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Bloat is any abnormal gas swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain and is sometimes accompanied by increased stomach growling, or more seriously, the total lack of it.

Pains that are due to bloating will feel sharp and cause the stomach to cramp. These pains may occur anywhere in the body and can change locations quickly.They are so painful that they are sometimes mistaken for heart pains when they develop on the upper left side of the chest. Pains on the right side are often confused with problems in the appendix or the gallbladder.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex among others.Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system.This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, an irregular heart beat, liver failure, and an increase in the risk of cancer, among other diseases Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Generally women are more sensitive to alcohol's harmful physical and mental effects than men

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Whiplash is a relatively common injury that occurs to a person's neck following a sudden acceleration-deceleration force that causes unrestrained, rapid forward and backward movement of the head and neck, most commonly from motor vehicle accidents. The term "whiplash" was first used in 1928. The term "railway spine" was used to describe a similar condition that was common in persons involved in train accidents prior to 1928. The term "whiplash injury" describes damage to both the bone structures and soft tissues, while "whiplash associated disorders" describes a more severe and chronic condition.Fortunately, whiplash is typically not a life threatening injury, but it can lead to a prolonged period of partial disability. There are significant economic expenses related to whiplash that can reach 30 billion dollars a year in the United States, including:medical care,disability,sick leave,lost productivity, andlitigation.While most people involved in minor motor vehicle accidents recover quickly without any chronic symptoms, some continue to experience symptoms for years after the injury. This wide variation in symptoms after relatively minor injuries has led some to suggest that, in many cases, whiplash is not so much a real physiologic injury, but that symptoms are more created as a result of potential economic gain. Many clinical studies have investigated this issue. Unfortunately, while there will always be people willing to attempt to mislead the system for personal gain, whiplash is a real condition with real symptoms.


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Whipple disease is a rare bacterial infection that most often affects your gastrointestinal system. Whipple disease interferes with normal digestion by impairing the breakdown of foods, such as fats and carbohydrates, and hampering your body's ability to absorb nutrients.Whipple disease also can infect other organs, including your brain, heart, joints and eyes.Without proper treatment, Whipple disease can be serious or fatal. However, a course of antibiotics can treat Whipple disease

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Wilson's disease is a rare inherited disorder that causes copper to accumulate in your liver, brain and other vital organs. Most people with Wilson's disease are diagnosed between the ages of 5 and 35, but it can affect younger and older people, as well.Copper plays a key role in the development of healthy nerves, bones, collagen and the skin pigment melanin. Normally, copper is absorbed from your food, and excess is excreted through a substance produced in your liver (bile).But in people with Wilson's disease, copper isn't eliminated properly and instead accumulates, possibly to a life-threatening level. When diagnosed early, Wilson's disease is treatable, and many people with the disorder live normal lives.

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Most adults have 32 teeth, including 4 wisdom teeth that usually emerge between the ages of 17 and 21.

This final set of molars can play a useful part in the mouth for many people.

However, for others, if they don’t come through properly or don’t emerge at all, they may need to be removed.

Having wisdom teeth out is one of the most common dental procedures in the UK.


Wisdom Teeth


Wisdom teeth present potential problems when they are misaligned as they can position themselves horizontally, be angled toward or away from the second molars or be angled inward or outward. Poor alignment of wisdom teeth can crowd or damage adjacent teeth, the jawbone, and nerves. Wisdom teeth that lean toward the second molars make those teeth more vulnerable to decay by entrapping plaque and debris.


In addition, wisdom teeth can be entrapped completely within the soft tissue and/or the jawbone or only partially break through, or erupt, through the gum.


Teeth that remain partially or completely entrapped within the soft tissue or the jawbone are called impacted. Wisdom teeth that only partially erupt allow an opening for bacteria to enter around the tooth and cause an infection, which results in pain, swelling, jaw stiffness, and general illness. Partially erupted teeth are also more prone to tooth decay and gum disease because their hard-to-reach location and awkward positioning makes brushing and flossing difficult.

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In Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, an extra electrical pathway between your heart's upper and lower chambers causes a rapid heartbeat. The extra pathway is present at birth and fairly rare.The episodes of fast heartbeats usually aren't life-threatening, but serious heart problems can occur. Treatment can stop or prevent episodes of fast heartbeats. A catheter-based procedure (ablation) can permanently correct the heart rhythm problems.Most people with an extra electrical pathway experience no fast heartbeat. This condition, called Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, is discovered only by chance during a heart exam. Although WPW pattern is often harmless, doctors might recommend further evaluation before children with WPW pattern participate in high-intensity sports.

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A wrist fracture is a medical term for a broken wrist. The wrist is made up of eight small bones which connect with the two long forearm bones called the radius and ulna. Although a broken wrist can happen in any of these 10 bones, by far the most common bone to break is the radius. This is called a distal radius fracture by hand surgeons (Figure 1).Some wrist fractures are stable. “Non-displaced” breaks, in which the bones do not move out of place initially, can be stable. Some “displaced” breaks (which need to be put back into the right place, called “reduction” or “setting”) also can be stable enough to treat in a cast or splint. Other fractures are unstable. In unstable fractures, even if the bones are put back into position and a cast is placed, the bone pieces tend to move or shift into a bad position before they solidly heal. This can make the wrist appear crooked.Some fractures are more severe than others. Fractures that break apart the smooth joint surface or fractures that shatter into many pieces (comminuted fractures) may make the bone unstable. These severe types of fractures often require surgery to restore and hold their alignment. An open fracture occurs when a fragment of bone breaks and is forced out through the skin. This can cause an increased risk of infection in the bone.

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Wrist pain is often caused by sprains or fractures from sudden injuries. But wrist pain can also result from long-term problems, such as repetitive stress, arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome.Because so many factors can lead to wrist pain, diagnosing the exact cause can be difficult, but an accurate diagnosis is essential for proper treatment and healing.

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Colic is uncontrollable crying in an otherwise healthy baby. Your baby is considered colicky if he’s younger than 5 months old and cries for more than three hours in a row on three or more days a week for at least three weeks (phew!). Colic isn't a disease and won't cause your baby any long-term harm, but it's a tough thing to go through for babies and their parents.

If your baby is colicky, find more than 20 sanity-saving tips to help you deal with it in our article about coping with colic.

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X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a condition that affects the immune system and occurs almost exclusively in males. People with XLA have very few B cells, which are specialized white blood cells that help protect the body against infection. B cells can mature into the cells that produce special proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins. Antibodies attach to specific foreign particles and germs, marking them for destruction. Individuals with XLA are more susceptible to infections because their body makes very few antibodies.Children with XLA are usually healthy for the first 1 or 2 months of life because they are protected by antibodies acquired before birth from their mother. After this time, the maternal antibodies are cleared from the body, and the affected child begins to develop recurrent infections. In children with XLA, infections generally take longer to get better and then they come back again, even with antibiotic medications. The most common bacterial infections that occur in people with XLA are lung infections (pneumonia and bronchitis), ear infections (otitis), pink eye (conjunctivitis), and sinus infections (sinusitis). Infections that cause chronic diarrhea are also common. Recurrent infections can lead to organ damage. People with XLA can develop severe, life-threatening bacterial infections; however, affected individuals are not particularly vulnerable to infections caused by viruses. With treatment to replace antibodies, infections can usually be prevented, improving the quality of life for people with XLA.


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Plague is a serious bacterial infection that's transmitted by fleas. Known as the Black Death during medieval times, today plague occurs in fewer than 5,000 people a year worldwide. It can be deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics.The organism that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, lives in small rodents found most commonly in rural and semirural areas of Africa, Asia and the United States. The organism is transmitted to humans who are bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents or by humans handling infected animals.The most common form of plague results in swollen and tender lymph nodes — called buboes — in the groin, armpits or neck. The rarest and deadliest form of plague affects the lungs, and it can be spread from person to person.


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Zika (Zee-ka) virus disease is a mosquito-borne viral infection that primarily occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Most people infected with Zika virus have no signs and symptoms, while others report mild fever, rash and muscle pain. Other signs and symptoms may include headache, red eyes (conjunctivitis) and a general feeling of discomfort.


Zika virus infections during pregnancy have been linked to miscarriage and can cause microcephaly, a potentially fatal congenital brain condition. Zika virus also may cause other neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome.


Researchers are working on a Zika virus vaccine. For now the best prevention is to prevent mosquito bites and reduce mosquito habitats.

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A dislocation is an injury to a joint — a place where two or more bones come together — in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. This painful injury temporarily deforms and immobilizes your joint.


Dislocation is most common in shoulders and fingers. Other sites include elbows, knees and hips. If you suspect a dislocation, seek prompt medical attention to return your bones to their proper positions.

When treated properly, most dislocations return to normal function after several weeks of rest and rehabilitation. However, some joints, such as your shoulder, may have an increased risk of repeat dislocation.

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Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve experiencing a disconnection and lack of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways that are involuntary and unhealthy and cause problems with functioning in everyday life.


Dissociative disorders usually develop as a reaction to trauma and help keep difficult memories at bay. Symptoms — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — depend in part on the type of dissociative disorder you have. Times of stress can temporarily worsen symptoms, making them more obvious.


Treatment for dissociative disorders may include talk therapy (psychotherapy) and medication. Although treating dissociative disorders can be difficult, many people learn new ways of coping and lead healthy, productive lives.

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Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased.

Some forms of colon hydrotherapy use tubes to inject water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Oral cleaning regimens use dietary fiber, herbs, dietary supplements, or laxatives. People who practice colon cleansing believe that accumulations of putrefied feces line the walls of the large intestine and that these accumulations harbor parasites or pathogenic gut flora, causing nonspecific symptoms and general ill-health. This "auto-intoxication" hypothesis is based on medical beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks and was discredited in the early 20th century.

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A drug allergy is the abnormal reaction of your immune system to a medication. Any medication — over-the-counter, prescription or herbal — is capable of inducing a drug allergy. However, a drug allergy is more likely with certain medications.


The most common signs and symptoms of drug allergy are hives, rash or fever. A drug allergy may cause serious reactions, including a life-threatening condition that affects multiple body systems (anaphylaxis).


A drug allergy is not the same as a drug side effect, a known possible reaction listed on a drug label. A drug allergy is also different from drug toxicity caused by an overdose of medication.

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Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as sneezing and runny nose. Many people with dust mite allergy also experience signs of asthma, such as wheezing and difficulty breathing.


Dust mites, close relatives of ticks and spiders, are too small to see without a microscope. Dust mites eat skin cells shed by people, and they thrive in warm, humid environments. In most homes, such items as bedding, upholstered furniture and carpeting provide an ideal environment for dust mites.


By taking steps to reduce the number of dust mites in your home, you may get control of dust mite allergy. Medications or other treatments are sometimes necessary to relieve symptoms and manage asthma.

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Dwarfism is a condition of short stature. It is defined by the advocacy group Little People of America (LPA) as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches or under, as a result of a medical or genetic condition. Although other groups may extend the criteria for certain forms of dwarfism to 5 feet, the average height of an adult with dwarfism is 4 feet.


There are two main categories of dwarfism -- disproportionate and proportionate. Disproportionate dwarfism is characterized by an average-size torso and shorter arms and legs or a shortened trunk with longer limbs. In proportionate dwarfism, the body parts are in proportion but shortened.


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Dysarthria is a condition in which the muscles you use for speech are weak or you have difficulty controlling them. Dysarthria often is characterized by slurred or slow speech that can be difficult to understand.


Common causes of dysarthria include nervous system (neurological) disorders such as stroke, brain injury, brain tumors, and conditions that cause facial paralysis or tongue or throat muscle weakness. Certain medications also can cause dysarthria.


Dysarthria treatment is directed at treating the underlying cause of your condition when possible, which may improve your speech. You may have speech therapy to help improve speech. For dysarthria caused by prescription medications, changing or discontinuing the medications may help.

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Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) means it takes more time and effort to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach. Dysphagia may also be associated with pain. In some cases, swallowing may be impossible.

Occasional difficulty swallowing, which may occur when you eat too fast or don't chew your food well enough, usually isn't cause for concern. But persistent dysphagia may indicate a serious medical condition requiring treatment.

Dysphagia can occur at any age, but it's more common in older adults. The causes of swallowing problems vary, and treatment depends on the cause.


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Earwax blockage occurs when earwax (cerumen) accumulates in your ear or becomes too hard to wash away naturally.

Earwax is a helpful and natural part of your body's defenses. It cleans, lubricates and protects your ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria.

If earwax blockage becomes a problem, you or your doctor can take simple steps to remove the wax safely.

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Eating disorders are serious conditions related to persistent eating behaviors that negatively impact your health, your emotions and your ability to function in important areas of life. The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.


Most eating disorders involve focusing too much on your weight, body shape and food, leading to dangerous eating behaviors. These behaviors can significantly impact your body's ability to get adequate nutrition. Eating disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and teeth and mouth, and lead to other diseases.


Eating disorders often develop in the teen and young adult years, although they can develop at other ages. With treatment, you can return to healthier eating habits and sometimes reverse serious complications caused by the eating disorder.

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An ectopic pregnancy is an early pregnancy that occurs outside of the normal location (uterine lining) for a developing pregnancy. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tubes. An ectopic pregnancy cannot progress normally and typically results in the death of the embryo or fetus.

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Eggs are one of the most common allergy-causing foods for children.

Egg allergy symptoms usually occur a few minutes to a few hours after eating eggs or foods containing eggs. Signs and symptoms range from mild to severe and can include skin rashes, hives, nasal congestion, and vomiting or other digestive problems. Rarely, egg allergy can cause anaphylaxis — a life-threatening reaction.

Egg allergy can occur as early as infancy. Most children, but not all, outgrow their egg allergy before adolescence.

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 Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.

The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Most CNS embryonal tumors in children are malignant. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain. When a tumor grows into or presses on an area of the brain, it may stop that part of the brain from working the way it should. Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread to other parts of the brain. Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause signs or symptoms and need treatment.

Although cancer is rare in children, brain tumors are the third most common type of childhood cancer, after leukemia and lymphoma. This summary is about the treatment of primary brain tumors (tumors that begin in the brain). The treatment of metastatic brain tumors, which begin in other parts of the body and spread to the brain, is not discussed in this summary. For information about the different types of brain and spinal cord tumors, see the PDQ summary on Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview.

Brain tumors occur in both children and adults. Treatment for adults may be different from treatment for children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults.

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Some couples are almost desperate to conceive a baby of one particular gender. Fathers especially, can be eager to have a boy but there are also mothers who long for a son. Most couples however, are happy with either a boy or a girl baby, as long as it is healthy and strong. But if you are keen to try to sway the odds of having a boy then there is no harm in trying. Just remember that there are no guarantees and the odds of conceiving a boy or a girl are almost exactly the same for each and every pregnancy.

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Endocarditis generally occurs when bacteria, fungi or other germs from another part of your body, such as your mouth, spread through your bloodstream and attach to damaged areas in your heart. If it's not treated quickly, endocarditis can damage or destroy your heart valves and can lead to life-threatening complications. Treatments for endocarditis include antibiotics and, in certain cases, surgery.


Since there are many ways to develop endocarditis, your doctor might not be able to pinpoint the exact cause of your condition. However, people at greatest risk of endocarditis usually have damaged heart valves, artificial heart valves or other heart defects.

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Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ in women where fetal development occurs.


Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer. Other types of cancer can form in the uterus, including uterine sarcoma, but they are much less common than endometrial cancer.


Endometrial cancer is often detected at an early stage because it frequently produces abnormal vaginal bleeding, which prompts women to see their doctors. If endometrial cancer is discovered early, removing the uterus surgically often cures endometrial cancer.

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An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) isn't a disease, but rather a sign of another condition.


The term "cardiomegaly" refers to an enlarged heart seen on any imaging test, including a chest X-ray. Other tests are then needed to diagnose the condition causing your enlarged heart.


You may develop an enlarged heart temporarily because of a stress on your body, such as pregnancy, or because of a medical condition, such as the weakening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, heart valve problems or abnormal heart rhythms.


Certain conditions may cause the heart muscle to thicken or one of the chambers of the heart to dilate, making the heart larger. Depending on the condition, an enlarged heart may be temporary or permanent.


An enlarged heart may be treatable by correcting the cause. Treatment for an enlarged heart can include medications, medical procedures or surgery.


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If your doctor tells you that you've got an enlarged liver, it means it's swollen beyond its normal size. There's usually another condition that's causing it, such as hepatitis. You have a lot of treatment choices, but you first need to find out the source of the problem.


Getting treated is important. Your liver has a lot of big jobs to do. Just to name a few key ones, it helps clean your blood by getting rid of harmful chemicals that your body makes. It makes a liquid called bile, which helps you break down fat from food. And it also stores sugar, called glucose, which gives you a quick back-up energy boost when you need it.


Depending on what's causing your liver to swell, you could end up with long-term damage if you don't get treated.

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In eosinophilic esophagitis (e-o-sin-o-FILL-ik uh-sof-uh-JIE-tis), a type of white blood cell (eosinophil) builds up in the lining of the tube that connects your mouth to your stomach (esophagus). This buildup, which is a reaction to foods, allergens or acid reflux, can inflame or injure the esophageal tissue. Damaged esophageal tissue can lead to difficulty swallowing or cause food to get stuck when you swallow.


Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune system disease. It has been identified only in the past two decades, but is now considered a major cause of digestive system (gastrointestinal) illness. Research is ongoing and will likely lead to revisions in the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

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If you learn that you or your child has a type of spine and brain cancer called an ependymoma, there's a lot to take in. You'll have lots of questions about how to treat the disease and manage the swirl of emotions you may feel.


Depending on where the cancer is, your doctor may recommend surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. But make sure you take care of your mental health, too. Turn to family, friends, and support groups to get the emotional backing you need.

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Epidermolysis bullosa (ep-ih-dur-MOL-uh-sis buhl-LOE-sah) is a group of rare diseases that cause fragile, blistering skin. The blisters may appear in response to minor injury, even from heat, rubbing, scratching or adhesive tape. In severe cases, the blisters may occur inside the body, such as the lining of the mouth or the stomach.


Most types of epidermolysis bullosa are inherited. The condition usually shows up in infancy or early childhood. Some people don't develop signs and symptoms until adolescence or early adulthood.


Epidermolysis bullosa has no cure, though mild forms may improve with age. Treatment focuses on caring for blisters and preventing new ones.

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Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) – Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) (Cardiovascular) pipeline landscape.

Heart failure is also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump out enough oxygen-rich blood. Symptoms include cough, fatigue, weakness, faintness, loss of appetite, swollen (enlarged) liver or abdomen, swollen feet and ankles and weight gain. The predisposing factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, alcohol use and irregular heartbeats. Treatment includes surgery, vasodilator, beta blockers and diuretics.

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Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus — a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Your esophagus helps move the food you swallow from the back of your throat to your stomach to be digested.


Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus. Esophageal cancer can occur anywhere along the esophagus. More men than women get esophageal cancer.


Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Incidence rates vary within different geographic locations. In some regions, higher rates of esophageal cancer cases may be attributed to tobacco and alcohol use or particular nutritional habits and obesity.


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Normally, contractions of the esophagus camera.gif (the tube that connects the mouth and the stomach) move food from the mouth to the stomach with a regular, coordinated rhythm.


Esophageal spasm means that contractions of the esophagus are irregular, uncoordinated, and sometimes powerful. This condition may be called diffuse esophageal spasm, or DES. These spasms can prevent food from reaching the stomach. When this happens, the food gets stuck in the esophagus.


