see the outline of the upper parts of the gut (gastrointestinal tract) such as the gullet (oesophagus), stomach and upper gut (small intestines). The gut (gastrointestinal tract) does not show up very well on ordinary X-ray pictures. However, if you drink a white liquid that contains a chemical called barium sulfate, the outline of the upper parts of the gut (oesophagus, stomach and small intestines) shows up clearly on X-ray pictures. This is because X-rays do not pass through barium.

Depending on what part of your gut is being looked at, you may have one or more of the tests listed below. In each test, the barium coats the lining of the gut being tested. Therefore, abnormalities in the lining or structure of the gut can be seen on the X-ray pictures. In each of the following tests, several X-ray pictures are taken using low-dose X-rays. The total amount of radiation for each test is quite small and thought to be safe. The X-ray machine is usually linked to a TV monitor. Still pictures, or a video recording of X-ray pictures taken in quick succession, can be taken if necessary.

In this test you drink some barium liquid. The barium liquid is often fruit-flavoured so it is pleasant to drink. You stand in front of an X-ray machine whilst X-ray pictures are taken as you swallow. This test aims to look for problems in the gullet (oesophagus). These include a narrowing (stricture), hiatus hernias, tumours, reflux from the stomach, disorders of swallowing, etc. You will usually be asked not to eat or drink for a few hours before this test. A barium swallow test takes about 10 minutes.

This is similar to a barium swallow (above). However, it aims to look for problems in the stomach and the first part of the gut (small intestine), known as the duodenum. These problems may include ulcers, small fleshy lumps (polyps), tumours, etc. You drink some barium liquid but you then lie on a couch whilst X-ray pictures are taken over your tummy (abdomen). It may take a little longer to do than a barium swallow.

So that the barium coats all around the lining of the stomach, the doctor doing the test (radiologist) may do one or more of the following:

Ask you to swallow some bicarbonate powder and citric acid before swallowing the barium. These 'fizz up' when they mix in the stomach and make some gas. (You may have to resist the urge to burp.) The gas expands the stomach and duodenum and also pushes the barium to coat the lining of the stomach and duodenum. This makes the X-ray pictures much clearer. It is the shape and contours of the lining of the stomach and duodenum which need to be seen most clearly on the pictures.

Ask you to turn over on to your stomach on the couch. Various X-ray pictures may be taken whilst you are in different positions. You may be given an injection of a drug that makes the muscles in the stomach and gut relax.You will usually be asked not to eat anything for several hours before this test. (Food particles in the gut can make it difficult to interpret the X-rays.) However, you may be allowed sips of water up to two hours before the test.


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A barium swallow is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look at your upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Your upper GI tract includes the back of your mouth and throat (pharynx) and your esophagus.


You may have just a barium swallow. Or this test may be done as part of an upper GI series. This series looks at your esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum).


X-rays use a small amount of radiation to create images of your bones and internal organs. X-rays are most often used to find bone or joint problems, or to check the heart and lungs. A barium swallow is one type of X-ray.


Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium swallow. Fluoroscopy is a kind of X-ray “movie.”


The test also uses barium. Barium is a substance that makes certain area of the body show up more clearly on an X-ray. The radiologist will be able to see size and shape of the pharynx and esophagus. He or she will also be able see how you swallow. These details might not be seen on a standard X-ray. Barium is used only for imaging tests for the GI tract.

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Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis is a diagnostic imaging test used to help detect diseases of the small bowel, colon and other internal organs and is often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives.


Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You will be instructed not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand. If you have a known allergy to contrast material, your doctor may prescribe medications to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications must be taken 12 hours prior to your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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A CT (computed tomography) scan, which is also called a CAT scan, is a type of specialized X-ray. The scan can show cross-sectional images of a specific area of the body. With a CT scan, the machine circles the body and sends the images to a computer, where they’re viewed by a technician.


An abdominal CT scan helps your doctor see the organs, blood vessels, and bones in your abdominal cavity. The multiple images provided give your doctor many different views of your body.


Keep reading to learn why your doctor may order an abdominal CT scan, how to prepare for your procedure, and any possible risks and complications.

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Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body.


The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.


CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels.


Using specialized equipment and expertise to create and interpret CT scans of the body, radiologists can more easily diagnose problems such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, appendicitis, trauma and musculoskeletal disorders.

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CSF flow studies are performed using a variety of MRI techniques and are able to qualitatively assess and quantify pulsatile CSF flow. The most common technique used is time resolved 2D phase contrast MRI with velocity encoding. Note, when referring to CSF flow in the setting on imaging we are referring to pulsatile to-and-fro flow due to vascular pulsations rather than bulk transport of CSF (the mechanism by which produced CSF is absorbed, via absorption at arachnoid granulations and via the glymphatic pathway). The latter is too slow to be easily assessed clinically. 


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 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test done with a large machine that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the belly. In many cases MRI gives information about structures in the body that cannot be seen as well with an X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scan. For an MRI test, you are placed inside the magnet so that your belly is inside the strong magnetic field. MRI can find changes in the structure of organs or other tissues. It also can find tissue damage or disease, such as infection or a tumor. Pictures from an MRI scan are digital images that can be saved and stored on a computer for further study. The images also can be reviewed remotely, such as in a clinic or an operating room. Photographs or films of selected pictures can also be made.In some cases, contrast material may be used during the MRI scan to show certain structures more clearly in the pictures. The contrast material may be used to check blood flow, find some types of tumors, and show areas of inflammation or infection.


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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an advanced medical imaging technique that does not use x-rays or radiation. Instead it uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer. This creates very clear pictures of internal body structures. An MRI is used to examine soft tissues like organs, muscles, tendons, & blood vessels in many parts of the body. This includes areas of the brain, spine, abdomen, chest, pelvis, and joints (like knees and shoulders). The MRI image offers unique information to help your doctor better plan your treatment and care.


