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X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a condition that affects the immune system and occurs almost exclusively in males. People with XLA have very few B cells, which are specialized white blood cells that help protect the body against infection. B cells can mature into the cells that produce special proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins. Antibodies attach to specific foreign particles and germs, marking them for destruction. Individuals with XLA are more susceptible to infections because their body makes very few antibodies.Children with XLA are usually healthy for the first 1 or 2 months of life because they are protected by antibodies acquired before birth from their mother. After this time, the maternal antibodies are cleared from the body, and the affected child begins to develop recurrent infections. In children with XLA, infections generally take longer to get better and then they come back again, even with antibiotic medications. The most common bacterial infections that occur in people with XLA are lung infections (pneumonia and bronchitis), ear infections (otitis), pink eye (conjunctivitis), and sinus infections (sinusitis). Infections that cause chronic diarrhea are also common. Recurrent infections can lead to organ damage. People with XLA can develop severe, life-threatening bacterial infections; however, affected individuals are not particularly vulnerable to infections caused by viruses. With treatment to replace antibodies, infections can usually be prevented, improving the quality of life for people with XLA.


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Triple X syndrome, also called trisomy X, is a genetic disorder that affects about 1 in 1,000 females. Females normally have two X chromosomes in all cells — one X chromosome from each parent. In triple X syndrome, a female has three X chromosomes.Many girls and women with triple X syndrome have no symptoms or only mild symptoms. In other cases, symptoms may be more pronounced — possibly including developmental delays and learning disabilities.Treatment for triple X syndrome depends on which symptoms, if any, are present and their severity. Normal sexual development and the ability to have children are typical for most females who have triple X syndrome.


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Earwax blockage occurs when earwax (cerumen) accumulates in your ear or becomes too hard to wash away naturally.

Earwax is a helpful and natural part of your body's defenses. It cleans, lubricates and protects your ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria.

If earwax blockage becomes a problem, you or your doctor can take simple steps to remove the wax safely.

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Exercise headaches occur during or after sustained, strenuous exercise. Some activities associated with exercise headaches include running, rowing, tennis, swimming and weightlifting.


Doctors divide exercise headaches into two categories. Primary exercise headaches are usually harmless, aren't connected to any underlying problems and can often be prevented with medication.


Secondary exercise headaches are caused by an underlying, often serious problem within the brain — such as bleeding or a tumor — or outside the brain — such as coronary artery disease. Secondary exercise headaches may require emergency medical attention.

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A sexual problem, or sexual dysfunction, refers to a problem during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. The sexual response cycle has four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.


While research suggests that sexual dysfunction is common (43% of women and 31% of men report some degree of difficulty), it is a topic that many people are hesitant or embarrassed to discuss. Fortunately, most cases of sexual dysfunction are treatable, so it is important to share your concerns with your partner and doctor.

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Heat exhaustion is a condition whose symptoms may include heavy sweating and a rapid pulse, a result of your body overheating. It's one of three heat-related syndromes, with heat cramps being the mildest and heatstroke being the most severe.


Causes of heat exhaustion include exposure to high temperatures, particularly when combined with high humidity, and strenuous physical activity. Without prompt treatment, heat exhaustion can lead to heatstroke, a life-threatening condition. Fortunately, heat exhaustion is preventable.

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An incompetent cervix, also called a cervical insufficiency, is a condition that occurs when weak cervical tissue causes or contributes to premature birth or the loss of an otherwise healthy pregnancy.


Before pregnancy, your cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina — is normally closed and rigid. As pregnancy progresses and you prepare to give birth, the cervix gradually softens, decreases in length (effaces) and opens (dilates). If you have an incompetent cervix, your cervix might begin to open too soon — causing you to give birth too early.


An incompetent cervix can be difficult to diagnose and, as a result, treat. If your cervix begins to open early, your health care provider might recommend preventive medication during pregnancy, frequent ultrasounds or a procedure that closes the cervix with strong sutures (cervical cerclage).

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Infant reflux occurs when food backs up (refluxes) from a baby's stomach, causing the baby to spit up. Sometimes called gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the condition is rarely serious and becomes less common as a baby gets older. It's unusual for infant reflux to continue after age 18 months.


Reflux occurs in healthy infants multiple times a day. As long as your baby is healthy, content and growing well, the reflux is not a cause for concern.


Rarely, infant reflux can be a sign of a medical problem, such as an allergy, a blockage in the digestive system or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

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Myxofibrosarcoma is a common connective tissue neoplasm of malignant fibrocytes in a myxoid matrix favoring the extremities. Like many other tumors of connective tissue, soft tissue sarcoma exhibits high recurrence rates but is rarely known to metastasize. We present a patient with myxofibrosarcoma of the hand with metastases to the lungs, pleura, and mediastinum. The mediastinal metastasis presented clinically with gastrointestinal symptoms due to compression of the gastroesophageal junction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma of the hand and also the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma to mediastinal lymph nodes at the level of the gastroesophageal junction. We also performed a comprehensive literature review of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma.