Sometimes the squeezing moves down the esophagus in a coordinated way, but it is very strong. This can be called nutcracker esophagus. These contractions move food through the esophagus but can cause severe pain.

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Esophageal varices are abnormal, enlarged veins in the tube that connects the throat and stomach (esophagus). This condition occurs most often in people with serious liver diseases.


Esophageal varices develop when normal blood flow to the liver is blocked by a clot or scar tissue in the liver. To go around the blockages, blood flows into smaller blood vessels that aren't designed to carry large volumes of blood. The vessels can leak blood or even rupture, causing life-threatening bleeding.


A number of drugs and medical procedures can help prevent and stop bleeding from esophageal varices.

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Essential tremor is a nervous system (neurological) disorder that causes involuntary and rhythmic shaking. It can affect almost any part of your body, but the trembling occurs most often in your hands — especially when you do simple tasks, such as drinking from a glass or tying shoelaces.


It's usually not a dangerous condition, but essential tremor typically worsens over time and can be severe in some people. Other conditions don't cause essential tremor, although it's sometimes confused with Parkinson's disease.

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Esthesioneuroblastoma (es-THEE-zee-o-NOO-row-blas-TOE-muh) is a rare type of cancer that begins in the upper portion of the nasal cavity.


The area where esthesioneuroblastoma begins is separated from the brain by a bone that contains tiny holes that allow the nerves that control smell (olfactory nerves) to pass through. Esthesioneuroblastoma is also called olfactory neuroblastoma.


Esthesioneuroblastoma, which can occur at any age in adults, generally begins as a tumor in the nasal cavity and may grow or extend into the sinus, eyes and brain. People with esthesioneuroblastoma can lose their sense of smell, have frequent nosebleeds and experience difficulty breathing through their nostrils as the tumor grows.


Esthesioneuroblastoma can also spread to the lymph nodes in the neck and the parotid glands. In advanced cases, esthesioneuroblastoma can spread to other parts of the brain and other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver and bones.


Esthesioneuroblastoma treatment usually includes surgery. Often, radiation and chemotherapy are recommended, as well.

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Exercise headaches occur during or after sustained, strenuous exercise. Some activities associated with exercise headaches include running, rowing, tennis, swimming and weightlifting.


Doctors divide exercise headaches into two categories. Primary exercise headaches are usually harmless, aren't connected to any underlying problems and can often be prevented with medication.


Secondary exercise headaches are caused by an underlying, often serious problem within the brain — such as bleeding or a tumor — or outside the brain — such as coronary artery disease. Secondary exercise headaches may require emergency medical attention.

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Eye floaters appear as small spots that drift through your field of vision. They may stand out when you look at something bright, like white paper or a blue sky. They might annoy you, but they shouldn’t interfere with your sight.


If you have a large floater, it can cast a slight shadow over your vision. But this tends to happen only in certain types of light.


You can learn to live with floaters and ignore them. You may notice them less as time passes. Only rarely do they get bad enough to require treatment.

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The term eye strain is frequently used by people to describe a group of vague symptoms that are related to use of the eyes. Eye strain is a symptom, not an eye disease. Eye strain occurs when your eyes get tired from intense use, such as driving a car for extended periods, reading, or working at the computer. If you have any eye discomfort caused by looking at something for a long time, you can call it eye strain.


Although eye strain can be annoying, it usually is not serious and goes away once you rest your eyes. In some cases, signs and symptoms of eye strain are a sign of an underlying eye condition that needs treatment. Although you may not be able to change the nature of your job or all the factors that can cause eye strain, you can take steps to reduce eye strain.

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Factitious disorder is a serious mental disorder in which someone deceives others by appearing sick, by purposely getting sick or by self-injury. Factitious disorder also can happen when family members or caregivers falsely present others, such as children, as being ill, injured or impaired.


Factitious disorder symptoms can range from mild (slight exaggeration of symptoms) to severe (previously called Munchausen syndrome). The person may make up symptoms or even tamper with medical tests to convince others that treatment, such as high-risk surgery, is needed.


Factitious disorder is not the same as inventing medical problems for practical benefit, such as getting out of work or winning a lawsuit. Although people with factitious disorder know they are causing their symptoms or illnesses, they may not understand the reasons for their behaviors or recognize themselves as having a problem.


Factitious disorder is challenging to identify and hard to treat. However, medical and psychiatric help are critical for preventing serious injury and even death caused by the self-harm typical of this disorder.

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Inability to completely evacuate the bowels or passing very hard stools is known as Constipation or Vibandh in Ayurveda. This prevalent problem is due to an incorrect lifestyle and poor eating patterns. Although constipation is often looked upon as a common problem, if not treated or if treatment is delayed, it can lead to further problems such as fissures, fistulas, piles, lack of appetite and indigestion.

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Farsightedness (hyperopia) is a common vision condition in which you can see distant objects clearly, but objects nearby may be blurry.


The degree of your farsightedness influences your focusing ability. People with severe farsightedness may see clearly only objects a great distance away, while those with mild farsightedness may be able to clearly see objects that are closer.


Farsightedness usually is present at birth and tends to run in families. You can easily correct this condition with eyeglasses or contact lenses. Another treatment option is surgery.

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Fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements, causing stool (feces) to leak unexpectedly from the rectum. Also called bowel incontinence, fecal incontinence ranges from an occasional leakage of stool while passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control.


Common causes of fecal incontinence include diarrhea, constipation, and muscle or nerve damage. The muscle or nerve damage may be associated with aging or with giving birth.


Whatever the cause, fecal incontinence can be embarrassing. But don't shy away from talking to your doctor. Treatments are available that can improve fecal incontinence and your quality of life.

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Infertility is defined as trying to get pregnant (with frequent intercourse) for at least a year with no success. Female infertility, male infertility or a combination of the two affects millions of couples in the United States. An estimated 10 to 18 percent of couples have trouble getting pregnant or having a successful delivery.


Infertility results from female factors about one-third of the time and male factors about one-third of the time. The cause is either unknown or a combination of male and female factors in the remaining cases.


Female infertility causes can be difficult to diagnose. There are many available treatments, which will depend on the cause of infertility. Many infertile couples will go on to conceive a child without treatment. After trying to get pregnant for two years, about 95 percent of couples successfully conceive.

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A sexual problem, or sexual dysfunction, refers to a problem during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. The sexual response cycle has four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.


While research suggests that sexual dysfunction is common (43% of women and 31% of men report some degree of difficulty), it is a topic that many people are hesitant or embarrassed to discuss. Fortunately, most cases of sexual dysfunction are treatable, so it is important to share your concerns with your partner and doctor.

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The term "fetal macrosomia" is used to describe a newborn who's significantly larger than average.


A baby diagnosed with fetal macrosomia has a birth weight of more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams), regardless of his or her gestational age. About 9 percent of babies born worldwide weigh more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces.


However, the risks associated with fetal macrosomia increase greatly when birth weight is more than 9 pounds 15 ounces (4,500 grams).


Fetal macrosomia may complicate vaginal delivery and could put the baby at risk of injury during birth. Fetal macrosomia also puts the baby at increased risk of health problems after birth.

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Fibroadenomas (fy-broe-ad-uh-NO-muhz) are solid, noncancerous breast lumps that occur most often in women between the ages of 15 and 35.


A fibroadenoma might feel firm, smooth, rubbery or hard and has a well-defined shape. Usually painless, it might feel like a marble in your breast, moving easily under your skin when examined. Fibroadenomas vary in size, and they can enlarge or shrink on their own.


Fibroadenomas are among the most common noncancerous (benign) breast lumps in young women. Treatment might include monitoring to detect changes in size or feel, a biopsy to evaluate the lump or surgery to remove it.

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Fibrocystic breasts are composed of tissue that feels lumpy or rope-like in texture. Doctors call this nodular or glandular breast tissue.


It's not at all uncommon to have fibrocystic breasts. More than half of women experience fibrocystic breast changes at some point in their lives. In fact, medical professionals have stopped using the term "fibrocystic breast disease" and now simply refer to "fibrocystic breasts" or "fibrocystic breast changes" because having fibrocystic breasts isn't really a disease. Breast changes categorized as fibrocystic are considered normal.


Although many women with fibrocystic breasts don't have symptoms, some women experience breast pain, tenderness and lumpiness — especially in the upper, outer area of the breasts. Breast symptoms tend to be most bothersome just before menstruation. Simple self-care measures can usually relieve discomfort associated with fibrocystic breasts.

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Fibromuscular dysplasia is a condition that causes narrowing (stenosis) and enlargement (aneurysm) of the medium-sized arteries in your body. Reduced blood flow from narrowed arteries to the organs can affect the function of the organs.


Fibromuscular dysplasia appears most commonly in the arteries leading to the kidneys. Fibromuscular dysplasia can also affect the arteries leading to your brain, heart, abdomen, arms and legs.


Fibromuscular dysplasia can cause a number of complications, such as high blood pressure or tears of the artery (arterial dissection), if left untreated. Arterial dissection, or spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), can limit blood flow to the organ supplied by the injured artery.

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Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disorder in which scar-like (fibrous) tissue develops in place of normal bone. This irregular tissue can weaken the affected bone and cause it to deform or fracture.


In most cases, fibrous dysplasia occurs at a single site in one bone, but can occur at multiple sites in multiple bones. Single bone involvement usually occurs in adolescents and young adults. People who have more than one affected bone typically develop symptoms before the age of 10.


Although fibrous dysplasia is a genetic disorder, it's caused by a gene mutation that's not passed from parent to child. There's no cure for the disorder. Treatment, which may include surgery, focuses on relieving pain and repairing or stabilizing bones.

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You have flatfeet when the arches on the inside of your feet are flattened, allowing the entire soles of your feet to touch the floor when you stand up.


A common and usually painless condition, flatfeet can occur when the arches don't develop during childhood. In other cases, flatfeet develop after an injury or from the simple wear-and-tear stresses of age.


Flatfeet can sometimes contribute to problems in your ankles and knees because the condition can alter the alignment of your legs. If you aren't having pain, no treatment is usually necessary for flatfeet.

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Galactorrhea (guh-lack-toe-REE-uh) is a milky nipple discharge unrelated to the normal milk production of breast-feeding. Galactorrhea itself isn't a disease, but it could be a sign of an underlying problem. It usually occurs in women, even those who have never had children or after menopause. But galactorrhea can happen in men and even in infants.


Excessive breast stimulation, medication side effects or disorders of the pituitary gland all may contribute to galactorrhea. Often, galactorrhea results from increased levels of prolactin, the hormone that stimulates milk production.

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Gallbladder cancer is cancer that begins in the gallbladder.


Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by your liver.


Gallbladder cancer is uncommon. When gallbladder cancer is discovered at its earliest stages, the chance for a cure is very good. But most gallbladder cancers are discovered at a late stage, when the prognosis is often very poor.


Gallbladder cancer is difficult to diagnose because it often causes no specific signs or symptoms. Also, the relatively hidden nature of the gallbladder makes it easier for gallbladder cancer to grow without being detected.

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Ganglion cysts are noncancerous lumps that most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of your wrists or hands. They also may occur in the ankles and feet. Ganglion cysts are typically round or oval and are filled with a jellylike fluid.


Small ganglion cysts can be pea-sized, while larger ones can be around an inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter. Ganglion cysts can be painful if they press on a nearby nerve. Their location can sometimes interfere with joint movement.


If your ganglion cyst is causing you problems, your doctor may suggest trying to drain the cyst with a needle. Removing the cyst surgically also is an option. But if you have no symptoms, no treatment is necessary. In many cases, the cysts go away on their own.

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Gangrene is a condition that occurs when body tissue dies. It is caused by a loss of blood supply due to an underlying illness, injury, and/or infection. Fingers, toes, and limbs are most often affected, but gangrene can also occur inside the body, damaging organs and muscles. There are different types of gangrene and all require immediate medical attention.

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Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a symptom of a disorder in your digestive tract. The blood often appears in stool or vomit but isn't always visible, though it may cause the stool to look black or tarry. The level of bleeding can range from mild to severe and life-threatening.


Bleeding in the stomach or colon can usually be easily identified, but finding the cause of bleeding that occurs in the small intestine can be difficult. But sophisticated imaging technology can usually locate the problem, and minimally invasive procedures often can fix it.

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Gastroparesis means weakness of the muscles of the stomach. Gastroparesis results in poor grinding of food in the stomach into small particles and slow emptying of food from the stomach into the small intestine.


The stomach is a hollow organ composed primarily of muscle. Solid food that has been swallowed is stored in the stomach while it is ground into tiny pieces by the constant churning generated by rhythmic contractions of the stomach's muscles. Smaller particles are digested better in the small intestine than larger particles, and only food that has been ground into small particles is emptied from the stomach and well digested. Liquid food does not require grinding.


The ground solid and liquid food is emptied from the stomach into the small intestine slowly in a metered fashion. The metering process allows the emptied food to be well-mixed with the digestive juices of the small intestine, pancreas, and liver (bile) and to be absorbed well from the intestine. The metering process by which solid and liquid foods are emptied from the stomach is a result of a combination of relaxation of the muscle in parts of the stomach designed to accommodate (store) food, and the pressure generated by the muscle in other parts of the stomach that pushes the food into the small intestine. (Thus, the stomach can store and empty food at the same time.) The metering also is controlled by the opening and closing of the pylorus, the muscular opening of the stomach into the small intestine.


When the contractions of the stomach's muscles are weakened, food is not thoroughly ground and does not empty into the intestine normally. Since the muscular actions whereby solid food and liquid food are emptied from the stomach are slightly different, the emptying of solids and liquids follows different time courses, and there may be slow emptying of solid food (most common), solid and liquid food (less common), or liquid food alone (least common).

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Gaucher (go-SHAY) disease is the result of a buildup of certain fatty substances in certain organs, particularly your spleen and liver. This causes these organs to enlarge and can affect their function.


The fatty substances also can build up in bone tissue, weakening the bone and increasing the risk of fractures. If the bone marrow is affected, it can interfere with your blood's ability to clot.


An enzyme that breaks down these fatty substances doesn't work properly in people with Gaucher disease. Treatment often includes enzyme replacement therapy.


An inherited disorder, Gaucher disease is most common in Jewish people of Eastern and Central European descent (Ashkenazi). Symptoms can appear at any age.

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Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Sexual contact is the primary way that the virus spreads. After the initial infection, the virus lies dormant in your body and can reactivate several times a year.


Genital herpes can cause pain, itching and sores in your genital area. But you may have no signs or symptoms of genital herpes. If infected, you can be contagious even if you have no visible sores.


There's no cure for genital herpes, but medications can ease symptoms and reduce the risk of infecting others. Condoms also can help prevent the spread of a genital herpes infection.

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Geographic tongue is the name of a condition that gets its name from its map-like appearance on the upper surface and sides of the tongue. It may occur in other areas of your mouth, as well.


You'll be relieved to know that geographic tongue is a harmless, benign condition that isn't linked to any infection or cancer. Two other names for geographic tongue are benign migratory glossitis and erythema migrans.


Affecting about 1% to 3% of people, geographic tongue can show up at any age. However, it tends to affect middle-aged or older adults more often. It appears to be more common in women than in men.

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Giardiasis is an infection in your small intestine. It’s caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis spreads through contact with infected people. And you can get giardiasis by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Pet dogs and cats also frequently contract giardia.


This condition can be found all over the world, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, it’s more common in overcrowded developing countries that lack sanitary conditions and water quality control.

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Glioblastoma is an aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Glioblastoma forms from cells called astrocytes that support nerve cells.


Glioblastoma can occur at any age, but tends to occur more often in older adults. It can cause worsening headaches, nausea, vomiting and seizures.


Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme, can be very difficult to treat and a cure is often not possible. Treatments may slow progression of the cancer and reduce signs and symptoms.

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Glioma is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain and spinal cord. Gliomas begin in the gluey supportive cells (glial cells) that surround nerve cells and help them function.

Three types of glial cells can produce tumors. Gliomas are classified according to the type of glial cell involved in the tumor.

Types of glioma include:

Astrocytomas, including astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma

Ependymomas, including anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma

Oligodendrogliomas, including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma

Gliomas can affect your brain function and be life-threatening depending on their location and rate of growth.

Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors.

The type of glioma you have helps determine your treatment and your prognosis. In general, glioma treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and experimental clinical trials.

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.[14] It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart.


Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction. In adults who go to the emergency department with an unclear cause of pain, about 30% have pain due to coronary artery disease

How Does Coronary Artery Disease Develop?


From a young age, plaque can start to go into your blood vessel walls. As you get older, the plaque builds up. 

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A grand mal seizure causes a loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions. It's the type of seizure most people picture when they think about seizures.


A grand mal seizure — also known as a generalized tonic-clonic seizure — is caused by abnormal electrical activity throughout the brain. Usually, a grand mal seizure is caused by epilepsy. But sometimes, this type of seizure can be triggered by other health problems, such as extremely low blood sugar, a high fever or a stroke.


Many people who have a grand mal seizure never have another one and don't need treatment. But someone who has recurrent seizures may need treatment with daily anti-seizure medications to control and prevent future grand mal seizures.


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Granuloma annulare (gran-u-LOW-muh an-u-LAR-e) is a skin condition that most commonly consists of raised, reddish or skin-colored bumps (lesions) that form ring patterns — usually on your hands and feet.


No one knows exactly what causes granuloma annulare. But it may be triggered by minor skin injuries and certain medications. Some types of granuloma annulare affect adults, and others typically affect children.


In most cases, granuloma annulare isn't itchy or painful, so no treatment is necessary. The lesions usually disappear on their own within two years. If you're bothered by how your skin looks, your doctor can prescribe medications that will speed the disappearance of the lesions.

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Greenstick fractures occur when the force applied to a bone results in bending of the bone such that the structural integrity of the convex surface is overcome. The fact that the integrity of the cortex has been overcome results in fracture of the convex surface. However, the bending force applied does not break the bone completely and the concave surface of the bent bone remains intact.


This can occur following an angulated longitudinal force applied down the bone (e.g. an indirect trauma following a fall on an outstretched arm), or after a force applied perpendicular to the bone (e.g. a direct blow).


This fracture is very different, and much less common, than the torus fracture that results in buckling of the cortex on the concave side of the bend and an intact concave surface.

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Growing pains are often described as an ache or throb in the legs — often in the front of the thighs, the calves or behind the knees. Growing pains tend to affect both legs and occur at night, and may even wake a child from sleep.


Although these pains are called growing pains, there's no evidence that growth hurts. Growing pains may be linked to a lowered pain threshold or, in some cases, to psychological issues.


There's no specific treatment for growing pains. You can make your child more comfortable by putting a warm heating pad on the sore muscles and massaging them.

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The hamstrings are the tendons that attach the large muscles at the back of the thigh to bone. The hamstring muscles are the large muscles that pull on these tendons. It has become common in layman's terminology (and by some medical personnel) to refer to the long muscles at the back of the thigh as the "hamstrings" or "hamstring muscles." Academic anatomists refer to them as the posterior thigh muscles, and more specifically as the semimembranosus, the semitendinosus, and the biceps femoris muscles. These muscles span the thigh, crossing both the hip and the knee. They originate or begin at just below the buttocks, arising from the bone on which we sit (the ischium). They connect by means of their tendons onto the upper parts of the lower leg bones (the tibia and the fibula).