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A Whole Spine MRI Scan is an imaging test done to access the spinal anatomy and investigate the causes of a patient's back pain. The MRI can find changes in the spine and other tissues. MRI scans are needed when other imaging tests like X-ray, and CT scan fails to obtain any critical information and conservative treatment has stopped working or responding well. A Whole Spine MRI Scan is recommended to better diagnose the problems with your spine and provide an alternative treatment. The MRI Scan can also find problems such as infection or a tumour.


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An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan a the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.

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An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan a the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.

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Ultrasound imaging also called as sonography uses a transducer or a probe to generate sound waves and produce pictures of the body's internal structures. It is often used to help diagnose unexplained pain, swelling or infection. It is also used to see internal body structures such as tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs. Ultrasound abdomen is primarily used for evaluating the kidneys, liver, pancreas, gall bladder etc.It may also be used to provide imaging guidance to needle biopsies or to see and evaluate conditions related to blood flow. It does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and provides a clear picture of soft tissues that don't show up well on x-ray images. It is a painless, safe and non invasive procedure.
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Sometimes a sample of bone marrow must be examined to determine why blood cells are abnormal or why there are too few or too many of a specific kind of blood cell. A doctor can take two different types of bone marrow samples:


Bone marrow aspirate: Removes fluid and cells by inserting a needle into the bone marrow and sucking out fluid and cells


Bone marrow core biopsy: Removes an intact piece of bone marrow using a coring device (similar to a larger diameter needle)

The bone marrow aspirate shows what cells, normal and abnormal, are present in the bone marrow. The core biopsy shows how full the bone marrow is with cells and where the cells are located within the marrow. Both types of samples are usually taken from the hipbone (iliac crest), although aspirates are rarely taken from the breastbone (sternum). In very young children, bone marrow samples are occasionally taken from one of the bones in the lower leg (tibia).

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Bronchial washing is part of a procedure called a bronchoscopy, in which a physician looks into the lungs with a fiber-optic bronchoscope to check for irregularities and take tissue samples. The physician injects saline through the bronchoscope into the lung and then suctions it back out. By checking the wash return fluid, the doctor can diagnose bleeding, pneumonia, industrial pollutants, fungal infections and different kinds of lung cancer. Patients undergoing bronchial washing usually receive topical anesthesia with sedation. Most side effects of bronchial washing are mild and include coughing, sore throat and a sleepy feeling from being sedated.

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A vaginal swab test involves taking a sample of vaginal secretions with a device that looks like a cotton bud. The swab, with secretions attached, is then placed in a special container and sent to the microbiology laboratory for further analysis. When it reaches the laboratory the sample is then plated on a Petrie dish, which is a flat dish containing a special jelly. The dish is then placed in a special incubator that maintains a particular level of heat and humidity, which facilitates the growth of any bacteria that may be contained in the sample. The jelly in the Petrie dish is a nutrient material that allows any bacteria in the sample to colonise the surface of the jelly. This is the process that is referred to when we send a swab for culture. In other words the lab technician is attempting to make the bacteria reproduce and multiply by creating a favourable yet artificial environment. Having succeeded in creating the bacterial colonies on the Petrie dish various antibiotics are then added to the dish to determine which antibiotics are the most effective in eliminating the bacterial colonies from the dish. Therefore culture and sensitivity simply refers to the process whereby the bacteria in the sample are identified and then tested to determine which antibiotics are needed to eliminate them. “Culture and sensitivity” testing is widely used in microbiology for testing such diverse samples as various bodily discharges to urine samples.

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Culture and Sensitivity Aerobic test is performed on a sample of ear swab to measure the level of Culture of the pathogenic organism in the ear swab.It is performed to confirm Ear infection and also during the treatment and after the treatment of Ear infection.

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A growth hormone (GH) test measures the amount of human growth hormone (GH) in the blood. GH is made by the pituitary gland and is needed for growth. It plays an important role in how the body uses food for energy (metabolism). The amount of GH in the blood changes during the day and is affected by exercise, sleep, emotional stress, and diet.


Too much GH during childhood can cause a child to grow taller than normal (gigantism). Too little GH during childhood can cause a child to grow less than normal (dwarfism). Both conditions can be treated if found early.


In adults, too much GH is caused by a noncancerous tumor of the pituitary gland (adenoma). Too much GH can cause bones of the face, jaw, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal (acromegaly).


Growth hormone can cause the release of other substances (factors) that affect growth and metabolism. One of these is insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). When the GH level is very high, the IGF-1 level is also very high. A test for IGF-1 may also be done to confirm high GH levels.

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Growth hormone (GH) is a hormone that is essential for normal growth and development in children. It promotes proper linear bone growth from birth through puberty. In both children and adults, growth hormone helps regulate the rate at which the body both produces energy from food (metabolism) and makes lipids, proteins, and glucose (sugar). It also helps regulate the production of red blood cells and muscle mass.


Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland, a grape-sized gland located at the base of the brain behind the bridge of the nose. It is normally released into the bloodstream in pulses throughout the day and night with peaks that occur mostly during the night. Because of this, a single measurement of the level of GH in blood is difficult to interpret and not usually clinically useful. The value will be higher if the sample is taken during a pulse and lower if it is taken during a period between pulses. GH stimulation and suppression tests are therefore often used to diagnose GH abnormalities. (See the "How is it used?" section.)


GH deficiency


Children with insufficient GH production grow more slowly and are smaller in size for their age. Some children have GH deficiency at birth (congenital), but some may develop a deficiency later due, for example, to a brain injury or tumor. These conditions can affect the pituitary gland, causing a decrease in pituitary function, resulting in a lowered production of pituitary hormones (hypopituitarism). Sometimes, the cause of the deficiency is not known.