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Pectus excavatum is a condition in which a person's breastbone is sunken into his or her chest. In severe cases, pectus excavatum can look as if the center of the chest has been scooped out, leaving a deep dent.While the sunken breastbone is often noticeable shortly after birth, the severity of pectus excavatum typically worsens during the adolescent growth spurt.Also called funnel chest, pectus excavatum is more common in boys than in girls. Severe cases of pectus excavatum can eventually interfere with the function of the heart and lungs. But even mild cases of pectus excavatum can make children feel self-conscious about their appearance. Surgery can correct the deformity.

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A pneumothorax (noo-moe-THOR-aks) is a collapsed lung. A pneumothorax occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall. This air pushes on the outside of your lung and makes it collapse. In most cases, only a portion of the lung collapses.A pneumothorax can be caused by a blunt or penetrating chest injury, certain medical procedures, or damage from underlying lung disease. Or it may occur for no obvious reason. Symptoms usually include sudden chest pain and shortness of breath. On some occasions, a collapsed lung can be a life-threatening event.Treatment for a pneumothorax usually involves inserting a flexible tube or needle between the ribs to remove the excess air. However, a small pneumothorax may heal on its own.

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Detoxification is one of the more widely used treatments and concepts in alternative medicine. It is based on the principle that illnesses can be caused by the accumulation of toxic substances (toxins) in the body. Eliminating existing toxins and avoiding new toxins are essential parts of the healing process. Detoxification utilizes a variety of tests and techniques.

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Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head and neck that builds up as sexual excitement increases. Or, more commonly, you may experience a sudden, severe headache just before or during orgasm.


Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some can be a sign of something serious, such as problems with the blood vessels that feed your brain.


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Before smallpox was eradicated, it was a serious infectious disease caused by the variola virus. It was contagious—meaning, it spread from one person to another. People who had smallpox had a fever and a distinctive, progressive skin rash.Most people with smallpox recovered, but about 3 out of every 10 people with the disease died. Many smallpox survivors have permanent scars over large areas of their body, especially their faces. Some are left blind. Thanks to the success of vaccination, smallpox was eradicated, and no cases of naturally occurring smallpox have happened since 1977. The last natural outbreak of smallpox in the United States occurred in 1949.


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It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on a date or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause significant anxiety, fear, self-consciousness and embarrassment because you fear being scrutinized or judged by others In social anxiety disorder, fear and anxiety lead to avoidance that can disrupt your life. Severe stress can affect your daily routine, work, school or other activities.Social anxiety disorder is a chronic mental health condition, but learning coping skills in psychotherapy and taking medications can help you gain confidence and improve your ability to interact with others




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Trisomy X is a disorder that affects females and is characterized by the presence of an additional X chromosome. Normally, females have two X chromosomes; however, females with trisomy X carry three X chromosomes in the nuclei of body cells. There are specific physical features (phenotype) associated with this chromosomal disorder. Common symptoms that can potentially occur include language-based learning disabilities, developmental dyspraxia, tall stature, low muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormal bending or curving of the pinkies toward the ring fingers (clinodactyly). Trisomy X occurs randomly as a result from errors during the division of reproductive cells in one of the parents. This disorder occurs in one in 900 to 1,000 live births.

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    Toxic Hepatitis defines inflammatory liver disease.  The effect of irritant to liver cells causes inflammation of the liver tissue Irritant toxics to liver cells are alcohol, chemicals, street drugs and some nutritional supplements.  There have bene cases where Toxic Hepatitis has developed in a matter of hours or days since exposure to toxins whereas there have been other instances where it has taken months of regular exposure to the toxin before any symptom of Toxic Hepatitis is observed. Generally, symptoms produced by Toxic Hepatitis are self limiting and tend to go away when the exposure to the toxin is eliminated but there have been cases where Toxic Hepatitis has permanently damaged the liver resulting in cirrhosis and in some instances liver failure


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Toxic shock syndrome is a rare but serious medical condition caused by a bacterial infection. It is caused when the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus gets into the bloodstream and produces toxins.Although toxic shock syndrome has been linked to superabsorbent tampon use in menstruating women, this condition can affect men, children, and people of all ages. 