The origin of the word hamstring comes from the old English hamm, meaning thigh. String refers to the characteristic appearance and feel of the tendons just above the back of the knee. Although the tendons are sometimes involved in injuries, this article will refer to the "hamstrings" as the large muscle group at the back of the thigh because the most frequent problems involve this muscle group.

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Hangovers can occur at any time of day, but are usually more common in the morning directly after a night of heavy drinking.


As well as physical symptoms, the person may experience elevated levels of anxiety, regret, shame, embarrassment, and depression. The severity of a hangover is closely linked to how much alcohol was consumed, and whether the sufferer had enough sleep; the less sleep, the worse the hangover.


It is impossible really to say how much alcohol can be safely consumed to avoid a hangover - it depends on the individual and other factors, such as how tired they were before they began drinking, whether they were already dehydrated before the drinking began, whether they drank plenty of water during their drinking session, and how much sleep they got 

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Heart rhythm problems (heart arrhythmias) occur when the electrical impulses that coordinate your heartbeats don't work properly, causing your heart to beat too fast, too slow or irregularly.


Heart arrhythmias (uh-RITH-me-uhs) may feel like a fluttering or racing heart and may be harmless. However, some heart arrhythmias may cause bothersome — sometimes even life-threatening — signs and symptoms.


Heart arrhythmia treatment can often control or eliminate fast, slow or irregular heartbeats. In addition, because troublesome heart arrhythmias are often made worse — or are even caused — by a weak or damaged heart, you may be able to reduce your arrhythmia risk by adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle.

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Heat exhaustion is a condition whose symptoms may include heavy sweating and a rapid pulse, a result of your body overheating. It's one of three heat-related syndromes, with heat cramps being the mildest and heatstroke being the most severe.


Causes of heat exhaustion include exposure to high temperatures, particularly when combined with high humidity, and strenuous physical activity. Without prompt treatment, heat exhaustion can lead to heatstroke, a life-threatening condition. Fortunately, heat exhaustion is preventable.

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Many different types of skin rashes exist. They can be concerning, uncomfortable, or downright painful. One of the most common types of rash is heat rash, or miliaria.


Heat rash is a skin condition that often affects children and adults in hot, humid weather conditions. You can develop heat rash when your pores become blocked and sweat can’t escape.


The cause of heat rash is often friction on the surface of the skin. Adults usually develop heat rash in the parts of their bodies that rub together, such as between the inner thighs or under the arms. Babies often develop heat rash on their necks, but it can also develop in skin folds such as the armpits, elbows, and thighs.

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Hemangiomas, or infantile hemangiomas, are noncancerous growths of blood vessels. They’re the most common growths or tumors in children. They usually grow for a period of time and then subside without treatment.


They don’t cause problems in most infants. However, some hemangiomas may open and bleed or ulcerate. This may be painful. Depending on their size and location, they may be disfiguring. Additionally, they may occur with other abnormalities of the central nervous system or spine.


The growths may also occur with other internal hemangiomas. These affect internal organs such as the liver, other parts of the gastrointestinal system, the brain, or organs of the respiratory system. The hemangiomas that affect organs usually don’t cause problems.


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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.

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Hemifacial spasms happen when the muscles on only one side of your face twitch without warning. These types of spasms are caused by damage or irritation to the facial nerve, which is also known as the seventh cranial nerve. Facial spasms occur when the muscles contract involuntarily because of this nerve irritation.


Hemifacial spasms are also known as tic convulsif. At first, they may appear only as small, barely noticeable tics around your eyelid, cheek, or mouth. Over time, the tics may expand to other parts of your face.


Hemifacial spasms can happen to men or women, but they’re most common in women over 40. They also tend to occur more often on the left side of your face. 


Hemifacial spasms aren’t dangerous on their own. But a constant twitch in your face can be frustrating or uncomfortable. In severe cases, these spasms can limit function due to involuntary eye closing or the impact they have on speaking.


In some cases, these spasms may indicate that you have an underlying condition or an abnormality in your facial structure. Either of these causes can compress or damage your nerves and make your face muscles twitch.

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Hemophilia is not one disease but rather one of a group of inherited bleeding disorders that cause abnormal or exaggerated bleeding and poor blood clotting. The term is most commonly used to refer to two specific conditions known as hemophilia A and hemophilia B, which will be the main subjects of this article. Hemophilia A and B are distinguished by the specific gene that is mutated (altered to become defective) and codes for a defective clotting factor (protein) in each disease. Rarely, hemophilia C (a deficiency of Factor XI) is encountered, but its effect on clotting is far less pronounced than A or B.


Hemophilia A and B are inherited in an X-linked recessive genetic pattern and are therefore much more common in males. This pattern of inheritance means that a given gene on the X chromosome expresses itself only when there is no normal gene present. For example, a boy has only one X chromosome, so a boy with hemophilia has the defective gene on his sole X chromosome (and so is said to be hemizygous for hemophilia). Hemophilia is the most common X-linked genetic disease.


Although it is much rarer, a girl can have hemophilia, but she would have to have the defective gene on both of her X chromosomes or have one hemophilia gene plus a lost or defective copy of the second X chromosome that should be carrying the normal genes. If a girl has one copy of the defective gene on one of her X chromosomes and a normal second X chromosome, she does not have hemophilia but is said to be heterozygous for hemophilia (a carrier). Her male children have a 50% chance of inheriting the one mutated X gene and thus have a 50% chance of inheriting hemophilia from their carrier mother.


Hemophilia A occurs in about 1 out of every 5000 live male births. Hemophilia A and B occurs in all racial groups. Hemophilia A is about four times more common than B. B occurs in about 1 out of 20- 30,000 live male births.


Hemophilia has been called the Royal Disease because Queen Victoria, Queen of England from 1837 to 1901, was a carrier. Her daughters passed the mutated gene on to members of the royal families of Germany, Spain, and Russia. Alexandra, Queen Victoria's granddaughter, who became Tsarina of Russia in the early 20th century when she married Tsar Nicholas II, was a carrier. Their son, the Tsarevich Alexei, suffered from hemophilia.

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Hepatitis A is a virus, or infection, that causes liver disease and inflammation of the liver. Viruses can cause sickness. For example, the flu is caused by a virus. People can pass viruses to each other.


Inflammation is swelling that occurs when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can cause organs to not work properly.

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A herniated disk refers to a problem with one of the rubbery cushions (disks) between the individual bones (vertebrae) that stack up to make your spine.


A spinal disk is a little like a jelly donut, with a softer center encased within a tougher exterior. Sometimes called a slipped disk or a ruptured disk, a herniated disk occurs when some of the softer "jelly" pushes out through a tear in the tougher exterior.


A herniated disk can irritate nearby nerves and result in pain, numbness or weakness in an arm or leg. On the other hand, many people experience no symptoms from a herniated disk. Most people who have a herniated disk don't need surgery to correct the problem.

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Hidradenitis suppurativa (hi-drad-uh-NIE-tis sup-yoo-ruh-TIE-vuh) is rare, long-term skin condition that features small, painful lumps under the skin. They typically develop where the skin rubs together, such as the armpits, the groin, between the buttocks and under the breasts. The lumps may break open and smell or cause tunnels under the skin.


Hidradenitis suppurativa tends to start after puberty. It can persist for many years and worsen over time, with serious effects on your daily life and emotional well-being. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms, keep new lumps from forming and prevent complications, such as scar

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Hip dysplasia is the medical term for a hip socket that doesn't fully cover the ball portion of the upper thighbone. This allows the hip joint to become partially or completely dislocated. Most people with hip dysplasia are born with the condition.


Doctors will check your baby for signs of hip dysplasia shortly after birth and during well-baby visits. If hip dysplasia is diagnosed in early infancy, a soft brace can usually correct the problem.


If hip dysplasia is diagnosed after the age of 2, surgery may be necessary to move the bones into the proper positions for smooth joint movement.


Milder cases of hip dysplasia might not start causing symptoms until a person is a teenager or young adult. Hip dysplasia can damage the cartilage lining the joint, and it can also hurt the soft cartilage (labrum) that rims the socket portion of the hip joint. This is called a hip labral tear.

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A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age.


Older people are at a higher risk of hip fracture because bones tend to weaken with age (osteoporosis). Multiple medications, poor vision and balance problems also make older people more likely to trip and fall — one of the most common causes of hip fracture.


A hip fracture almost always requires surgical repair or replacement, followed by months of physical therapy. Taking steps to maintain bone density and avoid falls can help prevent hip fracture.

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Your hip is the joint where your thigh bone meets your pelvis. It is called a ball-and-socket joint, because the ball-like top of your thigh bone fits into a cup-like area within your pelvis, much like a baseball fits into a glove.


Hip


Normally, the ball glides smoothly within the socket, but a problem with the ball or socket rim can interfere with smooth motion. This problem can cause hip impingement or femoro acetabular impingement (FAI). It is believed to be a major cause of early osteoarthritis of the hip, particularly in those under age 40.

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Histoplasmosis is a type of lung infection. It is caused by inhaling Histoplasma capsulatum fungal spores. These spores are found in soil and in the droppings of bats and birds. This fungus mainly grows in the central, southeastern, and mid-Atlantic states.


Most cases of histoplasmosis don’t require treatment. However, people with weaker immune systems may experience serious problems. The disease may progress and spread to other areas of the body. Skin lesions have been reported in 10 to 15 percent of cases of histoplasmosis that has spread throughout the body.

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You do not have AIDS as soon as you acquire HIV. You can live with HIV (be HIV+) for many years with no signs of disease, or only mild-to-moderate symptoms. People living with HIV and taking HIV drugs as prescribed have a very low risk of progressing to AIDS. But without treatment, HIV will eventually wear down the immune system in most people to the point that they have low numbers of CD4 cells and develop opportunistic infections. Without treatment, this usually happens in five to ten years.


The definition of AIDS was established before there was effective treatment for HIV. It indicated that a person was at higher risk for illness or death. In countries where HIV treatment is readily available, AIDS is no longer as relevant as it once was. This is because having access to effective treatment means people can stay healthier even with low CD4 counts. Also, someone could have received the AIDS diagnosis years ago, which means they still have that diagnosis--even though they no longer have a low CD4 count.


The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identifies someone as having AIDS if she or he is living with HIV and has one or both of these conditions:


At least one AIDS-defining condition (see our list of AIDS-Defining Conditions)

A CD4 cell count of 200 cells or less (a normal CD4 count is about 500 to 1,500)

People with AIDS can rebuild their immune system with the help of HIV drugs and live a long healthy life. Even if your CD4 cell count goes back above 200 or an OI is successfully treated, you will still have a diagnosis of AIDS. This does not necessarily mean you are sick or will get sick in the future. It is just the way the public health system counts the number of people who have had advanced HIV disease.

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Hives — also known as urticaria (ur-tih-KAR-e-uh) — is a skin reaction that causes itchy welts, which can range in size from small spots to large blotches several inches in diameter. Hives can be triggered by exposure to certain foods, medications or other substances.


Angioedema is a related type of swelling that affects deeper layers in your skin, often around your face and lips. In most cases, hives and angioedema are harmless and don't leave any lasting marks, even without treatment.


The most common treatment for hives and angioedema is antihistamine medication. Serious angioedema can be life-threatening if swelling causes your throat or tongue to block your airway.

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Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological condition. It is an inherited disease that happens due to faulty genes. Toxic proteins collect in the brain and cause damage, leading to neurological symptoms.


As parts of the brain deteriorate, this affects movement, behavior, and cognition. It becomes harder to walk, think, reason, swallow, and talk. Eventually, the person will need full-time care. The complications are usually fatal.


There is currently no cure, but treatment can help with symptoms.

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The term hydrocephalus is derived from the Greek words "hydro" meaning water and "cephalus" meaning head. As the name implies, it is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain. Although hydrocephalus was once known as "water on the brain," the "water" is actually cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)--a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal widening of spaces in the brain called ventricles. This widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain.


The ventricular system is made up of four ventricles connected by narrow passages.. Normally, CSF flows through the ventricles, exits into cisterns (closed spaces that serve as reservoirs) at the base of the brain, bathes the surfaces of the brain and spinal cord, and then reabsorbs into the bloodstream.


CSF has three important life-sustaining functions: 1) to keep the brain tissue buoyant, acting as a cushion or "shock absorber"; 2) to act as the vehicle for delivering nutrients to the brain and removing waste; and 3) to flow between the cranium and spine and compensate for changes in intracranial blood volume (the amount of blood within the brain).


The balance between production and absorption of CSF is critically important. Because CSF is made continuously, medical conditions that block its normal flow or absorption will result in an over-accumulation of CSF. The resulting pressure of the fluid against brain tissue is what causes hydrocephalus.

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One of the most common causes of high calcium levels (hypercalcemia), is an overproduction of parathyroid hormone, or hyperparathyroidism.


Hyperparathyroidism tends to be more common in women over 50.

It can be the result of all four parathyroid glands producing too much PTH (parathyroid hyperplasia), or one gland specifically producing an excessive amount of hormone (usually the result of a parathyroid adenoma, or benign tumor).

Hypercalcemia can occur due to other medical conditions. These conditions can vary in severity and chronicity, and may be life-threatening. Malignancy is a common cause of elevated blood calcium. Up to 20% of individuals with cancer will develop hypercalcemia at some point in their disease.

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Think of your feet as your physical base; they're what keep you up and running. So if you're like most people, and don't think your feet need consistent care, think again. Cracked heels are one of the most common foot issues that can arise if you don't pay proper attention. But don't despair, baby soft foot skin is just one article away. Read on to learn more about how to get rid of annoying cracked skin around the heels.

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High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication.


It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart.

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Hyperparathyroidism is an excess of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream due to overactivity of one or more of the body's four parathyroid glands. These glands are about the size of a grain of rice and are located in your neck.


The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone, which helps maintain an appropriate balance of calcium in the bloodstream and in tissues that depend on calcium for proper functioning.


Two types of hyperparathyroidism exist. In primary hyperparathyroidism, an enlargement of one or more of the parathyroid glands causes overproduction of the hormone, resulting in high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia), which can cause a variety of health problems. Surgery is the most common treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism.


Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs as a result of another disease that initially causes low levels of calcium in the body and over time, increased parathyroid hormone levels occur.

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Hyponatremia is a condition that occurs when the level of sodium in your blood is abnormally low. Sodium is an electrolyte, and it helps regulate the amount of water that's in and around your cells.


In hyponatremia, one or more factors — ranging from an underlying medical condition to drinking too much water during endurance sports — causes the sodium in your body to become diluted. When this happens, your body's water levels rise, and your cells begin to swell. This swelling can cause many health problems, from mild to life-threatening.


Hyponatremia treatment is aimed at resolving the underlying condition. Depending on the cause of hyponatremia, you may simply need to cut back on how much you drink. In other cases of hyponatremia, you may need intravenous fluids and medications.

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Hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon condition in which your body secretes abnormally low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH is key to regulating and maintaining a balance of your body's levels of two minerals — calcium and phosphorus.


The low production of PTH in hypoparathyroidism leads to abnormally low calcium levels in your blood and bones and to an increase of phosphorus in your blood.


Supplements to normalize your calcium and phosphorus levels treat the condition. Depending on the cause of your hypoparathyroidism, you'll likely need to take supplements for life.

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Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder in which your pituitary gland either fails to produce one or more of its hormones or doesn't produce enough of them.


The pituitary gland is a small bean-shaped gland situated at the base of your brain, behind your nose and between your ears. Despite its size, this gland secretes hormones that influence nearly every part of your body.


In hypopituitarism, you have a short supply of one or more of these pituitary hormones. This deficiency can affect any number of your body's routine functions, such as growth, blood pressure and reproduction.


You'll likely need medications for the rest of your life to treat hypopituitarism, but your symptoms can be controlled.


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Hypospadias (hi-poe-SPAY-dee-us) is a birth defect (congenital condition) in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip. The urethra is the tube through which urine drains from your bladder and exits your body.


Hypospadias is common and doesn't cause difficulty in caring for your infant. Surgery usually restores the normal appearance of your child's penis. With successful treatment of hypospadias, most males can have normal urination and reproduction.

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Hypothermia is defined as a body temperature (core, or internal body temperature) of less than about 95 F (35 C). Usually, hypothermia occurs when the body's temperature regulation is overwhelmed by a cold environment. However, in the medical and lay literature there are essentially two major classifications, accidental hypothermia and intentional hypothermia.


Accidental hypothermia usually occurs from an exposure to cold that results in lowering the body temperature.


Intentional hypothermia is body temperature lowering induced usually for a medical procedure.


This article will focus on accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia is a medical emergency that, when quickly and appropriately treated, people can recover with little or no consequences.


Body temperature, when discussing hypothermia, is usually termed "core" temperature. This temperature is the temperature measured inside the body. It's a measurement that is most accurately done by a rectal thermometer, a rectal probe thermometer that has a constant temperature readout or by a bladder or esophageal temperature device. Temperatures taken by other methods may not adequately measure core temperature.

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Ichthyosis (ick-thee-OH-sis) is a group of skin diseases that causes extremely dry, thick, and scaly skin. The skin often looks like it has fish scales.


There are more than 20 different types of ichthyosis. The most common type is ichthyosis vulgaris (vul-GAR-ris). About 95% of people who develop ichthyosis get this type.


The other types are rare and include harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar type, and x-linked ichthyosis.

Of all the types, ichthyosis vulgaris is the mildest. It often begins in childhood.

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Cradle cap causes crusty or oily scaly patches on a baby's scalp. The condition isn't painful or itchy. But it can cause thick white or yellow scales that aren't easy to remove.


Cradle cap usually clears up on its own in a few months. Home-care measures include washing your baby's scalp daily with a mild shampoo. This can help loosen and remove the scales. Don't scratch cradle cap.


If cradle cap persists or seems severe, your doctor may suggest a medicated shampoo, lotion or other 

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Jaundice is particularly common in premature babies - boys more often than girls. It usually appears within the baby's first week of life.


In an otherwise healthy baby born at full term, infant jaundice is rarely a cause for alarm; it tends to go away on its own. However, if treatment is necessary, infants tend to respond to non-invasive therapy.


In rare cases, untreated infant jaundice may lead to brain damage and even death.

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Infant reflux occurs when food backs up (refluxes) from a baby's stomach, causing the baby to spit up. Sometimes called gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the condition is rarely serious and becomes less common as a baby gets older. It's unusual for infant reflux to continue after age 18 months.


Reflux occurs in healthy infants multiple times a day. As long as your baby is healthy, content and growing well, the reflux is not a cause for concern.


Rarely, infant reflux can be a sign of a medical problem, such as an allergy, a blockage in the digestive system or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

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Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere - in air, soil and water. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains a germ. Germs can also spread through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent infections.

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You can also catch flu by touching an infected person, for instance, shaking hands. Adults are contagious 1-2 days before getting symptoms and up to 7 days after becoming ill. This means that you can spread the influenza virus before you even know you are infected.


In this article, we explain the symptoms of flu, how it is treated, how it differs from a cold, and the best ways to prevent flu occurring.

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Ingrown toenails occur when the edges or corners of your nails grow into the skin next to the nail. Your big toe is most likely to get an ingrown toenail.


You can treat ingrown toenails at home. However, they can cause complications that might require medical treatment. Your risk of complications is higher if you have diabetes or other conditions that cause poo

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An inguinal hernia occurs in the abdomen near the groin area. They develop when fatty or intestinal tissues push through a weakness in the abdominal wall near the right or left inguinal canal. Each inguinal canal resides at the base of the abdomen.