In adults, growth hormone plays a role in regulating bone density, muscle mass, and glucose and lipid metabolism. It can also affect heart and kidney function. Deficiencies may have begun in childhood or develop in adulthood. A deficiency can develop, for example, because of damage to the pituitary gland caused by a head injury, brain tumor, or surgery or radiation treatment. This can result in a decrease in pituitary hormones (hypopituitarism). The deficiency in GH can lead to decreased bone density, less muscle mass, and altered lipid levels. However, testing for GH deficiency is not routine in adults who have decreased bone density and/or muscle strength or increased lipids. GH deficiency is a very rare cause of these disorders.

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Growth hormone promotes development from birth to puberty. It is also essential for the maintenance of metabolism, skeletal muscle, and bone tissue throughout one’s life

The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, releases growth hormone in periodic bursts. Most growth hormone is released during deep sleep

They hypothalamus of the brain in turn releases hormones that control growth hormone release by the pituitary gland. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) and growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH) stimulate and depress growth hormone secretion, respectively

Growth hormone affects nearly every cell in the body. It causes cells to increase their protein production and their fatty acid metabolism

The growth-inducing effects of growth hormone are important for adaptation to strenuous demands, such as exercise. Growth hormone also stimulates the replenishment of tissues during everyday wear and tear. The hormone is especially important during childhood development

Problems with the pituitary gland or GH-RH may cause growth hormone underproduction. This results in stunted growth, abnormal fat distribution, and difficulty regulating blood sugar

Excessive production of growth hormone, caused by tumors or problems with the regulatory mechanisms, may cause excessive growth. The resulting conditions, though similar, differ depending on the stage in life that a growth hormone overproduction occurred:

Growth hormone overproduction before puberty results in gigantism. This is marked by extreme lengthening of the skeleton, sometimes causing heights in excess of 8 feet

Growth hormone overproduction during adulthood results in acromegaly. Because the bones have already reached their maximum length, acromegaly is marked by bone thickening but not lengthening

The Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Blood Test helps measure the levels of growth hormone-releasing hormone in blood. It is used to differentiate between a pituitary tumor and an ectopic secretion of GH-RH

If GH-RH levels are normal, the result of excessive growth hormone is likely a tumor of the pituitary gland that releases growth hormone without the need for stimulation by GH-RH

If GH-RH levels are increased, there may be an ectopic tumor of the hypothalamus that secretes GH-RH

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Growth hormone (GH) is secreted in a pulsatile manner and is cleared rapidly, resulting in dramatic fluctuations in GH levels.1-3 For this reason, random GH levels are generally not useful in establishing GH deficiency. A number of physiologic and pharmacologic stimuli can be used to provoke GH release. Several growth hormone stimulation protocols are described below. These tests are best performed in the morning after an overnight fast.3 Patients should be confirmed as euthyroid before these protocols are initiated.

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At least 3 blood samples are taken.


The test is done in the following way:


The first blood sample is collected between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m before you eat or drink anything.

You then drink a solution containing glucose (sugar). You may be told to drink slowly to avoid becoming nauseated. But you must drink the solution within 5 minutes to ensure the test result is accurate.

The next blood samples are usually collected for 1 to 2 hours after you finish drinking the glucose solution. Sometimes they are taken every 30 or 60 minutes.

Each sample is sent to the laboratory right away. The lab measures the glucose and growth hormone (GH) levels in each sample.

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Genital warts are a symptom of infection by HPV.


A genital wart is a contagious fleshy growth on the external genitals or anus. It consists of fibrous overgrowths covered by a thickened outer layer called an epithelium.


These warts can appear around a man's scrotum, anus, and penis, or a woman's vulva, cervix, vagina, or anus.


They are usually benign, meaning that they are unlikely to develop into a cancer. However, many subtypes have the potential to become cancerous.


About 1 in 100 sexually active Americans have genital warts.


It is possible to have HPV without showing symptoms. Genital warts often appear about 3 months after infection. However, in some cases, there may be no symptoms for many years.


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When a doctor requires a platelet count, then a complete blood count may be ordered. The CBC blood test will include a measurement of platelet distribution width, which is how the PLATELET DISTRIBUTION WIDTH blood test results will be measured. The PLATELET DISTRIBUTION WIDTH is a reflection of how uniform in size a patient’s platelets happen to be. This can help to determine how effectively a person’s bone marrow is functioning and if follow-up tests may be required.
For platelet width, the general rule is that larger platelets are generally younger, while smaller platelets have been around for a few days. Having a high number of large platelets when someone has typically has a low platelet count indicates the bone marrow has stepped up production levels.
Because the PLATELET DISTRIBUTION WIDTH (PDW) is part of a complete blood count, it may be ordered for a wide variety of reasons. The most common issues that doctors will examine are unexplained bruising, bleeding that continues on from small cuts or wounds, numerous nosebleeds, or internal bleeding in the digestive tract. The presence of a continuous rash or purplish spots on the skin may also cause this test to be ordered.
For women, when there is continuous and heavy menstrual bleeding, the PLATELET DISTRIBUTION WIDTH (PDW) blood test may be ordered as well.
If the PDW blood test has abnormal results and if there isn’t a known cause for them, then a doctor may choose to perform additional follow-up tests in an attempt to confirm a diagnosis. This may include testing to find inflammatory conditions, the presence of infectious diseases, kidney failure, or bleeding disorders. Liver disease and iron studies may also be ordered, as will vitamin levels.
In severe instances of abnormality when there is not a definitive cause that can be determined, then a bone marrow biopsy may be ordered.
For patients who live in high altitude area, PDW test results may be affected by an individual’s living habits. Be sure to speak with a doctor about this issue if you have recently spent a at least 30 days in a high altitude climate.
The PDW blood test is generally used as a screening tool to see if a patient is experiencing good health. It is typically ordered as part of a routine health screening. If bone marrow disorders are suspected, however, it may also be ordered. Consider these results, compare them to your own results, and then be sure to speak with your doctor about what this may indicate for you and your unique health history.