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Toxemia: A condition in pregnancy, also known as pre-eclampsia (or preeclampsia) characterized by abrupt hypertension (a sharp rise in blood pressure), albuminuria (leakage of large amounts of the protein albumin into the urine) and edema (swelling) of the hands, feet, and face. Pre-eclampsia is the most common complication of pregnancy. It affects about 5% of pregnancies. It occurs in the third trimester (the last third) of pregnancy.Pre-eclampsia occurs most frequently in first pregnancies. It is more common in women who have diabetes or who are carrying twins. Some women seem to have a strong tendency to develop the disease and suffer from pre-eclampsia with every pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia is more common in daughters of women who have been affected; in many cases the disease tends to run in families.Pre-eclampsia can be a sign of serious problems. It may, for example, indicate that the placenta is detaching from the uterus. In some cases, untreated pre-eclampsia can progress to eclampsia, a life-threatening situation for both mother and fetus characterized by coma and seizures.Treatment is by bed rest and sometimes medication. If that treatment is ineffective, the induction of labor and delivery or a C-section may have to be considered. Pre-eclampsia usually resolves a short time after the baby is born. 


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A natural wax-like substance secreted by special glands in the skin on the outer part of the ear canal. It repels water, and traps material such as dust and sand particles. Usually a small amount of wax accumulates, and then dries up and falls out of the ear canal carrying with it unwanted particles. Ear wax is helpful in normal amounts and serves to coat the skin of the ear canal where it acts as a temporary water repellent. The absence of ear wax may result in dry, itchy ears, and even infection.

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A bone density test is the only test that can diagnose osteoporosis before a broken bone occurs. This test helps to estimate the density of your bones and your chance of breaking a bone. NOF recommends a bone density test of the hip and spine by a central DXA machine to diagnose osteoporosis. DXA stands for dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.


You can find out whether you have osteoporosis or if you should be concerned about your bones by getting a bone density test. Some people also call it a bone mass measurement test. This test uses a machine to measure your bone density. It estimates the amount of bone in your hip, spine and sometimes other bones. Your test result will help your healthcare provider make recommendations to help you protect your bones.


Are you a postmenopausal woman or man age 50 and older? Have you recently broken a bone? If you answered “yes” to both questions, you should talk to your doctor or other healthcare provider about getting a bone density test if you’ve never had one.

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Direct examination via endoscopy remains the criterion standard for evaluation of laryngotracheobronchial pathologic conditions. Endoscopy allows for easy visualization and accurate diagnosis of mucosal and superficial submucosal lesions. However, the evaluation of deeper structures is capable only through CT imaging or MRI. CT imaging has become the most commonly used technique for general laryngeal imaging. It is readily available at most hospitals and even at some outpatient centers. The acquisition time for a CT image is extremely short (within a matter of seconds), which is quite useful for the laryngeal examination, as patients are generally required to hold their breath to reduce movement. [1, 2]


Nevertheless, small lesions may still be difficult to visualize. In these cases, active techniques such as the Valsalva maneuver and phonation can better delineate masses of the hypoglottis and vocal cords, respectively.


MRI has also become more widely available in the past decade, although it has not surpassed CT scanning for conventional laryngeal imaging. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages. For example, CT and MRI appear to be comparable in efficacy for defining the site and extent of disease in fat and muscle. MRI, however, is more sensitive for detecting pathologic involvement of cartilage (Glastonbury). CT imaging is best for evaluation of occult fractures and dislocations during laryngeal trauma. Furthermore, MRI seems to be the optimal method for examining cooperative patients, especially for preoperative larynx evaluation when partial laryngectomy is considered. CT imaging is more useful in patients who cannot lie still for the study (eg, inebriated, combative). The imaging study performed usually depends on the experience of the radiologist. Additionally, MRI avoids radiation exposure. For more information, please see the Medscape Reference articleMR Imaging of the Larynx.

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X-ray imaging, also called radiography, is a fast and easy way to identify and diagnose bone injuries and disorders such as arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, fractures and infections. It is also used in conjunction with orthopedic surgery to ensure that a fracture or other injury has been properly aligned, and it can aid in the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities in the chest organs, including the heart and lungs. X-rays may be followed up with MRI, PET, CT, or ultrasound imaging if further testing is needed.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. MR imaging uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (X-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to better evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases that may not be assessed adequately with other imaging methods such as x-ray, ultrasound or computed tomography (also called CT or CAT scanning)


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Neoplastic disease of the nose, paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx and the parapharyngeal space requires thorough assessment of location and extent in order to plan appropriate treatment. CT allows the deep soft tissue planes to be evaluated and provides a complement to the physical examination. It is especially helpful in regions involving thin bony structures (paranasal sinuses, orbita); here CT performs better than MRI. MRI possesses many advantages over other imaging modalities caused by its excellent tissue contrast. In evaluating regions involving predominantly soft tissue structures (ec nasopharynx and parapharyngeal space) MRI is superior to CT. The possibility to obtain strictly consecutive volume data sets with spiral CT or 3D MRI offer excellent perspectives to visualize the data via 2D or 3D postprocessing. Because head and neck tumors reside in a complex area, having a 3D model of the anatomical features may assist in the delineation of pathology. Data sets may be transferred directly into computer systems and thus be used in computer assisted surgery.