Both men and woman have inguinal canals. In men, the testes usually descend through their canal by around a few weeks before birth. In women, each canal is the location of passage for the round ligament of the uterus. If you have a hernia in or near this passageway, it results in a protruding bulge. It may be painful during movement.


Many people don’t seek treatment for this type of hernia because it may be small or not cause any symptoms. Prompt medical treatment can help prevent further protrusion and discomfort.

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Interstitial (in-tur-STISH-ul) lung disease describes a large group of disorders, most of which cause progressive scarring of lung tissue. The scarring associated with interstitial lung disease eventually affects your ability to breathe and get enough oxygen into your bloodstream.


Interstitial lung disease can be caused by long-term exposure to hazardous materials, such as asbestos. Some types of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, also can cause interstitial lung disease. In some cases, however, the causes remain unknown.


Once lung scarring occurs, it's generally irreversible. Medications may slow the damage of interstitial lung disease, but many people never regain full use of their lungs. Lung transplant is an option for some people who have interstitial lung disease.

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Intestinal ischemia (is-KEE-me-uh) describes a variety of conditions that occur when blood flow to your intestines decreases due to a blockage, usually in an artery. Intestinal ischemia can affect your small intestine, your large intestine (colon) or both.


Intestinal ischemia is a serious condition that can cause pain and make it difficult for your intestines to work. In severe cases, loss of blood flow to the intestines can damage intestinal tissue and lead to death.


Treatments are available for intestinal ischemia. To improve the chances of recovery, it's crucial to recognize the early symptoms and get medical help right away.

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Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism.

Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles.

Approximately 2% of the body's creatine is converted to creatinine every day.

Creatinine is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and dispose of it in the urine.

Because the muscle mass in the body is relatively constant from day to day, the creatinine production normally remains essentially unchanged on a daily basis.

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Digested food particles must travel through 25 feet or more of intestines as part of normal digestion. These digested wastes are constantly in motion. However, intestinal obstruction can put a stop to this. An intestinal obstruction occurs when your small or large intestine is blocked. The blockage can be partial or total, and it prevents passage of fluids and digested food.


If intestinal obstruction happens, food, fluids, gastric acids, and gas build up behind the site of the blockage. If enough pressure builds up, your intestine can rupture, leaking harmful intestinal contents and bacteria into your abdominal cavity. This is a life-threatening complication.


There are many potential causes of intestinal obstruction. Often, this condition can’t be prevented. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. An untreated intestinal obstruction can be fatal.

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An intracranial hematoma is a collection of blood within the skull, most commonly caused by rupture of a blood vessel within the brain or from trauma such as a car accident or fall. The blood collection can be within the brain tissue or underneath the skull, pressing on the brain.


Although some head injuries — such as one that causes only a brief lapse of consciousness (concussion) — can be minor, an intracranial hematoma is potentially life-threatening. It usually requires immediate treatment, often surgery to remove the blood.

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Invasive lobular carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast.


Invasive cancer means the cancer cells have broken out of the lobule where they began and have the potential to spread to the lymph nodes and other areas of the body.


Invasive lobular carcinoma makes up a small portion of all breast cancers. The most common type of breast cancer begins in the breast ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma).


Invasive lobular carcinoma typically doesn't form a lump, which is common in breast cancer. Instead, there is a change in the breast that feels like a thickening or fullness in one part of the breast and is different from the surrounding breast tissue.

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Islet cell cancer is a term used to describe a group of cancers that can occur in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. Islet cell cancers, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, are very rare.


Islet cells are small hormone-producing cells normally found in your pancreas. Islet cell cancer arises from these cells. Some islet cell cancer cells continue to secrete hormones, creating too much of the given hormone in your body. Examples of these types of islet cell cancers include gastrinoma and glucagonoma.

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Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study.

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Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood illness that affects the blood vessels. The symptoms can be severe for several days and can look scary to parents. But then most children return to normal activities.


Kawasaki disease can harm the coronary arteries, which carry blood to the heart muscle. Most children who are treated recover from the disease without long-term problems. Your doctor will watch your child for heart problems for a few weeks to a few months after treatment.


The disease is most common in children ages 1 to 2 years and is less common in children older than age 8. It does not spread from child to child (is not contagious).

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Crohn's disease (sometimes called Crohn disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the physician who described the disease in 1932. It also is called granulomatous enteritis or colitis, regional enteritis, ileitis, or terminal ileitis.


Crohn's disease is related closely to another chronic inflammatory condition that involves only the colon called ulcerative colitis. Together, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are frequently referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have no medical cure. Once the diseases begin, they tend to fluctuate between periods of inactivity (remission) and activity (relapse).


 Men and women are affected equally by inflammatory bowel disease. Americans of Jewish European descent are more likely to develop IBD than the general population. IBD has historically been considered predominately disease of Caucasians, but there has been an increase in reported cases in African Americans suffering from IBD. The prevalence appears to be lower among Hispanic and Asian populations. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood (usually between the ages of 15 and 35). There is a small second peak of newly-diagnosed cases after age 50. The number of new cases (incidence) and number of cases (prevalence) of Crohn's disease in the United States are rising, although the reason for this is not completely understood.

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Crohn's disease (sometimes called Crohn disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the physician who described the disease in 1932. It also is called granulomatous enteritis or colitis, regional enteritis, ileitis, or terminal ileitis.


Crohn's disease is related closely to another chronic inflammatory condition that involves only the colon called ulcerative colitis. Together, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are frequently referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have no medical cure. Once the diseases begin, they tend to fluctuate between periods of inactivity (remission) and activity (relapse).


 Men and women are affected equally by inflammatory bowel disease. Americans of Jewish European descent are more likely to develop IBD than the general population. IBD has historically been considered predominately disease of Caucasians, but there has been an increase in reported cases in African Americans suffering from IBD. The prevalence appears to be lower among Hispanic and Asian populations. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood (usually between the ages of 15 and 35). There is a small second peak of newly-diagnosed cases after age 50. The number of new cases (incidence) and number of cases (prevalence) of Crohn's disease in the United States are rising, although the reason for this is not completely understood.


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Keratitis is the medical term for inflammation of the cornea. The cornea is the dome-shaped window in the front of the eye. When looking at a person's eye, one can see the iris and pupil through the normally clear cornea. The cornea bends light rays as a result of its curved shape and accounts for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power, with the lens of the eye contributing the remaining one-third. Only the very thin tear film lies between the front of the cornea and our environment.


The cornea is about 0.5 millimeter thick. The back of the cornea is bathed in the aqueous fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye. The cornea has a diameter of about 13 millimeters (½ inch) and, together with the sclera (the white part of the eye) forms the entire outer coat of the eye.

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We see through the cornea, which is the clear outer lens or "windshield" of the eye. Normally, the cornea has a dome shape, like a ball. Sometimes, however, the structure of the cornea is just not strong enough to hold this round shape and the cornea bulges outward like a cone. This condition is called keratoconus.

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Kidney cancer -- also called renal cancer -- is a disease in which kidney cells become malignant (cancerous) and grow out of control, forming a tumor. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. The good news is that most of kidney cancers are found before they spread (metastasize) to distant organs. And cancers caught early are easier to treat successfully. However, these tumors can grow to be quite large before they are detected.


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They lie in your lower abdomen on each side of your spine. Their main job is to clean your blood, removing waste products and making urine.

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Kleptomania (klep-toe-MAY-nee-uh) is the recurrent inability to resist urges to steal items that you generally don't really need and that usually have little value. Kleptomania is a rare but serious mental health disorder that can cause much emotional pain to you and your loved ones if not treated.


Kleptomania is a type of impulse control disorder — a disorder that's characterized by problems with emotional or behavioral self-control. If you have an impulse control disorder, you have difficulty resisting the temptation or drive to perform an act that's excessive or harmful to you or someone else.


Many people with kleptomania live lives of secret shame because they're afraid to seek mental health treatment. Although there's no cure for kleptomania, treatment with medication or talk therapy (psychotherapy) may help to end the cycle of compulsive stealing.

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Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy or galactosylceramide lipidosis, is an autosomal-recessive sphingolipidosis caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal hydrolase galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase (GALC). GALC degrades galactosylceramide, a major component of myelin, and other terminal beta-galactose–containing sphingolipids, including psychosine (galactosylsphingosine). Increased psychosine levels are believed to lead to widespread destruction of oligodendroglia in the CNS and to subsequent demyelination. [1, 2, 3]


Krabbe originally described a condition with infantile onset that was characterized by spasticity and a rapidly progressive neurologic degeneration leading to death. Since the original description, numerous cases have been documented that show a wide distribution in age of onset.

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Amblyopia, commonly known as lazy eye, is the eye condition noted by reduced vision not correctable by glasses or contact lenses and is not due to any eye disease. The brain, for some reason, does not fully acknowledge the images seen by the amblyopic eye. This almost always affects only one eye but may manifest with reduction of vision in both eyes. It is estimated that three percent of children under six have some form of amblyopia.

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Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body, often over months or years. Even small amounts of lead can cause serious health problems. Children younger than 6 years are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning, which can severely affect mental and physical development. At very high levels, lead poisoning can be fatal.


Lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust in older buildings are the most common sources of lead poisoning in children. Other sources include contaminated air, water and soil. Adults who work with batteries, do home renovations or work in auto repair shops also might be exposed to lead.


There is treatment for lead poisoning, but taking some simple precautions can help protect you and your family from lead exposure before harm is done.

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Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma. Soft tissue sarcomas can develop in muscle, fat, blood vessels, or any of the other tissues that support, surround and protect the organs of the body.


Leiomyosarcoma is one of the more common types of soft tissue sarcoma to develop in adults. We don’t yet know the exact cause.


Leiomyosarcomas are usually treated at a specialist hospital. The usual treatment for a leiomyosarcoma is surgery to remove the tumour. You may have radiotherapy after surgery, to reduce the chance of the cancer coming back. Chemotherapy is also sometimes used for a leiomyosarcomas that has come back, or that has spread.


You may be asked to take part in clinical trial looking at new ways of treating leiomyosarcomas. Your doctor or specialist nurse can talk to you about this.


After treatment, you will have regular check-ups. If you have any problems or notice any new symptoms between these check-ups, it’s important to let your doctor know as soon as possible

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Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a progressive brain disorder in which Lewy bodies (abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein) build up in areas of the brain that regulate behavior, cognition, and movement.

 

A complex disease, LBD can present with a range of symptoms including problems with thinking, memory, moving, sleep and/or changes in behavior, to name a few of the physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms.

 

LBD also affects autonomic body functions, such as blood pressure control, temperature regulation, and bladder and bowel function. Progressively debilitating, LBD can also cause people to experience visual hallucinations or act out their dreams.

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Limited scleroderma, also known as CREST syndrome, is one subtype of scleroderma — a condition whose name means "hardened skin."


The skin changes associated with limited scleroderma typically occur only in the lower arms and legs, below the elbows and knees, and sometimes affect the face and neck. Limited scleroderma can also affect your digestive tract, heart, lungs or kidneys.


The problems caused by limited scleroderma may be minor. Sometimes, however, the disease affects the lungs or heart, with potentially serious results. Limited scleroderma has no known cure. Treatments focus on managing symptoms, preventing serious complications and improving quality of life.

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Lip cancers are abnormal cells that grow out of control and form lesions or tumors on the lips. They are the most common type of oral cancers. These cancers develop in thin, flat cells — called squamous cells — that line the lips, mouth, tongue, cheeks, sinuses, throat, and hard and soft palates.


Lip cancer and other kinds of oral cancers are types of head and neck cancers.


Certain lifestyle choices, such as smoking, drinking, sun exposure, and tanning, increase your risk of developing lip cancer. Dentists are typically the first to notice signs of lip cancers, often during a routine dental exam.


Lip cancers are highly curable when diagnosed early.

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Have you noticed a soft, rubbery bulge under your skin somewhere?


That could be a lipoma. They happen when a lump of fat starts to grow in the soft tissue of your body. Though they’re classified as tumors, they’re usually harmless.


They’re the most common tumor to form beneath your skin, with about 1 person in 1,000 getting one at some point. You usually find them in your upper body, arms, or thighs.

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A diagnosis of liposarcoma and its treatment made Mayor Rob Ford, the controversial former mayor of Toronto, decide to take his name out of the running for the election for Toronto's mayor in 2014. The disease caused his death on Tues., Mar. 22, 2016. His disease and death at age 46 has stimulated further interest in liposarcoma, especially pleomorphic liposarcoma, a relatively rare cancer that is difficult to treat because the tumors are usually found or diagnosed when the disease is advanced.

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Listeriosis is an infection caused by a gram stain-positive motile bacterium named Listeria monocytogenes. The foodborne illness produces fever, muscle aches, and, in many people, diarrhea. Severe infections can cause headaches, meningitis, convulsions, and death. Most healthy people exposed to the bacteria have minor or no symptoms, but a few people, especially the elderly, pregnant females and their fetus, newborns, and anyone with a compromised immune system are especially susceptible to these organisms. Listeria bacteria are widespread throughout the world and are often associated with farm animals that may show no signs of infection. Research shows that many animals are uninfected carriers, and they suggest that some humans carry these organisms as part of their bowel flora. Except for pregnant women and their fetus or newborn, there is no direct transfer of Listeria from human to human.


The organisms (Listeria monocytogenes) that cause listeriosis have probably been infecting humans for centuries. Listeria was first isolated from an infected WWI soldier in 1918 and had many different names until 1940, when the genus and species names were firmly established. However, the bacteria were first recognized as a food-borne (food poisoning) pathogen in 1979. The bacteria can penetrate human cells and can multiply inside them. People with altered or impaired immune systems have cells that are less able to control the spread of these organisms into the blood or into other cells. In 2010, a known species, Listeria ivanovii, thought only to infect cattle, was found to infect humans so there are two Listeria species that can infect humans.


Outbreaks of listeriosis can occur with some frequency. For example, in 2017, soft raw milk cheese was a source of an outbreak (Vulto Creamery). In this outbreak, eight people were infected and two died. Other recalls of products in 2017 include 3 tons of cheese for possible Listeria contamination (La Nica Products INC.), macadamia nuts (Simple Truth brand), Ava's Organic Cashews, and Queso Fresco cheese, for the same problem.

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Each strand of hair is made up of the medulla, cortex, and cuticle.[4] The innermost region, the medulla, is not always present and is an open, unstructured region.[5] The highly structural and organized cortex, or middle layer of the hair, is the primary source of mechanical strength and water uptake. The cortex contains melanin, which colors the fiber based on the number, distribution and types of melanin granules. The shape of the follicle determines the shape of the cortex, and the shape of the fiber is related to how straight or curly the hair is. People with straight hair have round hair fibers. Oval and other shaped fibers are generally more wavy or curly. The cuticle is the outer covering. Its complex structure slides as the hair swells and is covered with a single molecular layer of lipid that makes the hair repel water.[4] The diameter of human hair varies from 0.017 to 0.18 millimeters (0.00067 to 0.00709 in).[6] There are two million small, tubular glands and sweat glands that produce watery fluids that cool the body by evaporation. The glands at the opening of the hair produce a fatty secretion that lubricates the hair.[7]


Hair growth begins inside the hair follicle. The only "living" portion of the hair is found in the follicle. The hair that is visible is the hair shaft, which exhibits no biochemical activity and is considered "dead". The base of a hair's root (the "bulb") contains the cells that produce the hair shaft.[8] Other structures of the hair follicle include the oil producing sebaceous gland which lubricates the hair and the arrector pili muscles, which are responsible for causing hairs to stand up. In humans with little body hair, the effect results in goose bumps.

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A liver hemangioma is a tangled network of blood vessels in or on the surface of the liver. This tumor is noncancerous and usually doesn’t cause symptoms. In fact, most people don’t even know they have a liver hemangioma. It’s usually only discovered during a test or procedure for an unrelated condition. Even when they’re diagnosed, most liver hemangiomas don’t require treatment.


A liver hemangioma is noncancerous and doesn’t increase your risk of developing cancer. The tumor is usually small, measuring less than 4 centimeters in diameter. In some cases, however, it can grow much larger. A larger tumor is more likely to cause symptoms, such as abdominal pain and nausea. Pregnant women and women using estrogen replacement therapy have a higher risk of developing a large hemangioma. This is because estrogen may contribute to the growth of liver hemangiomas.


Most people only have one liver hemangioma. However, it’s possible for several hemangiomas to form on the liver at once.


A liver hemangioma typically doesn’t cause complications in adults, but it can be more dangerous when it develops in infants. In babies, the growth is called infantile hemangioendothelioma. It’s usually diagnosed before the baby is 6 months old. This is a rare condition in infants. Although the tumor isn’t cancerous, it has been linked to higher rates of heart failure.

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The lymphatic system is a network of specialized vessels (lymph vessels) throughout the body whose purpose is to collect excess lymph fluid with proteins, lipids, and waste products from the tissues. This fluid is then carried to the lymph nodes, which filter waste products and contain infection-fighting cells called lymphocytes. The excess fluid in the lymph vessels is eventually returned to the bloodstream. When the lymph vessels are blocked or unable to carry lymph fluid away from the tissues, localized swelling (lymphedema) is the result.

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Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a woman's disease, male breast cancer does occur.Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age.Men diagnosed with male breast cancerat an early stage have a good chance for a cure. Still, many men delay seeing their doctors if they notice one of the usual signs or symptoms, such as a breast lump. For this reason, many male breast cancers are diagnosed when the disease is more advanced.


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Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough testosterone — the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an impaired ability to produce sperm orboth.You may be born with male hypogonadism, or it can develop later in life, often from injury or infection. The effects — and what you can do about them — depend on the cause and at what point in your life male hypogonadism occurs. Some types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy.


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Malignant hyperthermia is a condition that triggers a severe reaction to certain drugs used as part of anesthesia for surgery. Without prompt treatment, the disease can be fatal.The genes that cause malignant hyperthermia are inherited. In most cases, no signs or symptoms of the condition exist until you are exposed to anesthesia.


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Mammary duct ectasia (ek-TAY-zhuh) occurs when a milk duct beneath your nipple widens, the duct walls thicken and the duct fills with fluid. The milk duct may become blocked or clogged with a thick, sticky substance. The condition often causes no symptoms, but some women may have nipple discharge, breast tenderness or inflammation of the clogged duct (periductal mastitis).

Mammary duct ectasia most often occurs in women of perimenopausal age — around 45 to 55 years — but it can happen after menopause, too. The condition sometimes improves without treatment. If symptoms persist, you may need antibiotics or possibly surgery to remove the affected milk duct.Though it's normal to worry about any changes in your breasts, mammary duct ectasia and periductal mastisis aren't risk factors for breast cancer


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Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects connective tissue — the fibers that support and anchor your organs and other structures in your body. Marfan syndrome most commonly affects the heart, eyes, blood vessels and skeleton.People with Marfan syndrome are usually tall and thin with disproportionately long arms, legs, fingers and toes. The damage caused by Marfan syndrome can be mild or severe. If your aorta — the large blood vessel that carries blood from your heart to the rest of your body — is affected, the condition can become life-threatening.
Treatment usually includes medications to keep your blood pressure low to reduce the strain on your aorta. Regular monitoring to check for damage progression is vital. Many people with Marfan syndrome eventually require preventive surgery to repair the aorta.
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MEdulloblastoma is a cancerous tumor—also called cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)—that starts in the region of the brain at the base of the skull, called the posterior fossa. These tumors tend to spread to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord


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Membranous nephropathy (MEM-bruh-nus nuh-FROP-uh-thee) occurs when the small blood vessels in the kidney (glomeruli), which filter wastes from the blood, become damaged and thickened. As a result, proteins leak from the damaged blood vessels into the urine (proteinuria). For many, loss of these proteins eventually causes signs and symptoms known as nephrotic syndrome.In mild cases, membranous nephropathy may get better on its own, without any treatment. As protein leakage increases, so does the risk of long-term kidney damage. In many, the disease ultimately leads to kidney failure. There's no absolute cure for membranous nephropathy, but successful treatment can lead to remission of proteinuria and a good long-term outlook.