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There’s no doubt about it, we all want a luxurious, full head of hair. Although hair loss is most commonly associated with men, women also suffer from this problem — and sadly hair loss in women is a lot less acceptable in society today. According to the American Hair Loss Association, women actually make up 40 percent of American hair loss sufferers. Such a common problem among both and women, it’s unsurprising that so many people look for hair loss remedies far and wide.

Have you noticed more hair in your brush lately than you used to see, or is you hair falling out in clumps? Do you look in the mirror and see scalp where you used to see only hair? Losing anywhere from 50 to 150 hairs per day is considered normal, but when you start losing more than that it becomes problematic, not to mention visibly noticeable. What’s really behind your hair loss, and how can you treat the cause, not just the symptoms, with effective hair loss remedies?

It’s common for hair loss sufferers to turn to hair replacement surgery and topical hair loss products in hopes of regaining their full heads of hair — or at least some of what once was. But is that the best course of action to take with hair loss? When it comes to any problem, the first step is to find the root cause. Let’s talk about the real causes of hair loss and what you can start doing today to naturally stop and hopefully reverse your hair loss. For starters there are many foods and vitamins for hair growth that won’t break the bank but can really make a difference. There also many other natural hair loss remedies like rosemary essential oil that have been shown to work as well as conventional topical products.

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Don’t wait to get help if you experience any of these heart attack warning signs. Although some heart attacks are sudden and intense, most start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort. Pay attention to your body .


Chest discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain.

Discomfort in other areas of the upper body. Symptoms can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach.

Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort.

Other signs may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness.

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Strange bumps have sprung up on your face. They're not exactly pimples. They're not hives, either. Could they be ingrown hairs?

Ingrown hairs are hairs that have curled around and grown back into your skin instead of rising up from it.

Sometimes, dead skin can clog up a hair follicle. That forces the hair inside it to grow sideways under the skin, rather than upward and outward. Sometimes, cutting naturally curly hair too closely will result in the sharpened end of the hair piercing the skin, causing an ingrown hair.

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Intestinal worms, also known as parasitic worms, are one of the main types of intestinal parasites. Common types of intestinal worms include:


    flatworms, which include tapeworms and flukes

    roundworms, which cause ascariasis, pinworm, and hookworm infections

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IBS affects between 25 and 45 million Americans. Most of them are women. People are most likely to get the condition in their late teens to early 40s.


IBS is a mix of belly discomfort or pain and trouble with bowel habits: either going more or less often than normal (diarrhea or constipation) or having a different kind of stool (thin, hard, or soft and liquid).


It’s not life-threatening, and it doesn't make you more likely to get other colon conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or colon cancer. But IBS can be a long-lasting problem that changes how you live your life. People with IBS may miss work or school more often, and they may feel less able to take part in daily activities. Some people may need to change their work setting: shifting to working at home, changing hours, or even not working at all.

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The pathophysiology of lower back pain is a source of fascination, frustration, and, often, confusion by clinicians and scientists who both treat and study patients who have this problem. The statement that we do not know the origin of low back pain in the majority of cases has become a mantra to any introduction to the topic. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) Guidelines on Low Back Problems and similar guidelines in other countries have given up on attempts to define the origin of the pain in patients who have this problem and have instead resorted to differentiating between so-called Red Flag pathologic conditions and patients who have nonspecific low back pain, with or without leg symptoms.


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Low blood pressure might seem desirable, and for some people, it causes no problems. However, for many people, abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension) can cause dizziness and fainting. In severe cases, low blood pressure can be life-threatening.

A blood pressure reading lower than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) for the top number (systolic) or 60 mm Hg for the bottom number (diastolic) is generally considered low blood pressure.

The causes of low blood pressure can range from dehydration to serious medical or surgical disorders. It's important to find out what's causing your low blood pressure so that it can be treated.


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lood is made up of several types of cells. These cells float in a liquid called plasma. The types of blood cells are:red blood cellswhite blood cellsplatelets, or thrombocytesWhen your skin is injured or broken, platelets clump together and form clots to stop the bleeding. When you don’t have enough platelets in your blood, your body cannot form clots.A low platelet count may also be called thrombocytopenia. This condition can range from mild to severe, depending on its underlying cause. For some, the symptoms can include severe bleeding and are possibly fatal if they’re not treated. Other people may not experience any symptoms.Typically, a low platelet count is the result of a medical condition, like leukemia, or certain drugs. The treatment usually addresses the condition causing the thrombocytopenia.


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There are no shortcuts to growing luscious, long locks. On average, hair grows about a half an inch per month. Your general health, well-being, and genetic factors affect your rate of hair growth.You can encourage hair growth by maintaining healthy hair through a good diet and proper hair care. Certain herbs can help make your hair grow faster, too.

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Minor skin wounds often occur as the result of unanticipated trauma and may include lacerations, abrasion (grazes), blisters and more serious wounds such as skin tears and bites. In many instances the skin may only require protection from further injury and can therefore be treated in the home with due regard for managing the risk of infection. In other cases the advice of a doctor is preferred, especially when the wound is deep and there may be damage to underlying structures such as nerves.