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As an ancillary test for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), particularly in situations in which a diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase and 11-hydroxylase deficiency have been ruled out


Confirming a diagnosis of 3-beta-hydroxy dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD) deficiency


Analysis for 17-hydroxypregnenolone is also useful as part of a battery of tests to evaluate females with hirsutism or infertility; both can result from adult-onset CAH

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The hormone 17-hydroxyprogesterone is a building block for producing the hormone cortisol. Cortisol is produced mainly by the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the two adrenal glands, located above the kidneys). Cortisol is called the "stress hormone" because it's secreted in larger amounts as part of the body's response to physical or emotional stress.


Cortisol levels normally vary throughout the day. They're highest in the morning, just before waking up, and lowest at night.


Some people, however, can't make enough cortisol because they lack an enzyme in the adrenal glands that's needed to make it. They'll have a buildup of 17-hydroxyprogesterone in the blood because it's not being converted to cortisol.


In kids, the most common cause of cortisol deficiency, and consequently high levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, is one of the forms of the genetic disorder congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).


CAH can affect both boys and girls. It causes the adrenal glands to make excess androgens (male steroid hormones) and, in some cases, not enough of the hormones that regulate the body's salt balance.


Though treatable, undetected CAH can sometimes lead to more serious symptoms such as dehydration and shock in infants.

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Primary aldosteronism should be suspected whenever a patient has the triad of hypertension, hypokalemia, and inappropriate renal potassium wasting. The biggest challenge is the differential diagnosis between the more common adrenal adenoma and bilateral hyperplasia. Because adrenal adenomas increase the circulating levels of 18-hydroxycorticosterone (18-OH B), serum levels of 18-OH B may be useful to differentiate them from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. The cutoff point appears to be about 50 ng/dL of serum. Most values are around 100 ng/dL. The higher the level of this precursor, the greater the possibility that an adrenal adenoma is present. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

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This test finds out how much 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is in your urine.


Your liver breaks down the hormone serotonin into 5-HIAA. This waste product is normally sent from your body in your urine. Tumors called functioning carcinoids secrete serotonin. Carcinoid tumors are found in the intestinal tract, lungs, appendix, and other body tissues. Because serotonin in the blood is broken down very quickly, the amount of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid collected in the urine over a full day more accurately reflects the rate at which serotonin is being made than the blood level at one particular time. 

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Sometimes a sample of bone marrow must be examined to determine why blood cells are abnormal or why there are too few or too many of a specific kind of blood cell. A doctor can take two different types of bone marrow samples:


Bone marrow aspirate: Removes fluid and cells by inserting a needle into the bone marrow and sucking out fluid and cells


Bone marrow core biopsy: Removes an intact piece of bone marrow using a coring device (similar to a larger diameter needle)

The bone marrow aspirate shows what cells, normal and abnormal, are present in the bone marrow. The core biopsy shows how full the bone marrow is with cells and where the cells are located within the marrow. Both types of samples are usually taken from the hipbone (iliac crest), although aspirates are rarely taken from the breastbone (sternum). In very young children, bone marrow samples are occasionally taken from one of the bones in the lower leg (tibia).

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The test is a simple method to identifying a person’s gender and establish sexual identity in newborns and in adults. Earlier the method was popularly employed in competitive sports to identify males masquerading as females. 


The mouth has to be rinsed and washed before the test. A spatula is used to gently scrape the inside of the person’s cheek. This can be done by a health care provider or by self. A smear of this buccal sample is made on a slide, stained and observed under the microscope.

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The Orton Materials Testing and Research Center is a full service, independent testing laboratory that specializes in measuring the behavior of ceramic materials.  The Testing Center performs physical properties tests, thermal analysis measurements, and provides consulting services on ceramics and other related materials.


Initially, MTRC was known as The Refractories Fellowship Laboratory, which was established in 1917 at the Mellon Institute in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was relocated to The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio in 1965 and renamed the Refractory Research Center. Since 1990, the Center has been operated by the Edward Orton Jr. Ceramic Foundation.