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A meningioma is a tumor that arises from the meninges — the membranes that surround your brain and spinal cord. Although not technically a brain tumor, it is included in this category because it may compress or squeeze the adjacent brain, nerves and vessels. Meningioma is the most common type of tumor that forms in the head.

Most meningiomas grow very slowly, often over many years without causing symptoms. But in some instances, their effects on adjacent brain tissue, nerves or vessels may cause serious disability.

Meningiomas occur most commonly in women, and are often discovered at older ages, but a meningioma may occur at any age.

Because most meningiomas grow slowly, often without any significant signs and symptoms, they do not always require immediate treatment and may be monitored over time.


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Mental illness refers to a wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect your mood, thinking and behavior. Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and addictive behaviors.

Many people have mental health concerns from time to time. But a mental health concern becomes a mental illness when ongoing signs and symptoms cause frequent stress and affect your ability to function.

A mental illness can make you miserable and can cause problems in your daily life, such as at school or work or in relationships. In most cases, symptoms can be managed with a combination of medications and talk therapy (psychotherapy).

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Meralgia paresthetica is a condition characterized by tingling, numbness and burning pain in your outer thigh. The cause of meralgia paresthetica is compression of the nerve that supplies sensation to the skin surface of your thigh.

Tight clothing, obesity or weight gain, and pregnancy are common causes of meralgia paresthetica. However, meralgia paresthetica can also be due to local trauma or a disease, such as diabetes.

In most cases, you can relieve meralgia paresthetica with conservative measures, such as wearing looser clothing. In severe cases, treatment may include medications to relieve discomfort or, rarely, surgery.

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MCC usually develops on sun-exposed skin (e.g., head, neck, arms) as a painless, firm bump that can be red-purple or skin-colored. Patients frequently point out a new MCC to their doctor because a bump is growing rapidly and/or does not look like anything the patient has ever had before.  Most MCCs are diagnosed when a skin biopsy
The removal of cells or tissue in order to determine the presence, characteristics, or extent of a disease by a pathologist usually using microscopic analysis. is performed to rule out another sun-induced skin cancer
A term used to describe diseases in which abnormal cells continually divide without normal regulation. Cancerous cells may invade surrounding tissues and may spread to other regions of the body via blood and the lymphatic system.
 or to remove a presumed cyst. In the vast majority of cases, both the doctor and the patient are surprised by the diagnosis of MCC. For more examples of MCC tumors beyond those presented on this page, visit 
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Mesenteric ischemia (mez-un-TER-ik is-KEE-me-uh) is a condition caused by poor blood supply to your intestines. Mesenteric ischemia usually affects the small intestine, colon or both. It may also involve other organs in the digestive system. Mesenteric ischemia may be acute or chronic.Acute mesenteric ischemia occurs suddenly as a result of blockage to the flow of oxygen-rich blood and can permanently damage your intestines. You may experience sudden abdominal pain and, less often, bloody stools. This situation requires immediate medical care.

Chronic mesenteric ischemia occurs gradually from narrowing in one or more of the arteries supplying blood to your intestines (visceral arteries). You may develop pain 1 to 2 hours after eating, This pain may make it hard for you to eat, leading to weight loss. You may also notice changes in the frequency of your bowel movements, as well as bloating, nausea and vomiting.


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Lymphadenitis is a condition in which your lymph nodes become inflamed. When the condition affects the lymph nodes in the membrane that connects your bowel to the abdominal wall (mesentery), it's called mesenteric lymphadenitis (mez-un-TER-ik lim-fad-uh-NIE-tis).Mesenteric lymphadenitis, which is also called mesenteric adenitis, usually results from an intestinal infection. It mainly affects children and teens. This painful condition can mimic the warning signs of appendicitis. Unlike appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis is seldom serious and usually clears up on its own

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Malignant mesothelioma (me-zoe-thee-lee-O-muh) is a type of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of tissue that covers the majority of your internal organs (mesothelium).Mesothelioma is an aggressive and deadly form of cancer. Mesothelioma treatments are available, but for many people with mesothelioma, a cure is not possible.Doctors divide mesothelioma into different types based on what part of the mesothelium is affected. Mesothelioma most often affects the tissue that surrounds the lungs (pleura). This type is called pleural mesothelioma. Other, rarer types of mesothelioma affect tissue in the abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma), around the heart and around the testicles.Mesothelioma doesn't include a form of noncancerous (benign) tumor that occurs in the chest and is sometimes called benign mesothelioma or solitary fibrous tumor.

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Does your hair feel brittle and stiff? Dyeing, bleaching, straightening or blowing out your hair a lot can damage it over time. These processes dry out your hair and leave it prone to breakage and split ends. Once your hair is damaged, the best way to restore it is to give it time to grow back in healthy and strong. Use deep conditioning treatments to help bring back its luster, and be healthy from the inside out to promote the growth of new healthy hair.

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Metatarsalgia (met-uh-tahr-SAL-juh) is a condition in which the ball of your foot becomes painful and inflamed. You might develop it if you participate in activities that involve running and jumping. There are other causes as well, including foot deformities and shoes that are too tight or too loose.Although generally not serious, metatarsalgia can sideline you. Fortunately, at-home treatments, such as ice and rest, often relieve symptoms. Wearing proper footwear with shock-absorbing insoles or arch supports might prevent or minimize future problems with metatarsalgia.

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Microcephaly (my-kroh-SEF-uh-lee) is a rare neurological condition in which an infant's head is significantly smaller than the heads of other children of the same age and sex. Sometimes detected at birth, microcephaly usually is the result of the brain developing abnormally in the womb or not growing as it should after birth.Microcephaly can be caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Children with microcephaly often have developmental issues. Generally there's no treatment for microcephaly, but early intervention with supportive therapies, such as speech and occupational therapies, may help enhance your child's development and improve quality of life.

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Migraine with aura (also called classic migraine) is a headache that strikes after or along with sensory disturbances called aura. These disturbances can include flashes of light, blind spots and other vision changes or tingling in your hand or face.Treatments for migraine with aura and migraine without aura (also called common migraine) are usually the same. You can try to prevent migraine with aura with the same medications and self-care measures used to prevent migraine.

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Between 2 and 3 percent of children younger than 3 are allergic to milk. Although experts once believed that the vast majority of them would outgrow this allergy by the time they turned 3, recent studies contradict this theory. In one study, fewer than 20 percent of children had outgrown their allergy by age 4. Still, about 80 percent of children are likely to outgrow their milk allergy before they are 16.

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Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs when the leaflets of the mitral valve bulge (prolapse) into the heart's left upper chamber (left atrium) like a parachute during the heart's contraction.Mitral (MY-trul) valve prolapse sometimes leads to blood leaking backward into the left atrium, a condition called mitral valve regurgitation.in most people, mitral valve prolapse isn't life-threatening and doesn't require treatment or changes in lifestyle. Some people with mitral valve prolapse, however, require treatment.

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Mitral valve stenosis — or mitral stenosis — is a narrowing of the heart's mitral valve. This abnormal valve doesn't open properly, blocking blood flow into the main pumping chamber of your heart (left ventricle). Mitral valve stenosis can make you tired and short of breath, among other problems.The main cause of mitral valve stenosis is an infection called rheumatic fever, which is related to strep infections. Rheumatic fever — now rare in the United States, but still common in developing countries — can scar the mitral valve. Left untreated, mitral valve stenosis can lead to serious heart complications.

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  • A molar pregnancy is the result of a genetic error during the fertilization process that leads to a growth of abnormal tissue within the uterus. Molar pregnancies rarely involve a developing embryo, and the growth of this material is rapid compared to normal fetal growth. It has the appearance of a large and random collection of grape-like cell clusters. There are two types of molar pregnancies, “complete,” and “partial.”
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Mold allergies can be tough to outrun. The fungus can grow in your basement, in your bathroom, in the cabinet under your sink where a leak went undetected, in the pile of dead leaves in your backyard and in the field of uncut grass down the road.There are roughly 1,000 species of mold in the United States — many of which aren’t visible to the naked eye. As tiny mold spores become airborne, they can cause allergic reactions in people who have mold allergies.

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Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes. The fluid from the nose is usually clear. Symptom onset is often within minutes following exposure and they can affect sleep, the ability to work, and the ability to concentrate at school. Those whose symptoms are due to pollen typically develop symptoms during specific times of the year. Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, or atopic dermatitis.
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Dandruff is a skin condition that affects mainly the scalp. Symptoms include flaking and sometimes mild itchiness.It can result in social or self-esteem problems. A more severe form of the condition, which includes inflammation of the skin, is known as seborrheic dermatitis.


The cause is unclear but believed to involve a number of genetic and environmental factors. The condition may worsen in the winter.It is not due to poor hygiene. The underlying mechanism involves the over growth of skin cells.Diagnosis is based on symptoms.


There is no known cure.The typical treatment is with antifungal cream such as ketoconazole. Dandruff affects about half of adults. Onset is usually at puberty. Males are more often affected than females.Rates decrease after the age of 50.


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Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum virus). The result of the infection is usually a benign, mild skin disease characterized by lesions (growths) that may appear anywhere on the body. Within 6-12 months, Molluscum contagiosum typically resolves without scarring but may take as long as 4 years.The lesions, known as Mollusca, are small, raised, and usually white, pink, or flesh-colored with a dimple or pit in the center. They often have a pearly appearance. They’re usually smooth and firm. In most people, the lesions range from about the size of a pinhead to as large as a pencil eraser (2 to 5 millimeters in diameter). They may become itchy, sore, red, and/or swollen.Mollusca may occur anywhere on the body including the face, neck, arms, legs, abdomen, and genital area, alone or in groups. The lesions are rarely found on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.


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Morphea (mor-FEE-uh) is a rare skin condition that causes painless, discolored patches on your skin.Typically, the skin changes appear on the abdomen, chest or back. But they might also appear on your face, arms or legs. Morphea tends to affect only the outermost layers of your skin. But some forms of the condition also restrict movement in the joints.Morphea usually subsides on its own over time, though recurrences are common. In the meantime, medications and therapies are available to help treat the skin discoloration and other effects

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Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer, is where a tumour develops in the lining of the mouth. It may be on the surface of the tongue, the insides of the cheeks, the roof of the mouth (palate), or the lips or gums.Tumours can also develop in the glands that produce saliva, the tonsils at the back of the mouth, and the part of the throat connecting your mouth to your windpipe (pharynx). However, these are less common.

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Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain in an area called the basal ganglia. The name “moyamoya” means “puff of smoke” in Japanese and describes the look of the tangle of tiny vessels formed to compensate for the blockage.  Moyamoya disease was first described in Japan in the 1960s and it has since been found in individuals in the other countries around the world; its incidence is higher in Asian countries than in Europe or North America. The disease primarily affects children, but it can also occur in adults. In children, the first symptom of Moyamoya disease is often stroke, or recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIA, commonly referred to as “mini-strokes”), frequently accompanied by muscular weakness or paralysis affecting one side of the body, or seizures.  Adults may also experience these symptoms that arise from blocked arteries, but more often experience a hemorrhagic stroke due to bleeding into the brain from the abnormal brain vessels.  Individuals with this disorder may have disturbed consciousness, problems with speaking and understanding speech, sensory and cognitive impairments, involuntary movements, and vision problems. About one in 10 individuals with Moyamoya disease has a close relative who is also affected; in these cases researchers think that Moyamoya disease is the result of inherited genetic abnormalities. Studies that look for the abnormal gene(s) may help reveal the biomechanisms that cause the disorder.

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Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common skin bacteria. It is sometimes called staph, and it most often causes skin and soft tissue infections. Although S. aureus has been causing staph infections as long as humans have existed, MRSA has only been around since 1961. Methicillin was one of the first antibiotics used to treat S. aureus and other infections. S. aureus developed a gene mutation that allowed it to escape being killed by methicillin, so it became resistant to methicillin. That makes it harder to treat someone who gets an infection. Stronger, more expensive, or intravenous antibiotics may be needed.


Since the 1960s, MRSA has picked up more resistance to different antibiotics. Overuse of antibiotics has increased resistance in MRSA and other infectious bacteria, because resistance genes (the genes that code for resistance) can be passed from bacteria to bacteria.


If a doctor orders a test for bacteria on a specimen of pus, for example, the laboratory will alert the doctor if the test shows MRSA, so that precautions can be taken, and the right treatment can be started.

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Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs.Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than produce helpful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications.Treatment for multiple myeloma isn't always necessary for people who aren't experiencing any signs or symptoms. For people with multiple myeloma who require treatment, a number of treatments are available to help control the disease.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.

Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.

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Myasthenia gravis (my-us-THEE-nee-uh GRAY-vis) is characterized by weakness and rapid fatigue of any of the muscles under your voluntary control.Myasthenia gravis is caused by a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles.There is no cure for myasthenia gravis, but treatment can help relieve signs and symptoms, such as weakness of arm or leg muscles, double vision, drooping eyelids, and difficulties with speech, chewing, swallowing and breathing.Though myasthenia gravis can affect people of any age, it's more common in women younger than 40 and in men older than 60.

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Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of disorders caused by poorly formed blood cells or ones that don't work properly. Myelodysplastic syndromes result from something amiss in the spongy material inside your bones where blood cells are made (bone marrow).Treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes usually focuses on reducing or preventing complications of the disease and its treatments. In some cases, treatment might involve chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant.

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Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing it from receiving enough oxygen. The reduced blood flow is usually the result of a partial or complete blockage of your heart's arteries (coronary arteries).Myocardial ischemia, also called cardiac ischemia, can damage your heart muscle, reducing its ability to pump efficiently. A sudden, severe blockage of a coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. Myocardial ischemia might also cause serious abnormal heart rhythms.Treatment for myocardial ischemia involves improving blood flow to the heart muscle. Treatment may include medications, a procedure to open blocked arteries or bypass surgery.Making heart-healthy lifestyle choices is important in treating and preventing myocardial ischemia.


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Myocarditis is a disease marked by inflammation and damage of the heart muscle. Although the exact incidence of myocarditis is not known, it is estimated that several thousand patients per year are diagnosed in the United States. Myocarditis usually attacks otherwise healthy people. It is believed that 5 to 20% of all cases of sudden death in young adults are due to myocarditis.There are many causes of myocarditis, including viral infections, autoimmune diseases, environmental toxins, and adverse reactions to medications. The prognosis is variable but chronic heart failure is the major long term complication. Myocarditis and the associated disorder of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy are the cause of approximately 45% of heart transplants in the United States.Subscribe to the Myocarditis Foundation Newsletter to receive the latest news and real-life stories delivered right to your email inbox!

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Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) refers to pain and presumed inflammation in the body's soft tissues or muscles. Myofascial pain is a chronic, painful condition that affects the fascia (connective tissue that covers the muscles). Myofascial pain syndrome might involve either a single muscle or a muscle group. In some cases, the area where a person experiences the pain might not be where the myofascial pain generator is located. Experts believe that the actual site of the injury or the strain prompts the development of a trigger point that, in turn, causes pain in other areas. This situation is known as referred pain.

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Myxofibrosarcoma is a common connective tissue neoplasm of malignant fibrocytes in a myxoid matrix favoring the extremities. Like many other tumors of connective tissue, soft tissue sarcoma exhibits high recurrence rates but is rarely known to metastasize. We present a patient with myxofibrosarcoma of the hand with metastases to the lungs, pleura, and mediastinum. The mediastinal metastasis presented clinically with gastrointestinal symptoms due to compression of the gastroesophageal junction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma of the hand and also the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma to mediastinal lymph nodes at the level of the gastroesophageal junction. We also performed a comprehensive literature review of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma.

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Naegleria (nay-GLEER-e-uh) infection is a rare and usually fatal brain infection caused by an amoeba commonly found in freshwater lakes, rivers and hot springs. Exposure occurs during swimming or other water sports.The amoeba — called Naegleria fowleri — travels up the nose to the brain, where it causes severe damage. Most people who have naegleria infection die within a week.Millions of people are exposed to the amoeba that causes naegleria infection each year, but only a handful of them ever get sick from it. Health officials don't know why some people develop naegleria infection while others don't.Avoiding warm bodies of fresh water and wearing nose clips while in the water may help prevent such infections.

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Nasal polyps are soft, painless, noncancerous growths on the lining of your nasal passages or sinuses. They hang down like teardrops or grapes. They result from chronic inflammation due to asthma, recurring infection, allergies, drug sensitivity or certain immune disorders.Small nasal polyps may not cause symptoms. Larger growths or groups of nasal polyps can block your nasal passages or lead to breathing problems, a lost sense of smell and frequent infections.Nasal polyps can affect anyone, but they're more common in adults. Medications can often shrink or eliminate nasal polyps, but surgery is sometimes needed to remove them. Even after successful treatment, nasal polyps often return.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.


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Nasopharyngeal (nay-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul) carcinoma is cancer that occurs in the nasopharynx, which is located behind your nose and above the back of your throat.Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States. In other parts of the world — specifically Southeast Asia — nasopharyngeal carcinoma occurs much more frequently.Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is difficult to detect early. That's probably because the nasopharynx isn't easy to examine and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma mimic those of other, more-common conditions.Treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma usually involves radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of the two. You can work with your doctor to determine the exact approach depending on your particular situation

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Nearsightedness (myopia) is a common vision condition in which you can see objects near to you clearly, but objects farther away are blurry.Nearsightedness may develop gradually or rapidly, often worsening during childhood and adolescence. Nearsightedness tends to run in families.A basic eye exam can confirm nearsightedness. You can easily correct the condition with eyeglasses or contact lenses. Another treatment option for nearsightedness is surgery.

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Neurodermatitis is a skin condition that begins with an itch.The itch can develop anywhere on the surface of the body. Most commonly, though, an itchy patch develops on an arm, leg, or the back of the neck. It also commonly develops in the anal and genital areas. When it appears in the genital area, it often appears on the scrotum or vulva.The itch can be so intense that a person scratches or rubs the itchy patch frequently. The itch can also come and go. For most people, the area feels itchiest when they are relaxing or sleeping. The itch causes people to scratch or rub the area while sleeping — and it can awaken someone from a sound sleep.Quite often, the itch begins during an especially stressful time in someone’s life. Even when the stress subsides, the itch usually continues. Scratching or rubbing can change the appearance of that itchy patch.

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Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes tumors to form on nerve tissue. These tumors can develop anywhere in your nervous system, including your brain, spinal cord and nerves. Neurofibromatosis is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood.The tumors are usually noncancerous (benign), but sometimes can become cancerous (malignant). Symptoms are often mild. However, complications of neurofibromatosis can include hearing loss, learning impairment, heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems, loss of vision, and severe pain.Neurofibromatosis treatment aims to maximize healthy growth and development and to manage complications as soon as they arise. When neurofibromatosis causes large tumors or tumors that press on a nerve, surgery can help ease symptoms. Some people may benefit from other therapies, such as stereotactic radiosurgery or medications to control pain.