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The nail organ is an integral component of the digital tip. It is a highly versatile tool that protects the fingertip, contributes to tactile sensation by acting as a counterforce to the fingertip pad, and aids in peripheral thermoregulation via glomus bodies in the nail bed and matrix. Because of its form and functionality, abnormalities of the nail unit result in functional and cosmetic issues. The structures that define and produce the nail (nail plate) include the matrix (sterile and germinal), the proximal nail fold, the eponychium, the paronychium, and the hyponychium (see the images below). Collectively, the nail bed (sterile matrix), nail fold, eponychium, paronychium, and hyponychium are referred to as the perionychium.

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Bedwetting, or nocturnal enuresis, refers to the unintentional passage of urine during sleep. Enuresis is the medical term for wetting, whether in the clothing during the day or in bed at night. Another name for enuresis is urinary incontinence.

For infants and young children, urination is involuntary. Wetting is normal for them. Most children achieve some degree of bladder control by 4 years of age. Daytime control is usually achieved first, while nighttime control comes later.

The age at which bladder control is expected varies considerably.

    Some parents expect dryness at a very early age, while others not until much later. Such a time line may reflect the culture and attitudes of the parents and caregivers.
    Factors that affect the age at which wetting is considered a problem include the following:
        The child's gender: Bedwetting is more common in boys.
        The child's development and maturity
        The child's overall physical and emotional health. Chronic illness and/or emotional and physical abuse may predispose to bedwetting.

Bedwetting is a very common problem.

    Parents must realize that enuresis is involuntary. The child who wets the bed needs parental support and reassurance.

Bedwetting is a treatable condition.

    While children with this embarrassing problem and their parents once had few choices except waiting to "grow out of it," there are now treatments that work for many children.
    Several devices, treatments, and techniques have been developed to help these children stay dry at night.

What Causes Bedwetting?

While bedwetting can be a symptom of an underlying disease, the large majority of children who wet the bed have no underlying illness. In fact, a true organic cause is identified in only a small percentage of children who wet the bed. However, this does not mean that the child who wets the bed can control it or is doing it on purpose. Children who wet the bed are not lazy, willful, or disobedient.

There are two types of bedwetting: primary and secondary. Primary bedwetting refers to bedwetting that has been ongoing since early childhood without a break. A child with primary bedwetting has never been dry at night for any significant length of time. Secondary bedwetting is bedwetting that starts again after the child has been dry at night for a significant period of time (at least six months).

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Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin. Typically it results in a red, itchy, scaly, circular rash. Hair loss may occur in the area affected. Symptoms begin four to fourteen days after exposure. Multiple areas can be affected at a given time.

About 40 types of fungi can cause ringworm. They are typically of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, or Epidermophyton type. Risk factors include using public showers, contact sports such as wrestling, excessive sweating, contact with animals, obesity, and poor immune function. Ringworm can spread from other animals or between people. Diagnosis is often based on the appearance and symptoms. It may be confirmed by either culturing or looking at a skin scraping under a microscope.
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Stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.

The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically with medical imaging such as a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan along with a physical exam. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.
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Hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating,in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. Although primarily a physical burden, hyperhidrosis can deteriorate quality of life from a psychological, emotional, and social perspective. It has been called by some 'the silent handicap'.

Both the words diaphoresis and hidrosis can mean either perspiration (in which sense they are synonymous with sweating) or excessive perspiration, in which case they refer to a specific, narrowly defined, clinical disorder.
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Swine influenza is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H911,H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.

The Swine flu was initially seen in humans in Mexico in 2009, where the strand of the particular virus was a marriage of 3 types of strands. Six of the genes are very similar to the H1N2 influenza virus that was found in pigs around 2000.

Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human flu, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection.
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Swine flu (swine influenza) is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Swine flu can last about one to two weeks in pigs that survive. Swine influenza virus was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in the U.S. and has been recognized by pork producers and veterinarians to cause infections in pigs worldwide. In a number of instances, people have developed the swine flu infection when they are closely associated with pigs (for example, farmers, pork processors), and likewise, pig populations have occasionally been infected with the human flu infection. In most instances, the cross-species infections (swine virus to man; human flu virus to pigs) have remained in local areas and have not caused national or worldwide infections in either pigs or humans. Unfortunately, this cross-species situation with influenza viruses has had the potential to change. Investigators decided the 2009 so-called "swine flu" strain, first seen in Mexico, should be termed novel H1N1 flu since it was mainly found infecting people and exhibits two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1) and N1 (neuraminidase type1). The eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains

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This swelling is caused by a build-up of fluid, or inflammation inside the lip tissue. It can have many causes, including injury, illness, certain medicines or allergies. Swollen lips can be a sign of anaphylaxis – a severe allergic reaction – which requires immediate medical attention.

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Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is a condition in which the outer part of the elbow becomes sore and tender at the lateral epicondyle. The forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from repetitive overuse. This leads to pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow.

Any activity, including playing tennis, that involves repetitive use of the extensor muscles of the forearm can cause acute or chronic tendonitis of the tendinous insertion of these muscles at the lateral epicondyle of the elbow. The condition is common in carpenters and laborers who swing a hammer or other tool with the forearm, and is similar to golfer's elbow, which affects the medial epicondyle on the inside of the elbow. Continuing activity after onset of the condition and avoiding mandatory rest may lead to permanent onset of pain and only treatable via surgery.
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The eyebrow is an area of thick, delicate hairs above the eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals. Their main function is hypothesized to prevent sweat, water, and other debris from falling down into the eye socket, but they are also important to human communication and facial expression. It is not uncommon for people to modify their eyebrows by means of hair addition, removal and makeup.

According to the 2016 United States census, roughly 3% of the population suffers from a disease called madarosis, which is a deficiency where individuals cannot grow eyebrows or eyelashes.
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Warts are typically small, rough, and hard growths that are similar in color to the rest of the skin. They typically do not result in symptoms except when on the bottom of the feet where they may be painful. While they usually occur on the hands and feet they can also affect other locations. One or many warts may appear. They are not cancerous.