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Coxsackie viruses are enteroviruses belonging to the Picornavirus family, which is comprised of strains A and B as well as various serotypes A1-22, 24, and B1-6. Following incubation, a variety of well known diseases can manifest themselves within the host. Coxsackie A is commonly associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease, which primarily affects children younger than 10 years of age. In rare cases, Coxsackie infections may produce mild or subclinical symptoms, yet most infections trigger the onset of flu-like ailments but may include symptoms of other diseases along the lines of pneumonia, hepatitis, and meningitis.
A positive test result does not necessarily indicate current or recent infection as antibodies to Coxsackie species can be detected in uninfected individuals due to moderate passive exposure to infected hosts. It is, therefore, crucial that results from all Coxsackie A serologies correlate with the clinical history of the patient and all other data available to the physician. Samples collected at the early stage of infection (primarily in children) may not yield detectable antibodies. If a recent infection is suspected, a second specimen should be collected 10 to 20 days following the initial collection and tested.
Coxsackie A viruses are mainly associated with human hand, foot and mouth disease.
Coxsackie Bviruses can cause mild signs and symptoms, similar to a "cold", but these viruses also can lead to more serious diseases, including myocarditis (inflammation of the heart); pericarditis (inflammation of the sac lining the heart); meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that line the brain and spinal cord); and pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas).
Infection is common but most frequent in summer and autumn in temperate climates but all year round in the tropics. They tend to affect those under 16 but adults are also affected. Spread is usually from the faeco-oral route with an incubation period of 2 to 6 days.

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Reflexology, also known as zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a pseudoscientific[1] system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.


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The overnight dexamethasone suppression test checks to see how taking a steroid medicine called dexamethasone changes the levels of the hormone cortisol in the blood. This test checks for a condition in which large amounts of cortisol are produced by the adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome).


Normally, when the pituitary gland camera.gif makes less adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the adrenal glands camera.gif make less cortisol. Dexamethasone, which is like cortisol, lowers the amount of ACTH released by the pituitary gland. This in turn lowers the amount of cortisol released by the adrenal glands.


After a dose of dexamethasone, cortisol levels often stay very high in people who have Cushing's syndrome. Sometimes other conditions can keep cortisol levels high during this test. Examples include major depression, alcoholism, stress, obesity, kidney failure, pregnancy, and uncontrolled diabetes.


The night before the blood test, you will take a dexamethasone pill. The next morning, the cortisol level in your blood will be measured. If your cortisol level stays high, Cushing's syndrome may be the cause.


An ACTH test is sometimes done at the same time as the cortisol test.

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A dexamethasone suppression test is primarily used to help diagnose Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome indicates that you have an abnormally high level of cortisol. Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced by the body during high levels of stress. (Abnormally low cortisol levels can be a sign of Addison’s disease, which is not diagnosed by this test.)

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Lipids are a group of fats and fat-like substances that are important constituents of cells and sources of energy. A lipid profile measures the level of specific lipids in the blood.


Two important lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, are transported in the blood by lipoprotein particles. Each particle contains a combination of protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules. The particles measured with a lipid profile are classified by their density into high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).


Monitoring and maintaining healthy levels of these lipids is important in staying healthy. While the body produces the cholesterol needed to function properly, the source for some cholesterol is the diet. Eating too much of foods that are high in saturated fats and trans unsaturated fats (trans fats) or having an inherited predisposition can result in a high level of cholesterol in the blood. The extra cholesterol may be deposited in plaques on the walls of blood vessels. Plaques can narrow or eventually block the opening of blood vessels, leading to hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and increasing the risk of numerous health problems, including heart disease and stroke. A high level of triglycerides in the blood is also associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), although the reason for this is not well understood.

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Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction. Many people with anorexia see themselves as overweight even though they are in fact underweight. If asked they usually deny they have a problem with low weight. Often they weigh themselves frequently, eat only small amounts, and only eat certain foods. Some will exercise excessively, force themselves to vomit, or use laxatives to produce weight loss. Complications may include osteoporosis, infertility and heart damage, among others. Women will often stop having menstrual periods.

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Histopathology (or histology) involves the examination of sampled whole tissues under the microscope. Three main types of specimen are received by the pathology laboratory.


Specimens received by the pathology laboratory require tissue preparation then are treated and analysed using techniques appropriate to the type of tissue and the investigation required. For immediate diagnosis during a surgical procedure a frozen section is performed


Larger specimens include whole organs or parts thereof, which are removed during surgical operations. Examples include a uterus after a hysterectomy, the large bowel after a colectomy or tonsils after a tonsillectomy.


Pieces of tissue rather than whole organs are removed as biopsies, which often require smaller surgical procedures that can be performed whilst the patient is still awake but sedated. Biopsies include excision biopsies, in which tissue is removed with a scalpel (e.g. a skin excision for a suspicious mole) or a core biopsy, in which a needle is inserted into a suspicious mass to remove a slither or core of tissue that can be examined under the microscope (e.g. to investigate a breast lump).


Fluid and very small pieces of tissue (individual cells rather than groups of cells, e.g. within fluid from around the lung) can be obtained via a fine needle aspiration (FNA). This is performed using a thinner needle than that used in a core biopsy, but with a similar technique. This type of material is usually liquid rather than solid, and is submitted for cytology rather than histology (see Cytopathology).