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Your doctor can usually diagnose nickel allergy based on your skin's appearance, and a recent exposure to items that may contain nickel.If the cause of your rash isn't apparent, however, your doctor may recommend a patch test (contact hypersensitivity allergy test). He or she may refer you to an allergy specialist (allergist) or a skin specialist (dermatologist) for this test.

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Niemann-Pick is a rare, inherited disease that affects the body's ability to metabolize fat (cholesterol and lipids) within cells. These cells malfunction and, over time, die. Niemann-Pick disease can affect the brain, nerves, liver, spleen, bone marrow and, in severe cases, lungs.People with this condition experience symptoms related to progressive loss of function of nerves, the brain and other organs.Niemann-Pick can occur at any age but mainly affects children. The disease has no known cure and is sometimes fatal. Treatment is focused on helping people live with their symptoms.

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A nightmare is a disturbing dream associated with negative feelings, such as anxiety or fear that awakens you. Nightmares are common in children, but can happen at any age, and occasional nightmares usually are nothing to worry about.Nightmares may begin in children between 3 and 6 years old and tend to decrease after the age of 10. During the teen and young adult years, girls appear to have nightmares more often than boys do. Some people have them as adults or throughout their lives.Although nightmares are common, nightmare disorder is relatively rare. Nightmare disorder is when nightmares happen often, cause distress, disrupt sleep, cause problems with daytime functioning or create fear of going to sleep.

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Have you ever noticed how the skin on your elbows and knees is often darker than the rest of the skin on your arms and legs? It's a bit funny-looking, isn't it? Some people think it's the result of dirt (and sometimes it is), but you'd be surprised to find that dirt often has nothing to do with the dark spots on your elbows and knees.

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Nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is a clinical syndrome comprising symptoms consistent with allergic rhinitis in which an absence of atopy has been demonstrated by allergen skin testing, and nasal cytology analysis demonstrates more than 20% eosinophils. Anosmia is a prominent feature not shared with allergic rhinitis. The pathophysiology of NARES is poorly understood, but a key component involves a self-perpetuating, chronic eosinophilic nasal inflammation with development of nasal micropolyposis and polyposis. Mast cells likely play an important role as well. NARES is a risk factor for the development of nasal polyposis and aspirin sensitivity, as well as obstructive sleep apnea. Treatment consists mainly of intranasal corticosteroids with or without the addition of second-generation antihistamines and/or leukotriene-receptor antagonists.

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Nonulcer stomach pain is a term for recurring signs and symptoms of indigestion that have no obvious cause. Nonulcer stomach pain is also called functional dyspepsia (dis-PEP-see-uh) or nonulcer dyspepsia.Nonulcer stomach pain is common and can be long lasting. The condition can cause signs and symptoms that resemble those of an ulcer, such as pain or discomfort in your upper abdomen, often accompanied by bloating, belching and nausea.

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Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder that prevents normal development in various parts of the body. A person can be affected by Noonan syndrome in a wide variety of ways. These include unusual facial characteristics, short stature, heart defects, other physical problems and possible developmental delays.Noonan syndrome is caused by a genetic mutation and is acquired when a child inherits a copy of an affected gene from a parent (dominant inheritance). It can also occur as a spontaneous mutation, meaning there's no family history involved.Management of Noonan syndrome focuses on controlling the disorder's symptoms and complications. Growth hormone may be used to treat short stature in some people with Noonan syndrome.

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Occupational asthma is asthma that's caused or worsened by breathing in chemical fumes, gases, dust or other substances on the job. Like other types of asthma, occupational asthma can cause chest tightness, wheezing and shortness of breath.When treated early, occupational asthma may be reversible. Long-term exposure to allergy-causing substances can cause worsening symptoms and lifelong asthma.Treatment for occupational asthma is similar to treatment for other types of asthma, and it generally includes taking medications to reduce symptoms. But the only sure way to eliminate your symptoms and prevent lung damage due to occupational asthma is to avoid whatever's triggering it.

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Ocular rosacea is inflammation that causes redness, burning and itching of the eyes. It often develops in people who have rosacea, a chronic skin condition that affects the face. Sometimes ocular, or eye, rosacea is the first sign that you may later develop the facial type.Ocular rosacea (roe-ZAY-she-uh) primarily affects adults between the ages of 30 and 50. It seems to develop in people who tend to blush and flush easily.Medications and a good eye-care routine can help control the signs and symptoms. But treatment doesn't cure ocular rosacea. It often recurs after an apparent remission.

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Oligodendrogliomas are generally soft, grayish-pink tumors. They often contain mineral deposits (called calcifications), areas of hemorrhage, and/or cysts. Under the microscope, these tumor cells appear to have “short arms,” or a fried-egg shape.

Sometimes oligodendrogliomas are mixed with other cell types. These tumors may be graded using an “A to D” system, which is based on microscopic features of the individual tumor cells. The grade indicates how quickly the tumor cells reproduce and how aggressive the tumor is.

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Lichen planus is an itchy skin rash that is caused by an immune response. It can occur anywhere on your skin.oral lichen planusIn cases of oral lichen planus, the mucous membranes inside your mouth are the only area affected. Oral lichen planus presents symptoms different from other cases of lichen planus. Instead of a rash, people may experience swollen tissues, white patches, and open sores.Oral lichen planus isn’t contagious, and it can’t be spread to another person.

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Oral thrush — also called oral candidiasis (kan-dih-DIE-uh-sis) — is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth. Candida is a normal organism in your mouth, but sometimes it can overgrow and cause symptoms.Oral thrush causes creamy white lesions, usually on your tongue or inner cheeks. Sometimes oral thrush may spread to the roof of your mouth, your gums or tonsils, or the back of your throat.Although oral thrush can affect anyone, it's more likely to occur in babies and older adults because they have reduced immunity; in other people with suppressed immune systems or certain health conditions; or people who take certain medications. Oral thrush is a minor problem if you're healthy, but if you have a weakened immune system, symptoms may be more severe and difficult to control.


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To lighten your dark lips, it is essential to know first what causes dark lips. If you can identify the reasons for your dark lips, you can easily treat your lips.

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The bones of children and adolescents possess a special area where the bone is growing called the growth plate. Growth plates are areas of cartilage located near the ends of bones. When a child is fully grown, the growth plates harden into solid bone.Some growth plates serve as attachment sites for tendons, the strong tissues that connect muscles to bones. A bony bump called the tibial tubercle covers the growth plate at the end of the tibia. The group of muscles in the front of the thigh (called the quadriceps) attaches to the tibial tubercle.When a child is active, the quadriceps muscles pull on the patellar tendon which in turn, pulls on the tibial tubercle. In some children, this repetitive traction on the tubercle leads to inflammation of the growth plate. The prominence, or bump, of the tibial tubercle may become very pronounced.

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Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a condition that develops in joints, most often in children and adolescents. It occurs when a small segment of bone begins to separate from its surrounding region due to a lack of blood supply. As a result, the small piece of bone and the cartilage covering it begin to crack and loosen.The most common joints affected by osteochondritis dissecans are the knee, ankle and elbow, although it can also occur in other joints. The condition typically affects just one joint, however, some children can develop OCD in several joints.In many cases of OCD in children, the affected bone and cartilage heal on their own, especially if a child is still growing. In grown children and young adults, OCD can have more severe effects. The OCD lesions have a greater chance of separating from the surrounding bone and cartilage, and can even detach and float around inside the joint. In these cases, surgery may be necessary.


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Osteosarcoma is the most common type of cancer that develops in bone. Like the osteoblasts in normal bone, the cells that form this cancer make bone matrix. But the bone matrix of an osteosarcoma is not as strong as that of normal bones.Most osteosarcomas occur in children and young adults. Teens are the most commonly affected age group, but osteosarcoma can occur at any ageIn children and young adults, osteosarcoma usually develops in areas where the bone is growing quickly, such as near the ends of the long bones. Most tumors develop in the bones around the knee, either in the distal femur (the lower part of the thigh bone) or the proximal tibia (the upper part of the shinbone). The proximal humerus (the part of the upper arm bone close to the shoulder) is the next most common site. However, osteosarcoma can develop in any bone, including the bones of the pelvis (hips), shoulder, and jaw. This is especially true in older adults.


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Pancreatic cysts are collections (pools) of fluid that can form within the head, body, and tail of the pancreas. Some pancreatic cysts are true cysts (non-inflammatory cysts), that is, they are lined by a special layer of cells that are responsible for secreting fluid into the cysts. Other cysts are pseudocysts (inflammatory cysts) and do not contain specialized lining cells. Often these pseudocysts contain pancreatic digestive juices because they are connected to the pancreatic ducts. Pancreatic cysts can range in size from several millimeters to several centimeters. Many pancreatic cysts are small and benign and produce no symptoms, but some cysts become large and cause symptoms, and others are cancerous or precancerous. (Precancerous cysts are benign cysts that have the potential to become cancerous.)Different types of cysts contain different types of fluids. For example, pseudocysts that form after an attack of acute pancreatitis contain digestive enzymes such as amylase in high concentrations. Mucinous cysts contain mucus (a proteinaceous liquid) produced by the mucinous cells that form the inside lining of the cyst.


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A paraganglioma is a rare tumor that begins in certain nerve cells that are dispersed throughout the body. This tumor can affect people of any age but most often shows up between the ages of 30 and 50. The tumor is often slow growing and noncancerous (benign). But it can invade nearby parts of the body, become cancerous (malignant) and spread distantly (metastasize).With about half of paraganglioma tumors, the abnormal cells produce hormones known as catecholamines or adrenaline, which is the fight-or-flight hormone. This may induce high blood pressure, a rapid heartbeat, flushed skin, sweating, headache and tremors.Surgery to remove the tumor is usually the first treatment choice for a paraganglioma, if feasible. If left untreated, a paraganglioma can result in severe or life-threatening damage and progress to the point where surgical treatment isn't an option. In people with cancerous and distantly spread (metastatic) paraganglioma, medicine and other treatments can help control the disease and symptoms and even extend survival.


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Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. It develops gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. But while a tremor may be the most well-known sign of Parkinson's disease, the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

In the early stages of Parkinson's disease, your face may show little or no expression, or your arms may not swing when you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred. Parkinson's disease symptoms worsen as your condition progresses over time.

Although Parkinson's disease can't be cured, medications may markedly improve your symptoms. In occasional cases, your doctor may suggest surgery to regulate certain regions of your brain and improve your symptoms.

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Both benign (non-cancerous) and cancerous salivary gland tumors may develop anywhere in the salivary glands, but the majority of them are parotid tumors. In fact, as many as 80% of salivary gland tumors begin in the parotid glands. 15% occur in the submandibular glands, and 5% form in the sublingual and minor glands. While most salivary gland tumors occur in the parotid glands, only 20% of them are cancerous. With this in mind, we want to stress that it is important that you come see us if you are find a mass in your parotid gland so we can perform a biopsy. This will allow us to determine whether a growth is cancerous or not, and in turn come up with a treatment plan that may require parotid surgery on the tumor.

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Black neck is a term used to describe a condition in which the skin on your neck is noticeably darker than the surrounding skin, also referred to as “dark neck.” The change in color may be alarming and make you self-conscience, however, in most cases it isn’t cause for concern nor is it contagious.

In some cases, however, this skin darkening may be a warning sign of something more serious, so it’s important to see a doctor to determine the cause and begin any necessary treatment. Read on to learn more about black neck, what causes it, and how to treat it

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Parvovirus infection is a common and highly contagious childhood ailment — sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the distinctive face rash that develops. Parvovirus infection has also been known as fifth disease because, historically, it was one of five common childhood illnesses characterized by a rash.In most children, parvovirus infection is mild and requires little treatment. However, in some adults, the infection can be serious. Parvovirus infection in some pregnant women can lead to serious health problems for the fetus. Parvovirus infection is also more serious for people with some kinds of anemia or who have a compromised immune system.

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Patellar tendinitis is an injury to the tendon connecting your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. The patellar tendon works with the muscles at the front of your thigh to extend your knee so you can kick, run and jump.Patellar tendinitis, also known as jumper's knee, is most common in athletes whose sports involve frequent jumping — such as basketball and volleyball. However, even people who don't participate in jumping sports can get patellar tendinitis.For most people, treatment of patellar tendinitis begins with physical therapy to stretch and strengthen the muscles around the knee

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A foramen ovale is a hole in the heart. The small hole naturally exists in babies who are still in the womb for fetal circulation. It should close soon after birth. If it doesn’t close, the condition is called patent foramen ovale (PFO).PFOs are common. They occur in roughly one out of every four people. If you have no other heart conditions or complications, treatment for PFO is unnecessary.While a fetus develops in the womb, a small opening exists between the two upper chambers of the heart called the atria. This opening is called the foramen ovale. The purpose of the foramen ovale is to help circulate blood through the heart. A fetus doesn’t use their own lungs to oxygenate their blood. They rely on their mother’s circulation to provide oxygen to their blood from the placenta. The foramen ovale helps blood circulate more quickly in the absence of lung function.When your baby is born and their lungs begin to work, the pressure inside their heart usually causes the foramen ovale to close. Sometimes it may not happen for a year or two. In some people, the closure may never happen at all, resulting in PFO.

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Many schools have declared that they are “nut-free,” meaning that the onetime staple of kids’ lunchboxes — a peanut butter and jelly sandwich — is nowhere to be found on school grounds these days. That’s because peanuts can cause a life-threatening reaction in some people. Peanuts are one of the food allergens most commonly associated with anaphylaxis, a sudden and potentially deadly condition that requires immediate attention and treatment.In recent years, awareness about peanut allergy in children has risen, as has the number of peanut allergy cases reported. In May 2010, a study noted that the rate of peanut allergies in children, as reported in a telephone survey, had more than tripled between 1997 and 2008.There are several misconceptions about peanut allergies. A peanut is a legume (belonging to the same family as soybeans, peas and lentils), not a tree nut. And while it was previously believed that an allergy to peanuts was lifelong, research by the National Institutes of Health shows that about 20 percent of individuals with a peanut allergy eventually outgrow it.


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Pectus carinatum, sometimes called pigeon chest, is a non-life-threatening condition. It’s marked by an abnormally outward protruding breastbone caused by rapid cartilage growth forcing the chest cavity outward. Occasionally, symptoms are present from birth or early childhood, but it’s most commonly diagnosed around 11 or 12 years of age.For most children, pectus carinatum is an aesthetic issue only. This condition frequently results in an asymmetrical chest. In more severe cases, symptoms may also include difficulty breathing during physical activities, recurring respiratory infections, and asthma.While its cause is unknown, it appears to be more common in boys, and there seems to be a hereditary component. If needed, treatment for pectus carinatum usually includes wearing a brace for children whose bones are still developing. But it can also include surgery for severe cases.

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Pectus excavatum is a condition in which a person's breastbone is sunken into his or her chest. In severe cases, pectus excavatum can look as if the center of the chest has been scooped out, leaving a deep dent.While the sunken breastbone is often noticeable shortly after birth, the severity of pectus excavatum typically worsens during the adolescent growth spurt.Also called funnel chest, pectus excavatum is more common in boys than in girls. Severe cases of pectus excavatum can eventually interfere with the function of the heart and lungs. But even mild cases of pectus excavatum can make children feel self-conscious about their appearance. Surgery can correct the deformity.

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Pediatric brain tumors are masses or growths of abnormal cells that occur in a child's brain or the tissue and structures that are near it. Many different types of pediatric brain tumors exist — some are noncancerous (benign) and some are cancerous (malignant).Treatment and chance of recovery (prognosis) depend on the type of tumor, its location within the brain, whether it has spread, and your child's age and general health. Because new treatments and technologies are continually being developed, several options may be available at different points in treatment.Treatment for brain tumors in children is typically quite different from treatment for adult brain tumors, so it's very important to enlist the expertise and experience of pediatric specialists in neurology and cancer.

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Penicillin allergy is an abnormal reaction of your immune system to the antibiotic drug penicillin. Penicillin is prescribed for treating various bacterial infections.


Common signs and symptoms of penicillin allergy include hives, rash and itching. Severe reactions include anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition that affects multiple body systems.


Research has shown that penicillin allergies may be over-reported — a problem that can result in the use of less appropriate and more expensive antibiotic treatments. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is needed when penicillin allergy is suspected to ensure the best treatment options in the future.


Other antibiotics, particularly those with chemical properties similar to penicillin, can also result in allergic reactions.

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Dark underarms can be defined as the dark coloration of skin in the underarm region compared to the rest of the body. It is a problem many individuals find embarrassing. Ascertaining the reason can help to alleviate the problem effectively. 

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Pericardial effusion (per-e-KAHR-dee-ul uh-FU-zhun) is the accumulation of too much fluid in the double-layered, sac-like structure around the heart (pericardium).The space between the layers normally contains a thin layer of fluid. But if the pericardium is diseased or injured, the resulting inflammation can lead to excess fluid. Fluid can also build up around the heart without inflammation, such as from bleeding after a chest trauma.Pericardial effusion puts pressure on the heart, affecting the heart's function. If untreated, it can lead to heart failure or death

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Pericarditis is swelling and irritation of the pericardium, the thin saclike membrane surrounding your heart. Pericarditis often causes chest pain and sometimes other symptoms. The sharp chest pain associated with pericarditis occurs when the irritated layers of the pericardium rub against each other.Pericarditis usually begins suddenly but doesn't last long (acute). When symptoms develop more gradually or persist, pericarditis is considered chronic.Most cases are mild and usually improve on their own. Treatment for more-severe cases may include medications and, rarely, surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment may help to reduce the risk of long-term complications from pericarditis.

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Perimenopause means "around menopause" and refers to the time during which your body makes the natural transition to menopause, marking the end of the reproductive years. Perimenopause is also called the menopausal transition.Women start perimenopause at different ages. You may notice signs of progression toward menopause, such as menstrual irregularity, sometime in your 40s. But some women notice changes as early as their mid-30s.

The level of estrogen — the main female hormone — in your body rises and falls unevenly during perimenopause. Your menstrual cycles may lengthen or shorten, and you may begin having menstrual cycles in which your ovaries don't release an egg (ovulate). You may also experience menopause-like symptoms, such as hot flashes, sleep problems and vaginal dryness. Treatments are available to help ease these symptoms.Once you've gone through 12 consecutive months without a menstrual period, you've officially reached menopause, and the perimenopause period is over.

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Peripheral artery disease (also called peripheral arterial disease) is a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs.When you develop peripheral artery disease (PAD), your extremities — usually your legs — don't receive enough blood flow to keep up with demand. This causes symptoms, most notably leg pain when walking (claudication).Peripheral artery disease is also likely to be a sign of a more widespread accumulation of fatty deposits in your arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition may be reducing blood flow to your heart and brain, as well as your legs.You often can successfully treat peripheral artery disease by quitting tobacco, exercising and eating a healthy diet

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njuries to peripheral nerves are extremely common in many types of upper limb trauma. Injury to peripheral nerves can cause extreme dysfunction in the hand for the patient disrupting their professional and leisure activities. It is therefore vital that adequate treatment is available to repair peripheral nerves to prevent permanent financial loss for the patient as well as the healthcare economy. Galen was the first to describe the concept of the nerve but it was Paulus Aegineta in the 7th century who documented the first nerve repair and wound closure as a military surgeon. Since this time immense research has taken place to understand nerve pathology and physiology. Currently surgical repair involves either reconstruction with direct end-to-end anastomosis or by the insertion of nerve grafts. Despite the long history and major microsurgical research and improvement peripheral nerve repair remains a challenge to surgeons and still has suboptimal outcomes. This review aims to discuss the pathophysiology of nerve injuries including the limitations of surgical repair at a biological level. We will subsequently describe the current techniques, problems and advances in the surgical management of nerve injuries.