Warts are caused by infection with a type of human papillomavirus (HPV). Factors that increase the risk include use of public showers, working with meat, eczema, and a low immune system. The virus is believed to enter the body through skin that has been damaged slightly. A number of types exist including: common warts, plantar warts, filiform warts, and genital warts. Genital warts are often sexually transmitted.

Without treatment, most types of warts resolve in months to years. A number of treatments may speed resolution including salicylic acid applied to the skin and cryotherapy. In those who are otherwise healthy they do not typically result in significant problems. Treatment of genital warts differ from that of other types.

Warts are very common, with most people being infected at some point in time. The estimated current rate of non-genital warts among the general population is 1–13%. They are more common among young people. Estimated rates of genital warts in sexually active women is 12%. Warts have been described at least as far back as 400 BC by Hippocrates.
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Water in the ear is a very common occurrence and can happen to anyone. While swimming or taking a bath or shower, water can get inside the ears. Normally, the wax present in the ear canal prevents fluid from going deep inside the ear. But at times, fluid can get trapped within the ear.This causes a tickling sensation in the ear that can create much discomfort. It may also be accompanied by pain and reduced hearing ability.If left untreated, fluid in the ear can cause hearing loss, cyst formation, eardrum inflammation and other complications. This is why it is important to get rid of fluid in the ears as soon as possible.


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The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.

Water is found both inside and outside the body’s cells. It forms part of the blood, helping to carry the blood cells around the body and keeping oxygen and important nutrients in solution so that they can be taken up by tissues such as glands, bone and muscle. Even the organs and muscles are mostly water.

The body uses a complex system of hormones and hormone-like substances called prostaglandins to keep its volume of fluid at a constant level. If one were to intake an excessive amount of fluid in one day, the amount of fluid would not be affected in the long term. This is because the kidneys quickly excrete the excess in the form of urine. Likewise, if one did not get enough to drink, the body would hold on to its fluids and urinate less than usual. Imbalances in this system can lead to water retention, which can range from mild and unnoticeable to symptomatic with swelling.
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Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions. The causes are many and can be divided into conditions that have true or perceived muscle weakness. True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy. It occurs in neuromuscular junction disorders, such as myasthenia gravis.
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Weight gain is an increase in body weight. This can involve an increase in muscle mass, fat deposits, excess fluids such as water or other factors. Weight gain can be a symptom of a serious medical condition.
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Vitiligo is a long term skin condition characterized by patches of the skin losing their pigment. The patches of skin affected become white and usually have sharp margins. The hair from the skin may also become white. Inside the mouth and nose may also be involved. Typically both sides of the body are affected. Often the patches begin on areas of skin that are exposed to the sun. It is more noticeable in people with dark skin. Vitiligo may result in psychological stress and those affected may be stigmatized.

The cause is typically unknown. It is believed to be due to genetic susceptibility that is triggered by an environmental factor such that an autoimmune disease occurs. This results in the destruction of skin pigment cells. Risk factors include a family history of the condition or other autoimmune diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, alopecia areata, and pernicious anemia. It is not contagious. Vitiligo is classified into two main types: segmental and non-segmental. Most cases are non-segmental, meaning they affect both sides; and in these cases, the affected area of the skin typically expands with time. About 10% of cases are segmental, meaning they mostly involve one side of the body; and in these cases, the affected area of the skin typically does not expand with time. Diagnosis can be confirmed by tissue biopsy.

There is no known cure for vitiligo. For those with light skin, sunscreen and makeup are all that is typically recommended. Other treatment options may include steroid creams or phototherapy to darken the light patches. Alternatively, efforts to lighten the unaffected skin, such as with hydroquinone, may be tried. A number of surgical options are available for those who do not improve with other measures. A combination of treatments generally has better outcomes. Counselling to provide emotional support may be useful.

Globally about 1% of people are affected by vitiligo. Some populations have rates as high as 2–3%. Males and females are equally affected. About half show the disorder before age 20 and most develop it before age 40. Vitiligo has been described since ancient history.
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Tongue diseases can be congenital or acquired, and are multiple in number. Considered according to a surgical sieve, some example conditions which can involve the tongue are discussed below. Glossitis is a general term for tongue inflammation, which can have various etiologies, e.g. infection.
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Whitehead, a blocked sweat/sebaceous duct of the skin known medically as a closed comedo
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A wisdom tooth or third molar is one of the three molars per quadrant of the human dentition. It is the most posterior of the three. Wisdom teeth generally erupt between the ages of 17 and 25. Most adults have four wisdom teeth, one in each of the four quadrants, but it is possible to have fewer or more, in which case the extras are called supernumerary teeth. Wisdom teeth commonly affect other teeth as they develop, becoming impacted. They are often extracted when or even before this occurs.
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Women's health refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways. Women's health is an example of population health, where health is defined by the World Health Organization as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Often treated as simply women's reproductive health, many groups argue for a broader definition pertaining to the overall health of women, better expressed as "The health of women". These differences are further exacerbated in developing countries where women, whose health includes both their risks and experiences, are further disadvantaged.

Although women in industrialised countries have narrowed the gender gap in life expectancy and now live longer than men, in many areas of health they experience earlier and more severe disease with poorer outcomes. Gender remains an important social determinant of health, since women's health is influenced not just by their biology but also by conditions such as poverty, employment, and family responsibilities. Women have long been disadvantaged in many respects such as social and economic power which restricts their access to the necessities of life including health care, and the greater the level of disadvantage, such as in developing countries, the greater adverse impact on health.