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Fungal Smear test is performed on a sample of skin to measure the level of Fungal Smear (Skin) in the skin.It is performed to confirm Fungal Infection of Skin and also during the treatment and after the treatment of Fungal Infection of Skin and Immunosuppressive Condition.

No special preparation is needed for Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin. Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin. Your doctor depending on your condition will give specific instructions.

The normal result for Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin for Fungal Smear (Skin) is A normal KOH test result shows no Fungi. A stained slide fluoresce is observed if positive for fungus. A positive test indicates Fungal infection but it cannot identify the organism. If KOH test is positive then, specimen is inoculated into culture media. for Unisex gender and for All age groups.


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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat, whereas anxiety is the expectation of future threat.[3] Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. It is often accompanied by muscular tension,[3] restlessness, fatigue and problems in concentration. Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder.

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It's normal to feel anxious from time to time, especially if your life is stressful. However, excessive, ongoing anxiety and worry that are difficult to control and interfere with day-to-day activities may be a sign of generalized anxiety disorder.


It's possible to develop generalized anxiety disorder as a child or an adult. Generalized anxiety disorder has symptoms that are similar to panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other types of anxiety, but they're all different conditions.


Living with generalized anxiety disorder can be a long-term challenge. In many cases, it occurs along with other anxiety or mood disorders. In most cases, generalized anxiety disorder improves with psychotherapy or medications. Making lifestyle changes, learning coping skills and using relaxation techniques also can help.


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Malaria antigen detection tests are a group of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests of the rapid antigen test type that allow quick diagnosis of malaria by people who are not otherwise skilled in traditional laboratory techniques for diagnosing malaria or in situations where such equipment is not available. There are currently over 20 such tests commercially available (WHO product testing 2008). The first malaria antigen suitable as target for such a test was a soluble glycolytic enzyme Glutamate dehydrogenase.[1][2][3] None of the rapid tests are currently as sensitive as a thick blood film, nor as cheap. A major drawback in the use of all current dipstick methods is that the result is essentially qualitative. In many endemic areas of tropical Africa, however, the quantitative assessment of parasitaemia is important, as a large percentage of the population will test positive in any qualitative assay.

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Tuberculin is a glycerol extract of the tubercle bacillus. Purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin is a precipitate of species-nonspecific molecules obtained from filtrates of sterilized, concentrated cultures. The tuberculin reaction was first described by Robert Koch in 1890. The test was first developed and described by the German physician Felix Mendel in 1908 [1] It is named after Charles Mantoux, a French physician who built on the work of Koch and Clemens von Pirquet to create his test in 1907. However, the test was unreliable due to impurities in tuberculin which tended to cause false results.[2] Esmond R. Long and Florence B. Seibert identified the active agent in tuberculin as a protein. Seibert then spent a number of years developing methods for separating and purifying the protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, obtaining purified protein derivative (PPD) and enabling the creation of a reliable test for tuberculosis.[2] Her first publication on the purification of tuberculin appeared in 1934.[3] By the 1940s, Seibert's PPD was the international standard for tuberculin tests.[4] In 1939, M. A. Linnikova in the USSR created a modified version of PPD. In 1954, the Soviet Union started mass production of PPD-L, named after Linnikova.[c


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In biology, the nuclear matrix is the network of fibres found throughout the inside of a cell nucleus and is somewhat analogous to the cell cytoskeleton. However, in contrast to the cytoskeleton, the nuclear matrix has been proposed to be a highly dynamic structure, perhaps more like a dynamic sponge with open compartments for free diffusion of molecules in the nucleus.The nuclear matrix, along with the nuclear lamina aid in organizing the genetic information within the cell.

The exact function of this matrix is still disputed, and its very existence has recently been called into question.Evidence for such a structure was recognised as long ago as 1948 (Zbarskii and Debov), and consequently many proteins associated with the matrix have been discovered. The presence of intra-cellular proteins is largely indisputable, and it is well recognized that proteins such as the Scaffold, or Matrix Associated Proteins (SAR or MAR) have some role in the organisation of chromatins. There is evidence that the nuclear matrix is involved in regulation of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

For a long time the question whether a polymer meshwork, a “nuclear matrix” or “nuclear-scaffold” or "NuMat"is an essential component of the in vivo nuclear architecture has remained a matter of debate. While there are arguments that the relative position of chromosome territories (CTs), the equivalent of condensed metaphase chromosomes at interphase, may be maintained due to steric hindrance or electrostatic repulsion forces between the apparently highly structured CT surfaces, this concept has to be reconciled with observations according to which cells treated with the classical matrix-extraction procedures maintain defined territories up to the point where a minor subset of acidic nuclear matrix proteins is released – very likely those proteins that governed their association with the nuclear skeleton.The nuclear matrix proteome consists of structural proteins, chaperones, DNA/RNA-binding proteins, chromatin remodeling and transcription factors. The complexity of NuMat is an indicator of its diverse structural and functional significance.
S/MARs (scaffold/matrix attachment elements), the DNA regions that are thought to attach genomic DNA to the nuclear skeleton, show an ever increasing spectrum of established biological activities. All these activities are in agreement with (or most easily explained by) the nuclear matrix hypothesis. This is one justification for maintaining this concept before equally plausible alternative models emerge.