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Peripheral nerve tumors are growths in or near the strands of tissue (nerves) that transmit signals from your brain to the rest of your body. These nerves control your muscles so that you can walk, blink, swallow, pick things up and do other activities.Peripheral nerve tumors can occur anywhere in the body. Most of them aren't cancerous (malignant), but they can lead to pain, nerve damage and loss of function in the affected area.Treatment of peripheral nerve tumors usually involves surgery to remove the tumor. Sometimes the tumor can't be removed without damaging nearby healthy tissue and nerves. In these cases, other treatments may be recommended.Several types of peripheral nerve tumors occur. These tumors affect nerves by growing within them (intraneural tumors) or by pressing against them (extraneural tumors).

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Peripheral neuropathy, a result of damage to your peripheral nerves, often causes weakness, numbness and pain, usually in your hands and feet. It can also affect other areas of your body.

Your peripheral nervous system sends information from your brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) to the rest of your body. Peripheral neuropathy can result from traumatic injuries, infections, metabolic problems, inherited causes and exposure to toxins. One of the most common causes is diabetes mellitus.

People with peripheral neuropathy generally describe the pain as stabbing, burning or tingling. In many cases, symptoms improve, especially if caused by a treatable condition. Medications can reduce the pain of peripheral neuropathy.


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Personality is the way of thinking, feeling and behaving that makes a person different from other people. An individual’s personality is influenced by experiences, environment (surroundings, life situations) and inherited characteristics. A personality disorder is a way of thinking, feeling and behaving that deviates from the expectations of the culture, causes distress or problems functioning, and lasts over time.1There are 10 specific types of personality disorders (such as borderline personality disorder). Common to all personality disorders is a long-term pattern of behavior and inner experience that differs significantly from what is expected. The pattern of experience and behavior begins by late adolescence or early adulthood, and causes distress or problems in functioning. Without treatment, the behavior and experience is inflexible and usually long-lasting. The pattern is seen in at least two of these areas:

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If your nose runs and your eyes water or you start sneezing and wheezing after petting or playing with a cat, you likely have a cat allergy. A cat allergy can contribute to constant allergy symptoms, as exposure can occur at work, school, day care or in other indoor environments, even if a cat is not present.

Cats produce multiple allergens (proteins that can cause allergy). These allergens are found on the fur and skin and in saliva. All cats produce allergens; studies have not shown that cats can be hypoallergenic (meaning that they don’t cause allergy). Homes with more than one cat have higher levels of cat allergens. Characteristics such as the length of a cat’s hair, its sex and the amount of time a cat spends indoors are not associated with cat allergen levels.Dust and pollen in a cat’s coat can also cause allergy symptoms. In those cases, the allergy is to the dust or pollen, not to the cat.

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Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that cause vomiting or diarrhea may lead to dehydration. There are a number of other causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, kidney disease, and medications that cause voiding (diuretics).

One clue to dehydration is a rapid drop in weight. A loss of over 10% (15 pounds in a person weighing 150 pounds) is considered severe.

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Phantom limb pain (PLP) refers to ongoing painful sensations that seem to be coming from the part of the limb that is no longer there. The limb is gone, but the pain is real.


The onset of this pain most often occurs soon after surgery. It can feel like a variety of things, such as burning, twisting, itching or pressure. It is often felt in fingers or toes. It is believed that nearly 80 percent of the amputee population worldwide has experienced this kind of pain.


The length of time this pain lasts differs from person to person. It can last from seconds to minutes, to hours, to days. For most people, PLP diminishes in both frequency and duration during the first six months, but many continue to experience some level of these sensations for years.


People are often reluctant to tell anyone that they are experiencing PLP or phantom limb sensations, for fear that they will be considered “crazy.” However, it is important to report these pains as soon as you begin to experience them so treatment can be started.

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Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet. It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. If PKU is not treated, phenylalanine can build up to harmful levels in the body, causing intellectual disability and other serious health problems.The signs and symptoms of PKU vary from mild to severe. The most severe form of this disorder is known as classic PKU. Infants with classic PKU appear normal until they are a few months old. Without treatment, these children develop permanent intellectual disability. Seizures, delayed development, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders are also common. Untreated individuals may have a musty or mouse-like odor as a side effect of excess phenylalanine in the body. Children with classic PKU tend to have lighter skin and hair than unaffected family members and are also likely to have skin disorders such as eczema.


Less severe forms of this condition, sometimes called variant PKU and non-PKU hyperphenylalaninemia, have a smaller risk of brain damage. People with very mild cases may not require treatment with a low-phenylalanine diet.Babies born to mothers who have PKU and uncontrolled phenylalanine levels (women who no longer follow a low-phenylalanine diet) have a significant risk of intellectual disability because they are exposed to very high levels of phenylalanine before birth. These infants may also have a low birth weight and grow more slowly than other children. Other characteristic medical problems include heart defects or other heart problems, an abnormally small head size (microcephaly), and behavioral problems. Women with PKU and uncontrolled phenylalanine levels also have an increased risk of pregnancy loss.


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Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is the term used for a rare tumor that has grown in the adrenal glands. These tumors are usually benign, meaning they are not cancerous. Most cases involve only one adrenal gland, but it is possible for both to be involved.In rare cases, PCC can be cancerous. These malignant tumors will spread like other cancers and can cause serious complications.The condition causes the adrenal glands to pump out too much adrenaline and noradrenaline. These two hormones help keep the heart rate, blood pressure, and stress response in balance. They are also responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response.When the body contains too much of these compounds at one time, it goes into a reactive state as if it were in a constant state of high stress.PCC will always form on the inside of the adrenal glands. They are often grouped together with similar tumors called paragangliomas, which are tumors that grow on the outside of the glands. The tumors are different, but both alter the production of the adrenal glands


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A pilonidal (pie-low-NIE-dul) cyst is an abnormal pocket in the skin that usually contains hair and skin debris. A pilonidal cyst is almost always located near the tailbone at the top of the cleft of the buttocks.Pilonidal cysts usually occur when hair punctures the skin and then becomes embedded. If a pilonidal cyst becomes infected, the resulting abscess is often extremely painful. The cyst can be drained through a small incision or removed surgically.Pilonidal cysts most commonly occur in young men, and the problem has a tendency to recur. People who sit for prolonged periods of time, such as truck drivers, are at higher risk of developing a pilonidal cyst.

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Pineoblastoma is one of several different types of tumors that arise in the area of the pineal gland, requiring different therapies. The exact diagnosis is critical for choosing the correct therapy. Pineal tumors typically present with hydrocephalus, a buildup of fluid pressure within the brain

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Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in your pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too many of the hormones that regulate important functions of your body. Some pituitary tumors can cause your pituitary gland to produce lower levels of hormones.Most pituitary tumors are noncancerous (benign) growths (adenomas). Adenomas remain in your pituitary gland or surrounding tissues and don't spread to other parts of your body.There are various options for treating pituitary tumors, including removing the tumor, controlling its growth and managing your hormone levels with medications. Your doctor may recommend observation — or a ''wait and see'' approach.



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Pityriasis rosea is a rash that usually begins as a large circular or oval spot on your chest, abdomen or back. Called a herald patch, this spot can be up to 4 inches (10 centimeters) across.The herald patch is typically followed by smaller spots that sweep out from the middle of your body in a shape that resembles drooping pine-tree branches.Pityriasis (pit-ih-RIE-uh-sis) rosea can affect any age group. It most commonly occurs between the ages of 10 and 35. It usually goes away on its own within 10 weeks. Pityriasis rosea can cause itching. Treatment may help relieve the symptoms.


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Placentaaccreta happens when the placenta attaches too firmly to the uterine wall. Normally the placenta attaches to the uterine wall during pregnancy but detaches easily during childbirth. When accreta occurs, the blood vessels andother tissue from the placenta grow more deeply into the tissue of the uterus,which can cause bleeding during the third trimester and possibly dangerous hemorrhaging (blood loss) during delivery. If the placenta penetrates even further into the uterine wall, reaching the muscle, it is called placenta increta. If it grows all the way through the uterine wall, it is called placenta percreta.


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If you have placenta previa, it means that your placenta is lying unusually low in your uterus, next to or covering your cervix. The placenta is the pancake-shaped organ – normally located near the top of the uterus – that supplies your baby with nutrients through the umbilical cord.If you're found to have placenta previa early in pregnancy, it's not usually considered a problem. But if the placenta is still close to the cervix later in pregnancy, it can cause bleeding, which can lead to other complications and may mean that you'll need to deliver early. If you have placenta previa when it's time to deliver your baby, you'll need to have a cesarean section.


If the placenta covers the cervix completely, it's called a complete or total previa. If it's right on the border of the cervix, it's called a marginal previa. (You may also hear the term "partial previa," which refers to a placenta that covers part of the cervical opening once the cervix starts to dilate.) If the edge of the placenta is within two centimeters of the cervix but not bordering it, it's called a low-lying placenta.The location of your placenta will be checked during your mid-pregnancy ultrasound exam (usually done between 16 to 20 weeks) and again later if necessary.


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A placental abruption is a serious condition in which the placenta partially or completely separates from your uterus before your baby's born.The condition can deprive your baby of oxygen and nutrients, and cause severe bleeding that can be dangerous to you both. A placental abruption also increases the risk that your baby will have growth problems (if the abruption is small and goes unnoticed), be born prematurely, or be stillborn.Placental abruption happens in about one in 150 pregnancies. It's most common in the third trimester but can happen any time after 20 weeks.


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A pneumothorax (noo-moe-THOR-aks) is a collapsed lung. A pneumothorax occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall. This air pushes on the outside of your lung and makes it collapse. In most cases, only a portion of the lung collapses.A pneumothorax can be caused by a blunt or penetrating chest injury, certain medical procedures, or damage from underlying lung disease. Or it may occur for no obvious reason. Symptoms usually include sudden chest pain and shortness of breath. On some occasions, a collapsed lung can be a life-threatening event.Treatment for a pneumothorax usually involves inserting a flexible tube or needle between the ribs to remove the excess air. However, a small pneumothorax may heal on its own.

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oison ivy rash is caused by contact with poison ivy, a plant that’s found on four continents. The sap of the poison ivy plant contains an oil called urushiol. This is the irritant that causes an allergic reaction and rash.


You don’t even have to come in direct contact with the plant to have a reaction. The oil can linger on your gardening equipment, golf clubs, or even your shoes. Brushing against the plant — or anything that’s touched it — can result in skin irritation, pain, and itching.


Here’s how to spot the danger, and what you can do if poison ivy gets too close.

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Inflammation of the skin, either due to an inherent skin defect, direct contact with an irritating substance, or to an allergic reaction. Symptoms of dermatitis include redness, itching, and in some cases blistering.

Eczema can be particularly severe and difficult to treat once it is established. Treatment is two-fold. People who suffer from dermatitis must identify and avoid substances that cause attacks. During attacks they may use topical treatments, such as steroid creams.

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Polycythemia vera (pol-e-sy-THEE-me-uh VEER-uh) is a slow-growing blood cancer in which your bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. These excess cells thicken your blood, slowing its flow. They also cause complications, such as blood clots, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.


Polycythemia vera isn't common. It usually develops slowly, and you might have it for years without knowing. Often the condition is found during a blood test done for another reason.


Without treatment, polycythemia vera can be life-threatening. But proper medical care can help ease signs, symptoms and complications of this disease. Over time, in some cases there's a risk of progressing to more-serious blood cancers, such as myelofibrosis or acute leukemia.

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Polyhydramnios is where there is too much amniotic fluid around the baby during pregnancy. Amniotic fluid is the fluid that surrounds your baby in the womb.


Too much amniotic fluid is normally spotted during a check-up in the later stages of pregnancy.


It isn't usually a sign of anything serious, but you'll probably have some extra check-ups and will be advised to give birth in hospital.

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Polymyalgia rheumatica (sometimes referred to as PMR) is a common cause of widespread aching and stiffness that affects adults over the age of 50, especially Caucasians. Because polymyalgia rheumatica does not often cause swollen joints, it may be hard to recognize. It may occur with another health problem, giant cell arteritis.


The average age when symptoms start is 70, so people who have PMR may be in their 80s or even older. The disease affects women somewhat more often than men. It is more frequent in whites than nonwhites, but all races can get PMR.

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Porphyria is a group of disorders that can cause nerve or skin problems.


A porphyria that affects the skin is called cutaneous porphyria. A porphyria that affects the nervous system is called acute porphyria.


The most common type of porphyria is porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), which affects the skin. PCT is also the most treatable.


No known cure exists for any type of porphyria.

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Postherpetic neuralgia (also termed PHN) is a condition of recurring or persistent pain in an area of the body that has undergone an outbreak of herpes zoster virus (HZ), also known as the varicella zoster virus, commonly termed shingles. It usually begins after shingles lesions (blisters) begin to crust over and heal but may occur in some patients who do not produce lesions. Some investigators suggest the pain has to be present for three months to be termed PHN.


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Postpartum preeclampsia is a rare condition that can develop soon after birth (usually within the first 48 to 72 hours after delivery) and is marked by high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine. In rare cases, preeclampsia onset can be delayed up to about one month postpartum; it is usually called late postpartum preeclampsia if the onset is more than 48 hours postpartum. "It takes time for the uterus to shed its lining after birth, so this process may be behind the delay that's sometimes seen in late onset preeclampsia after delivery," says James N. Martin, M.D., past president of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. It's also possible this condition begins during pregnancy but doesn't show signs or symptoms until after the baby has arrived.


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Postpartum thyroiditis is an exacerbation of an underlying autoimmune thyroiditis, aggravated by the immunological rebound that follows the partial immunosuppression of pregnancy (1–3). Women who express human leukocyte antigen haplotypes DR-3, DR-4, and DR-5 have an increased risk for postpartum thyroiditis. In women who develop postpartum thyroiditis, CD4+/CD8+ and CD4 + 2H4+ ratios are elevated throughout pregnancy and the postpartum (4). Histologically, thyroid aspirates reveal either a lymphocytic infiltrate or diffuse destruction, changes similar to those seen in both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (2, 3, 5) and painless sporadic silent thyroiditis (6). In essence, the immunological rebound that follows the end of pregnancy precipitates the clinical expression of Hashimoto’s disease, which before pregnancy was clinically silent

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What Is an Allergy?

This article explains the basics of an allergic reaction. Learn what happens when your immune system goes on high alert.

Who Gets Allergies?

Anyone can get them, at any age. You could develop them as a child, or you might not have any symptoms until you’re an adult.

What Causes an Allergic Reaction?

While your problem may seem to start in the nose or the eyes, allergies actually come from an immune system run wild.

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Detoxification is one of the more widely used treatments and concepts in alternative medicine. It is based on the principle that illnesses can be caused by the accumulation of toxic substances (toxins) in the body. Eliminating existing toxins and avoiding new toxins are essential parts of the healing process. Detoxification utilizes a variety of tests and techniques.

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People with Prader-Willi syndrome typically have mild to moderate intellectual impairment and learning disabilities. Behavioral problems are common, including temper outbursts, stubbornness, and compulsive behavior such as picking at the skin. Sleep abnormalities can also occur. Additional features of this condition include distinctive facial features such as a narrow forehead, almond-shaped eyes, and a triangular mouth; short stature; and small hands and feet. Some people with Prader-Willi syndrome have unusually fair skin and light-colored hair. Both affected males and affected females have underdeveloped genitals. Puberty is delayed or incomplete, and most affected individuals are unable to have children (infertile).

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A premature baby is one who is born too early, before 37 weeks. Premature babies may have more health problems and may need to stay in the hospital longer than babies born later. 


They also may have long-term health problems that can affect their whole lives. About 1 in 10 babies is born prematurely each year in the United States. 


The earlier in pregnancy a baby is born, the more likely he is to have health problems. Some premature babies have to spend time in a hospital’s neonatal intensive care unit (also called NICU). This is the part of a hospital that takes care of sick newborns. But thanks to advances in medical care, even babies born very prematurely are more likely to survive today than ever before.

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Premature ejaculation is uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration. It happens with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes. It may result in unsatisfactory sex for both partners. This can increase the anxiety that may add to the problem. It is one of the most common forms of male sexual dysfunction. It has probably affected every man at some point in his life.


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Premature ovarian failure — also known as primary ovarian insufficiency — is a loss of normal function of your ovaries before age 40. If your ovaries fail, they don't produce normal amounts of the hormone estrogen or release eggs regularly. Infertility is a common result.


Premature ovarian failure is sometimes referred to as premature menopause, but the two conditions aren't the same. Women with premature ovarian failure can have irregular or occasional periods for years and might even become pregnant. Women with premature menopause stop having periods and can't become pregnant.


Restoring estrogen levels in women with premature ovarian failure helps prevent some complications, such as osteoporosis, that occur as a result of low estrogen.

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Presbyopia is when your eyes gradually lose the ability to see things clearly up close. It is a normal part of aging. In fact, the word “presbyopia” means “old eye” in Greek. You may start to notice presbyopia shortly after age 40. You will probably find that you hold reading materials farther away in order to see them clearly.

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Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants.


Every medicine has some risk of side effects. Doctors take this into account when prescribing medicines. People who abuse these drugs may not understand the risks. The medicines may not be safe for them, especially at higher doses or when taken with other medicines.

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Premature labor is also called preterm labor. It’s when your body starts getting ready for birth too early in your pregnancy. Labor is premature if it starts more than three weeks before your due date.

Premature labor can lead to an early birth. But the good news is that doctors can do a lot to delay an early delivery. The longer your baby gets to grow inside you -- right up to your due date -- the less likely he or she is to have problems after birth.


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Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child. It does not progress at the same rate and each stage is affected by the preceding developmental experiences. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation,[1] or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment.


There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending. Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (ages 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6 years); school-aged child (ages 6–12 years); adolescent (ages 13–18).[2]


Promoting child development through parental training, among other factors, promotes excellent rates of child development.[3] Parents play a large role in a child's life, socialization, and development. Having multiple parents can add stability to the child's life and therefore encourage healthy development.[4] Another influential factor in a child's development is the quality of their care. Child care programs present a critical opportunity for the promotion of child development.


The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. There are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child developmen

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Priapism is a prolonged erection of the penis. The persistent erection continues hours beyond or isn't caused by sexual stimulation. Priapism is usually painful.

Although priapism is an uncommon condition overall, it occurs commonly in certain groups, such as people who have sickle cell anemia. Prompt treatment for priapism is usually needed to prevent tissue damage that could result in the inability to get or maintain an erection (erectile dysfunction).

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When your child has a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD), his body has a harder time fighting germs that make people sick. He may get a lot of infections in his ears, lungs, skin, or other areas that take a long time to go away.

Most cases happen in babies or young children, but sometimes it doesn't show up until adulthood. There are many different types -- more than 200 -- and they affect different parts of the immune system. All make it more likely that he'll get sick from infections.