Women's reproductive and sexual health has a distinct difference compared to men's health. Even in developed countries pregnancy and childbirth are associated with substantial risks to women with maternal mortality accounting for more than a quarter of a million deaths per year, with large gaps between the developing and developed countries. Comorbidity from other non reproductive disease such as cardiovascular disease contribute to both the mortality and morbidity of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Sexually transmitted infections have serious consequences for women and infants, with mother-to-child transmission leading to outcomes such as stillbirths and neonatal deaths, and pelvic inflammatory disease leading to infertility. In addition infertility from many other causes, birth control, unplanned pregnancy, unconsensual sexual activity and the struggle for access to abortion create other burdens for women.

While the rates of the leading causes of death, cardiovascular disease, cancer and lung disease, are similar in women and men, women have different experiences. Lung cancer has overtaken all other types of cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women, followed by breast cancer, colorectal, ovarian, uterine and cervical cancers. While smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, amongst nonsmoking women the risk of developing cancer is three times greater than amongst nonsmoking men. Despite this, breast cancer remains the commonest cancer in women in developed countries, and is one of the more important chronic diseases of women, while cervical cancer remains one of the commonest cancers in developing countries, associated with human papilloma virus (HPV), an important sexually transmitted disease. HPV vaccine together with screening offers the promise of controlling these diseases. Other important health issues for women include cardiovascular disease, depression, dementia, osteoporosis and anemia. A major impediment to advancing women's health has been their underrepresentation in research studies, an inequity being addressed in the United States and other western nations by the establishment of centers of excellence in women's health research and large scale clinical trials such as the Women's Health Initiative
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A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin or on fabric. Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of aging processes such as glycation, habitual sleeping positions, loss of body mass, or temporarily, as the result of prolonged immersion in water. Age wrinkling in the skin is promoted by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors.
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A yawn is a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath.

Yawning (oscitation) most often occurs in adults immediately before and after sleep, during tedious activities and as a result of its contagious quality. It is commonly associated with tiredness, stress, sleepiness, or even boredom and hunger. In humans, yawning is often triggered by others yawning (e.g. seeing a person yawning, talking to someone on the phone who is yawning) and is a typical example of positive feedback. This "contagious" yawning has also been observed in chimpanzees, dogs, cats, birds, and reptiles, and can occur across species. Approximately 20 psychological reasons for yawning have been proposed by scholars, but there is little agreement about its main functions.

During a yawn, the tensor tympani muscle in the middle ear contracts, creating a rumbling noise from within the head. Yawning is sometimes accompanied, both in humans and animals, by an instinctive act of stretching several parts of the body, including arms, neck, shoulders and back.
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Yellow nail syndrome, also known as "primary lymphedema associated with yellow nails and pleural effusion", is a very rare medical syndrome that includes pleural effusions, lymphedema (due to under development of the lymphatic vessels) and yellow dystrophic nails. Approximately 40% will also have bronchiectasis. It is also associated with chronic sinusitis and persistent coughing. It usually affects adults.
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Tooth discoloration (also termed tooth staining) is abnormal tooth color, hue or translucency.External discoloration is accumulation of stains on the tooth surface. Internal discoloration is due to absorption of pigment particles into tooth structure. Sometimes there are several different co-existent factors responsible for discoloration.
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Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental, psychological and social changes with environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value, the ambiguity in developing cohesive health strategies, and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete". Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health.
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Skin pigmentation disorders are conditions that cause the skin to appear lighter or darker than normal, or blotchy and discolored.


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Incontinence is a term that describes any accidental or involuntary loss of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or bowel motion, faeces or wind from the bowel (faecal or bowel incontinence).

Incontinence is a widespread condition that ranges in severity from 'just a small leak' to complete loss of bladder or bowel control. In fact, over 4.8 million Australians have bladder or bowel control problems for a variety of reasons. Incontinence can be treated and managed.  In many cases it can also be cured.
Think you might have a problem?

If you experience bladder or bowel problems, but are not sure if you should seek help, try the questionnaire below.
Bladder and bowel questionnaire

    Do you sometimes feel you have not completely emptied your bladder?

    Do you have to rush to use the toilet?

    Are you frequently nervous because you think you might lose control of your bladder or bowel?

    Do you wake up twice or more during the night to go to the toilet?

    Do you sometimes leak before you get to the toilet?

    Do you sometimes leak when you lift something heavy, sneeze, cough or laugh?

    Do you sometimes leak when you exercise or play sport?

    Do you sometimes leak when you change from a seated or lying position to a standing position?

    Do you strain to empty to bowel?

    Do you sometimes soil your underwear?

    Do you plan your daily routine around where the nearest toilet is?

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RINGWORM OVERVIEW


Despite its name, ringworm is not caused by a worm. Ringworm is actually an infection caused by a fungus. It is called ringworm because it can cause a ring-shaped, red, itchy rash on the skin. Ringworm is also called tinea.


There are several different types of ringworm infections, which are named from the body-part that is affected:


●Tinea capitis affects the top of the head, or scalp, and is found mostly in children


●Tinea pedis affects the feet, and is also called "athlete's foot"


●Tinea cruris affects the groin, and is also called "jock itch"


●Tinea faciei affects the face


●Tinea barbae affects the beard area


●Tinea manuum affects the hands


●Tinea corporis is the catch-all term for tinea infections on other body surfaces


You can catch ringworm from someone else who is infected, or even from an infected dog or cat. You can also catch it from objects, such as a shower stall, locker room floor, or pool area that has the fungus. Plus, you can spread ringworm from one body part (such as your feet) to another (such as your groin or hand).


If you have ringworm, your healthcare provider may be able to diagnose it just by looking at your rash. In some cases, s/he will take some scrapings of the rash and look at it under a microscope to check for the fungus. Rarely, a healthcare provider may need to send scrapings from the rash for a fungal culture (a test used to identify fungus by growing it in a microbiology laboratory).