S/MARs find increasing use for the rational design of vectors with widespread use in gene therapy and biotechnology. Nowadays S/MAR functions can be modulated, improved and custom-tailored to the specific needs of novel vector systems
The nuclear matrix composition on human cells has been proven to be cell type and tumor specific. It has been clearly demonstrated that the nuclear matrix composition in a tumor is different from its normal counterparts.This fact could be useful to characterize cancer markers and to predict the disease even earlier. These markers have been found in urine and blood and could potentially be used in early detection and prognosis of human cancers.

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Oxalate (Urine)is a urine test to see whether you have a high level of the chemical oxalate in your urine. Oxalate is a natural end product of metabolism in the body. It should leave your body through your urine. If your oxalate levels are too high, the extra oxalate can combine with calcium to form kidney stones. These stones are hard masses of chemicals that can get stuck in the urinary tract. They commonly cause severe pain. Calcium-oxalate kidney stones are the most common type. Higher levels of oxalate may be caused by eating foods high in oxalate, or by your body absorbing or making too much oxalate.
You may need this test if you have kidney stones often. Your healthcare provider might order this test to help him or her make a recommendation on treatment. It may also be used to find out how well limiting the amount of oxalate in your food is working. You might have this test to see whether you have a rare inherited condition called primary hyperoxaluria and are at risk of developing kidney stones. 

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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, vomiting, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth. Complications include esophagitis, esophageal strictures, and Barrett's esophagus.

Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatus hernia, and taking certain medicines. Medications involved include antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, antidepressants, and sleeping medication. It is due to poor closure of the lower esophageal sphincter (the junction between the stomach and the esophagus).Diagnosis among those who do not improve with simpler measures may involve gastroscopy, upper GI series, esophageal pH monitoring, or esophageal manometry.

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Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations. Some disorders associated with the social anxiety spectrum include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, autism, eating disorders, and substance use disorders. Individuals higher in social anxiety avert their gazes, show fewer facial expressions, and show difficulty with initiating and maintaining conversation. Trait social anxiety, the stable tendency to experience this nervousness, can be distinguished from state anxiety, the momentary response to a particular social stimulus. Nearly 90% of individuals report feeling a form of social anxiety (i.e., shyness) at some point in their lives. Half of the individuals with any social fears meet criteria for social anxiety disorder. The function of social anxiety is to increase arousal and attention to social interactions, inhibit unwanted social behavior, and motivate preparation for social situations such as performance situations.
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Hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating,in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. Although primarily a physical burden, hyperhidrosis can deteriorate quality of life from a psychological, emotional, and social perspective. It has been called by some 'the silent handicap'.

Both the words diaphoresis and hidrosis can mean either perspiration (in which sense they are synonymous with sweating) or excessive perspiration, in which case they refer to a specific, narrowly defined, clinical disorder.
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A yawn is a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath.

Yawning (oscitation) most often occurs in adults immediately before and after sleep, during tedious activities and as a result of its contagious quality. It is commonly associated with tiredness, stress, sleepiness, or even boredom and hunger. In humans, yawning is often triggered by others yawning (e.g. seeing a person yawning, talking to someone on the phone who is yawning) and is a typical example of positive feedback. This "contagious" yawning has also been observed in chimpanzees, dogs, cats, birds, and reptiles, and can occur across species. Approximately 20 psychological reasons for yawning have been proposed by scholars, but there is little agreement about its main functions.

During a yawn, the tensor tympani muscle in the middle ear contracts, creating a rumbling noise from within the head. Yawning is sometimes accompanied, both in humans and animals, by an instinctive act of stretching several parts of the body, including arms, neck, shoulders and back.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease, commonly referred to as GERD or acid reflux, is a condition in which the liquid content of the stomach regurgitates (backs up or refluxes) into the esophagus. The liquid can inflame and damage the lining (esophagitis) although visible signs of inflammation occur in a minority of patients. The regurgitated liquid usually contains acid and pepsin that are produced by the stomach. (Pepsin is an enzyme that begins the digestion of proteins in the stomach.) The refluxed liquid also may contain bile that has backed-up into the stomach from the duodenum. The first part of the small intestine attached to the stomach. Acid is believed to be the most injurious component of the refluxed liquid. Pepsin and bile also may injure the esophagus, but their role in the production of esophageal inflammation and damage is not as clear as the role of acid.