This article will discuss the symptoms and treatment of each type of ringworm infection. More detailed information about tinea is available by subscription  Fungal nail infections are also discussed separately. 


ATHLETE'S FOOT (TINEA PEDIS)

Tinea pedis causes the skin on the feet – often between the toes – to become itchy, red, cracked, tender, and scaly . Sometimes it also causes blisters to form. People who have tinea pedis often also have the infection on the palms of their hands, in their nails, or on their groin.

Unlike tinea capitis, tinea pedis responds to most topical antifungal treatments, many of which are available without a prescription. The cream/gel/lotion/powder is usually applied once or twice daily for four weeks . In severe or long-lasting cases, your healthcare provider may suggest an oral antifungal drug (which is available only by prescription).

To improve comfort and reduce the chances of repeat infection, it is a good idea to use antifungal foot powders, both on the feet and in the shoes, and to wear open shoes when feasible, at least while the feet heal.

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A red cell distribution width (RDW) test is a measurement of the range in the volume and size of your red blood cells (erythrocytes). Red blood cells move oxygen from your lungs to every cell in your body. Your cells need oxygen to grow, reproduce, and stay healthy. If your red blood cells are larger than normal, it could indicate a medical problem.

Other names: RDW-SD (standard deviation) test, Erythrocyte Distribution Width

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The goal of wildlife rehabilitation is to provide professional care to sick, injured, and orphaned wild animals so ultimately they can be returned to their natural habitat. Wild animals that sustain injuries or illnesses preventing them from living successfully in the wild usually are euthanized (have their suffering ended in a humane fashion). Occasionally, individual animals that have recovered from their injuries but are not able to survive in the wild are placed in educational facilities.

Wildlife rehabilitation is not an attempt to turn wild animals into pets. Patients are held in captivity only until able to live independently in the wild. Fear of humans is a necessary survival trait for wild animals and every effort is made to minimize human contact and prevent the taming of rehabilitation patients. Often wildlife rehabilitation is an elaborate and time-consuming process.

Wildlife rehabilitators work with veterinarians to assess injuries and diagnose a variety of illnesses. Due to the important differences between wild animals and domestic animals, rehabilitators need extensive knowledge about the species in care, including natural history, nutritional requirements, behavioral issues, and caging considerations. They also need to understand any dangers the animals may present to rehabilitators. Rehabilitators must also be able to administer basic first aid and physical therapy, and understand any dangers the animals may present to rehabilitators.

Almost all birds are protected by federal law; state laws protect most other kinds of wildlife. To work with mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, wildlife rehabilitators must be issued special permits from their state wildlife agencies. Before receiving these permits, individuals must meet various requirements such as specialized training, participation in mentorship programs, facility inspections, and written or oral exams. Rehabilitators who wish to care for birds also must get permits from the US Fish & Wildlife Service. Once they receive the permits, conscientious rehabilitators continue their education by attending conferences, seminars, and workshops, keeping up with published literature, and networking with others in the field. 



Because of their training, wildlife rehabilitators can help concerned people decide whether an animal truly needs help. Young birds and mammals should be returned to their families if at all possible; even well trained rehabilitators are not equivalent replacements for biological parents. Rehabilitators can provide instructions on how to reunite wildlife families, keeping the safety of the animals and the rescuers in mind, and they can suggest humane, long-term solutions when conflicts arise between humans and their wild neighbors. 



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Are you worried about your mental sharpness? Or maybe that of a loved one’s?


Mild forgetfulness can be a normal part of aging. If you have trouble remembering someone's name but it comes to you later, that's not a serious memory problem.


But if memory problems are seriously affecting your daily life, they could be early signs of Alzheimer's disease. While the number of symptoms you have and how strong they are vary, it’s important to identify the early signs. You need to ask yourself some tough questions.

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Age spots are the result of an excess production of melanin, or skin pigment. Doctors don't always know why age spots develop. Skin aging, sun exposure, or other forms of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, such as tanning beds, are all possible causes.

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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term used to describe disorders that involve chronic inflammation of your digestive tract. Types of IBD include:


Ulcerative colitis. This condition causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Crohn's disease. This type of IBD is characterized by inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract, which often spreads deep into affected tissues.

Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease usually involve severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue and weight loss.

IBD can be debilitating and sometimes leads to life-threatening complications.

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Newborn jaundice is a yellowing of a baby’s skin and eyes. Newborn jaundice is very common and can occur when babies have a high level of bilirubin, a yellow pigment produced during normal breakdown of red blood cells. In older babies and adults, the liver processes bilirubin, which then passes it through the intestinal tract. However, a newborn’s still-developing liver may not be mature enough to remove bilirubin.


The good news is that in most cases, newborn jaundice goes away on its own as a baby’s liver develops and as the baby begins to feed, which helps bilirubin pass through the body.


In most cases, jaundice will disappear within 2 to 3 weeks. Jaundice that persists longer than three weeks may be a symptom of an underlying condition. Additionally, high levels of bilirubin can put a baby at risk for deafness, cerebral palsy, or other forms of brain damage. That’s why the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all newborn babies be examined for jaundice every time their vital signs are measured (or at least every 8 to 12 hours), before discharge from the hospital, and again a few days after discharge.

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West Nile fever is a viral infection typically spread by mosquitoes. In about 75% of infections people have few or no symptoms. About 20% of people develop a fever, headache, vomiting, or a rash

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Bedwetting, or nocturnal enuresis, refers to the unintentional passage of urine during sleep. Enuresis is the medical term for wetting, whether in the clothing during the day or in bed at night. Another name for enuresis is urinary incontinence.
For infants and young children, urination is involuntary. Wetting is normal for them. Most children achieve some degree of bladder control by 4 years of age. Daytime control is usually achieved first, while nighttime control comes later.

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