GERD is a chronic condition. Once it begins, it usually is life-long. If there is injury to the lining of the esophagus (esophagitis), this also is a chronic condition. Moreover, after the esophagus has healed with treatment and treatment is stopped, the injury will return in most patients within a few months. Once treatment for GERD is begun it will need to be continued indefinitely although. However, some patients with intermittent symptoms and no esophagitis can be treated only during symptomatic periods.

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t can reduce your risk of major illnesses, such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and cancer by up to 50% and lower your risk of early death by up to 30%.It’s free, easy to take, has an immediate effect and you don’t need a GP to get some. Its name? Exercise.Click on the links below to find out if you're doing enough for your age:early childhood (under five years old)young people (five to 18 years old)

adults (19 to 64 years old)

older adults (65 and over)

Exercise is the miracle cure we’ve always had, but for too long we’ve neglected to take our recommended dose. Our health is now suffering as a consequence.This is no snake oil. Whatever your age, there's strong scientific evidence that being physically active can help you lead a healthier and even happier life.People who do regular activity have a lower risk of many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, and some cancers.Research shows that physical activity can also boost self-esteem, mood, sleep quality and energy, as well as reducing your risk of stress, depression, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.“If exercise were a pill, it would be one of the most cost-effective drugs ever invented,” says Dr Nick Cavill, a health promotion consultant


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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an odorless, colorless gas. It is a waste product made by your body. Your blood carries carbon dioxide to your lungs. You breathe out carbon dioxide and breathe in oxygen all day, every day, without thinking about it. A CO2 blood test measures the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood. Too much or too little carbon dioxide in the blood can indicate a health problem.

Other names: carbon dioxide content, CO2 content, carbon dioxide blood test, bicarbonate blood test, bicarbonate test, total CO2; TCO2; carbon dioxide content; CO2 content; bicarb; HCO3

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A thyroxine test helps diagnose disorders of the thyroid. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near the throat. Your thyroid makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy. It also plays an important role in regulating your weight, body temperature, muscle strength, and even your mood. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is a type of thyroid hormone. This test measures the level of T4 in your blood. Too much or too little T4 can indicate thyroid disease.

The T4 hormone comes in two forms:

  • Free T4, which enters the body tissues where it's needed
  • Bound T4, which attaches to proteins, preventing it from entering body tissues

A test that measures both free and bound T4 is called a total T4 test. Other tests measure just free T4. A free T4 test is considered more accurate than a total T4 test for checking thyroid function.

Other names: free thyroxine, free T4, total T4 concentration, thyroxine screen, free T4 concentration.

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Anaphylaxis is a rapidly developing and serious allergic reaction that can affect multiple body systems at the same time. Severe anaphylactic reactions can be fatal. Anaphylaxis is often triggered by substances that are injected or ingested and thereby gain access into the bloodstream. This can result in a reaction involving the skin, lungs, nose, throat, and gastrointestinal tract.

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Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins found in natural rubber latex, a product made from the rubber tree. If you have a latex allergy, your body mistakes latex for a harmful substance.


Latex allergy may cause itchy skin and hives or even anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening condition that can cause throat swelling and severe difficulty breathing. Your doctor can determine if you have a latex allergy or if you're at risk of developing a latex allergy.


Understanding latex allergy and knowing common sources of latex can help you prevent allergic reactions.

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Cryoglobulinemia is a medical condition that is caused by proteins called cryoglobulins, which are present in the blood. Cryoglobulins are abnormal proteins that by definition have the unusual property of precipitating from the serum when it is chilled in the laboratory and then dissolves back into the serum upon rewarming.


Cryoglobulins may or may not cause disease. Cryoglobulins can accompany another condition (such as dermatomyositis, multiple myeloma, viral infections, or lymphoma) or be an isolated condition themselves, called cryoglobulinemia.

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Some sexually transmitted infections can spread through the use of unsterilized drug needles, from mother to baby during childbirth, or breast-feeding, and blood transfusions.

Sexually transmitted infections have been around for thousands of years. The genital areas are generally moist and warm environments - ideal for the growth of yeasts, viruses, and bacteria.

Microorganisms that exists on the skin or mucus membranes of the male or female genital area can be transmitted, as can organisms in semen, vaginal secretions, or blood during sexual intercourse.


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Chickenpox, also called varicella, is characterized by itchy red blisters that appear all over the body. A virus causes this condition. It often affects children, and was so common it was considered a childhood rite of passage.

It’s very rare to have the chickenpox infection more than once. And since the chickenpox vaccine was introduced in the mid-1990s, cases have declined.

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