Everyone with a PIDD has a different experience. If your child has it, in most cases he'll be able to go to school and make friends like other kids. As an adult with a PIDD, he'll be able to work and have an active, normal life.

If your child's PIDD is mild, he may need to take medicines to treat the infections he gets.

Doctors treat some of the more serious types of PIDD with doses of antibodies to fight infections. He'll get these antibodies through an IV in his veins. The treatment takes several hours, and he'll need one every few weeks.

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A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (called an adenoma) of the pituitary gland. A prolactinoma produces an excessive amount of the hormone prolactin. Prolactin is a natural hormone which supports a woman's normal lactation, which is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands of the breast. Prolactinomas are the most common type of pituitary tumor. Symptoms of prolactinoma are caused by pressure of the tumor on surrounding tissues or by excessive release of prolactin from the tumor into the blood (causing a condition known as hyperprolactinemia).

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Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a condition that’s characterized by episodes of sudden uncontrollable and inappropriate laughing or crying. Pseudobulbar affect typically occurs in people with certain neurological conditions or injuries, which might affect the way the brain controls emotion.

If you have pseudobulbar affect you'll experience emotions normally, but you'll sometimes express them in an exaggerated or inappropriate way. As a result, the condition can be embarrassing and disruptive to your daily life.

Pseudobulbar affect often goes undiagnosed or is mistaken for mood disorders. Once diagnosed, however, pseudobulbar affect can be managed with medication.

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Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is inflammation in your colon that happens when there's too much of certain bacteria in your system. The most common bacterium that causes PMC isClostridium difficile, or C. diff.

PMC is also called antibiotic-associated colitis or C. difficilecolitis. Most of the time, it's a side effect of taking antibiotics.

People in hospitals or nursing homes also can get PMC, especially if they've just had surgery or are receiving treatment for cancer.

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Pulmonary atresia is a form of heart disease in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly. It is present from birth (congenital heart disease). The pulmonary valve is an opening on the right side of the heart that regulates blood flow from the right ventricle (right side pumping chamber) to the lungs.


In pulmonary atresia, a solid sheet of tissue forms where the valve opening should be, and the valve stays closed. Because of this defect, blood from the right side of the heart cannot go to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

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Edema, in general, means swelling. This typically occurs when fluid from inside blood vessels seeps outside the blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, causing swelling. This can happen either because of too much pressure in the blood vessels or not enough proteins in the bloodstream to hold on to the fluid in the plasma (the part of the blood that does not contain any blood cells).


Pulmonary edema is the term used when edema happens in the lungs. The immediate area outside of the small blood vessels in the lungs is occupied by very tiny air sacs called the alveoli. This is where oxygen from the air is picked up by the blood passing by, and carbon dioxide in the blood is passed into the alveoli to be exhaled out. Alveoli normally have a thin wall that allows for this air exchange, and fluids are usually kept out of the alveoli unless these walls lose their integrity.

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Pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs. In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs from the legs or, rarely, other parts of the body (deep vein thrombosis).


Because the clots block blood flow to the lungs, pulmonary embolism can be life-threatening. However, prompt treatment greatly reduces the risk of death. Taking measures to prevent blood clots in your legs will help protect you against pulmonary embolism.


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The pulmonic valve is one of two valves that allow blood to leave the heart via the arteries. It is a one-way valve, meaning that blood cannot flow back into the heart through it. The valve is opened by the increased blood pressure of the ventricular systole (contraction of the muscular tissue), pushing blood out of the heart and into the artery. It closes when the pressure drops inside the heart. It is located in the right ventricle of the heart. The pulmonic valve opens into the pulmonary artery. The frequency of this cycle depends upon the heart rate. Pulmonary stenosis is a condition where the blood flow out of the heart is obstructed at the pulmonic valve. The most common cause of this is congenital heart disease, although rheumatic heart disease and a malignant carcinoid tumor can also initiate the problem. The condition is treated by surgical repair or replacement of the pulmonic valve.

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Pulmonary valve stenosis is a condition in which a deformity on or near your pulmonary valve narrows the pulmonary valve opening and slows the blood flow. The pulmonary valve is located between the lower right heart chamber (right ventricle) and the pulmonary arteries. Adults occasionally have pulmonary valve stenosis as a complication of another illness, but mostly, pulmonary valve stenosis develops before birth as a congenital heart defect.


Pulmonary valve stenosis ranges from mild and without symptoms to severe. Mild pulmonary stenosis doesn't usually worsen over time, but moderate and severe cases may worsen and require surgery. Fortunately, treatment is generally highly successful, and most people with pulmonary valve stenosis can expect to lead normal lives.

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Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon, ulcerative cutaneous condition of uncertain etiology. It is associated with systemic diseases in at least 50% of patients who are affected. [1, 2] The diagnosis is made by excluding other causes of similar-appearing cutaneous ulcerations, including infection, malignancy, vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, diabetes, and trauma. In a process termed pathergy, new ulcerations may occur after trauma or injury to the skin in 30% of patients who already have pyoderma gangrenosum. (See Presentation, DDx, and Workup.)Patients with pyoderma gangrenosum may have involvement of other organ systems that manifests as sterile neutrophilic infiltrates. Culture-negative pulmonary infiltrates are the most common extracutaneous manifestation. [3] Other organs systems that may be involved include the heart, the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the eyes, [4, 5] the liver, the spleen, the bones, and the lymph nodes. (See Presentation and Workup.)n Therapy for pyoderma gangrenosum involves the use of anti-inflammatory agents, including antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, and biologic agents. The prognosis is generally good; however, the disease can recur and residual scarring is common. (See Prognosis, Treatment, and Medication.)


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Radiation is used in the treatment of cancer and comes with risks. Radiation enteritis is one of these risks. This condition is caused by the inflammation of your small and/or large intestine from radiation treatments in your stomach, sexual organs, or rectum. Radiation enteritis can cause the loss of both intestinal cells and tissue.There are two types of radiation enteritis: acute and chronic. Acute enteritis develops while you are getting radiation treatments. The condition will last until about eight weeks after your last radiation treatment. Chronic enteritis can cause symptoms that last for months to years after you complete your radiation treatment.




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Radiation sickness is damage to your body caused by a large dose of radiation often received over a short period of time (acute). The amount of radiation absorbed by the body — the absorbed dose — determines how sick you'll be.Radiation sickness is also called acute radiation sickness, acute radiation syndrome or radiation poisoning. Common exposures to low-dose radiation, such as X-ray or CT examinations, don't cause radiation sickness.Although radiation sickness is serious and often fatal, it's rare. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, during World War II, most cases of radiation sickness have occurred after nuclear industrial accidents, such as the 1986 fire that damaged the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, Ukraine.


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Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel.


With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level.

More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.


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Ramsay Hunt syndrome happens when shingles affects nerves in your face close to either one of your ears. Shingles affecting either ear is a condition caused by a virus called herpes zoster oticus. The general varicella-zoster virus also causes chicken pox, which is most common in children. If you’ve had chicken pox in your life, the virus can reactivate later in your life and cause shingles. Both shingles and chicken pox are most recognizable by a rash that appears in the affected area of the body. Unlike chicken pox, a shingles rash near the facial nerves by your ears can cause other complications, including facial paralysis and ear pain. When this happens, it’s called Ramsay Hunt syndrome. If you get a rash on your face and also start noticing symptoms such as facial muscle weakness, see your doctor as soon as you can. Early treatment can help make sure you don’t experience any complications from Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

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Raynaud's (ray-NOHZ) disease causes some areas of your body — such as your fingers and toes — to feel numb and cold in response to cold temperatures or stress. In Raynaud's disease, smaller arteries that supply blood to your skin narrow, limiting blood circulation to affected areas (vasospasm). Women are more likely than men to have Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud or Raynaud's phenomenon or syndrome. It appears to be more common in people who live in colder climates. Treatment of Raynaud's disease depends on its severity and whether you have other health conditions. For most people, Raynaud's disease isn't disabling, but it can affect your quality of life.

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When the occasional headache strikes, most of us take an over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, or a pain-relief medication containing caffeine. While OTC analgesics can help relieve headache pain they must be taken correctly — or they could actually make your headaches worse. The overuse or misuse of analgesic drugs — exceeding labeling instructions (such as taking the medications three or more days per week) or not following your healthcare provider’s advice — can cause you to "rebound" into another headache. When the pain reliever wears off, you may experience a withdrawal reaction, prompting you to take more medication. This only leads to another headache and the desire to take yet more medication. So the cycle continues until you start to suffer from chronic daily headaches, with more frequent headaches and more severe pain.

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The rectum is the last several inches of the large intestine. It starts at the end of the final segment of your colon and ends when it reaches the short, narrow passage leading to the anus.Cancer inside the rectum (rectal cancer) and cancer inside the colon (colon cancer) are often referred to together as "colorectal cancer."While rectal and colon cancers are similar in many ways, their treatments are quite different. This is mainly because the rectum sits in a tight space, barely separated from other organs and structures in the pelvic cavity. As a result, complete surgical removal of rectal cancer is challenging and highly complex. Additional treatment is often needed before or after surgery — or both — to reduce the chance that the cancer will return.In the past, long-term survival was uncommon for people with rectal cancer, even after extensive treatment. Thanks to treatment advances over the past 30 years, rectal cancer can now, in many cases, be cured.


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This patient education piece is designed to help improve patients’ understanding regarding rectal prolapse, specifically its presentation, evaluation and treatment. This information may also be useful to the friends, families, and caregivers of patients dealing with rectal prolapse. Treatment of this condition may often require surgery, and this patient education material is intended for patients with rectal prolapse who are considering or have been recommended surgery. It will address why surgery may have been recommended, what the various treatment options are, what it involves and how it may help patients.


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A rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is an epithelial-lined tract between the rectum and vagina. For thousands of years, women simply tolerated the distressing symptoms generated by RVFs. Today, there is no need for such tolerance, because most RVFs can be surgically corrected via a number of approaches. [1] A small percentage, however, cannot be corrected, because of patient comorbidity or disease-related factors; in these cases, patients can be helped only by fecal diversion. [2]  This article discusses only acquired RVFs. Most RVFs are located at or just above the dentate line. Fistulas below the dentate line are not true RVFs but, rather, anovaginal fistulas; the treatment required for these differs from that required for RVFs.

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Renal refers to anything related to the kidneys. Renal arteries carry blood from the heart to the kidneys. They branch directly from the aorta (the main artery coming off the heart) on either side and extend to each kidney. These arteries take a very large volume of blood to the kidneys to be filtered The heart pumps out approximately 5 liters of blood per minute, and about 1-1.5 liters (25%) of the total volume of blood pumped by the heart passes through the kidneys every minute.

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Retinal diseases vary widely, but most of them cause visual symptoms. Retinal diseases can affect any part of your retina, a thin layer of tissue on the inside back wall of your eye.The retina contains millions of light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) and other nerve cells that receive and organize visual information. Your retina sends this information to your brain through your optic nerve, enabling you to see.Treatment is available for some retinal diseases. Depending on your condition, treatment goals may be to stop or slow the disease and preserve, improve or restore your vision. Untreated, some retinal diseases can cause severe vision loss or blindness.
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Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? For information about the differences between childhood cancers and adult cancers, see Cancer in Children. Retinoblastoma is a cancer that starts in the retina, the very back part of the eye. It is the most common type of eye cancer in children. Rarely, children can have other kinds of eye cancer, such as medulloepithelioma, which is described briefly below, or melanoma.To understand retinoblastoma, it helps to know about the parts of the eye and how they work.


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Diaper rash: An inflammatory reaction localized to the area of skin usually covered by the diaper. It can have many causes, including infections (yeast, bacterial, or viral), friction irritation, chemical allergies (perfumes, soaps), sweat, decomposed urine, and plugged sweat glands. Most diaper rash problems can be solved by cleansing the skin with nonperfumed, gentle products; changing diapers frequently; and exposing the affected skin area to air. Commercially available diaper rash ointments may be helpful for prevention but may actually cause further irritation if used on the inflamed areas. Also called diaper dermatitis.

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A retractile testicle is a testicle that may move back and forth between the scrotum and the groin. When the retractile testicle is residing in the groin, it might be easily guided by hand into its proper position in the scrotum — the bag of skin hanging behind the penis — during a physical exam.For most boys, the problem of a retractile testicle goes away sometime before or during puberty. The testicle moves to its correct location in the scrotum and stays there permanently.In fewer than 5 percent of cases, the retractile testicle remains in the groin and is no longer movable. When this happens, the condition is called an ascending testicle or an acquired undescended testicle.


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Ejaculation is the ejection of semen out of the urethra (passageway inside the penis) when a man has an orgasm. Under normal circumstances, ejaculation propels semen forward through a man's urethra and out the tip of his penis. This is because a tiny sphincter (circular muscle) at the entrance to the bladder shuts the opening to the bladder and prevents semen from entering. Retrograde ejaculation is when the semen travels backwards into the bladder.


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Sarcomas are cancers that develop from connective tissues in the body, such as muscles, fat, bones, the linings of joints, or blood vessels. There are many types of sarcomas. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a cancer made up of cells that normally develop into skeletal muscles. The body has 3 main types of muscles.


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Rheumatic fever is one of the complications associated with strep throat. It’s a relatively serious illness that can cause stroke, permanent damage to your heart, and death if it’s left untreated. The condition usually appears in children between the ages of 5 and 15, even though older children and adults have been known to contract the fever as well. It’s still common in places like sub-Saharan Africa, south central Asia, and certain populations in Australia and New Zealand.


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Ringworm is a common skin disorder otherwise known as “tinea” or “dermatophytosis.” It is caused by a fungus that can live on skin, surfaces like locker room floors, and household items like towels, bedding, and clothes. While there are multiple forms of ringworm, the most common forms affect:


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Roseola is a generally mild infection that usually affects children by age 2. It occasionally affects adults. Roseola is so common that most children have been infected with roseola by the time they enter kindergarten.Two common strains of herpes virus cause roseola. The condition typically causes several days of fever, followed by a rash.Some children develop only a very mild case of roseola and never show any clear indication of illness, while others experience the full range of signs and symptoms.Roseola typically isn't serious. Rarely, a very high fever can result in complications. Treatment of roseola includes bed rest, fluids and medications to reduce fever.


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The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, keeping the head of your upper arm bone firmly within the shallow socket of the shoulder. A rotator cuff injury can cause a dull ache in the shoulder, which often worsens when you try to sleep on the involved side.Rotator cuff injuries occur most often in people who repeatedly perform overhead motions in their jobs or sports. Examples include painters, carpenters, and people who play baseball or tennis. The risk of rotator cuff injury also increases with age.Many people recover from rotator cuff disease with physical therapy exercises that improve flexibility and strength of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint.Sometimes, rotator cuff tears may occur as a result of a single injury. In those circumstances, medical care should be provided as soon as possible. Extensive rotator cuff tears may require surgical repair, transfer of alternative tendons or joint replacement


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As per WHO,  Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day (or more frequent passage than is normal for the individual). Frequent passing of formed stools is not diarrhoea, nor is the passing of loose, "pasty" stools by breastfed babies.

It is usually the symptom of gastrointestinal infection, which can be caused by a variety of viral, parasitic and bacteria organisms.As per UNICEF report, diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly 1.3 million deaths a year among children under-five years of age making them the second most common cause of child deaths worldwide. Over half of the deaths occur in just five countries: India, Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Ethiopia. It is both preventable and treatable. Severe diarrhoea leads to fluid loss and may be life-threatening particularly in young children and people who are malnourished or have impaired immunity. Infection is spread through contaminated food or drinking-water or from person to person as a result of poor hygiene. Diarrhoea caused by contaminated food or water while travelling is often known as traveller’s diarrhoea.

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Rubella is an acute, contagious viral infection. While rubella virus infection usually causes a mild fever and rash illness in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or infants with congenital malformations, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The rubella virus is transmitted by airborne droplets when infected people sneeze or cough. Humans are the only known host.


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Rumination syndrome, or Merycism, is a rare disorder that affects children and some adults. If your child has this condition, he or she will usually eat meals normally. But after about an hour or two, undigested food comes back up into his or her mouth from the esophagus. Your child will either rechew and reswallow the food, or spit it out. Typically this happens at every meal, day after day. Rumination is a reflex, not a conscious decision.


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A sacral dimple is a small, usually shallow indentation in the small of the back, just above or within the crease of the buttocks.


About 3 to 8 percent of the population has a sacral dimple. A very small percentage of people with a sacral dimple can have spinal abnormalities.


In most cases, a sacral dimple causes no problems and isn’t associated with any health risks.

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Sacroiliitis (say-kroe-il-e-I-tis) is an inflammation of one or both of your sacroiliac joints — situated where your lower spine and pelvis connect. Sacroiliitis can cause pain in your buttocks or lower back, and can extend down one or both legs. Prolonged standing or stair climbing can worsen the pain.


Sacroiliitis can be difficult to diagnose, because it can be mistaken for other causes of low back pain. It's been linked to a group of diseases that cause inflammatory arthritis of the spine. Treatment might involve physical therapy and medications.

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Salivary gland tumors are rare types of tumors that begin in the salivary glands.


Salivary gland tumors can begin in any of the salivary glands in your mouth, neck or throat. Salivary glands make saliva, which aids in digestion, keeps your mouth moist and supports healthy teeth.


You have three pairs of major salivary glands under and behind your jaw — parotid, sublingual and submandibular. Many other tiny salivary glands are in your lips, inside your cheeks, and throughout your mouth and throat.


Salivary gland tumors most commonly occur in the parotid gland, accounting for nearly 85 percent of all salivary gland tumors. Approximately 25 percent of parotid tumors are cancerous (malignant).


Treatment for salivary gland tumors often involves surgery. Treatments for salivary gland tumors may also include radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

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Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food.


Typically, people with salmonella infection have no symptoms. Others develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within eight to 72 hours. Most healthy people recover within a few days without specific treatment.


In some cases, the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection can be so dehydrating as to require prompt medical attention. Life-threatening complications also may develop if the infection spreads beyond your intestines. Your risk of acquiring salmonella infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

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Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs in the body, but mostly the lungs and lymph glands. In people with sarcoidosis, abnormal masses or nodules (called granulomas) consisting of inflamed tissues form in certain organs of the body. These granulomas may alter the normal structure and possibly the function of the affected organ(s).

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Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria. This illness usually occurs in a few people (about 10%) who have strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis) and occasionally streptococcal skin infections or even wound infections. Scarlet fever is also known as scarlatina in the older articles; group A Streptococcus (for example, Streptococcus pyogenes) is often shortened to read as "group A strep" or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS). Scarlet fever is mainly known for its sunburned-skin-colored sandpaper-like skin rash that is associated with fever.


Outbreaks occur. England reported a 50-year high number of individuals diagnosed with the disease (over 19,206) in 2016

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Schizoaffective disorder is a mental illness that involves persistent psychotic symptoms, like hallucinations or delusions, occurring together with mood problems of depressive, manic, or mixed episodes. The term schizoaffective was first used in 1933 by Jacob Kasanin and has been included in every edition of the mental health diagnostic manual, called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), since 1952. Statistics on how often this condition occurs range from 0.32% in the general United States population up to as much as 9% of psychiatrically hospitalized people. Schizoaffective disorder is thought to occur at least as often as schizophrenia and less often than 

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Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid social activities and consistently shy away from interaction with others. They also have a limited range of emotional expression.


If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may be seen as a loner or dismissive of others, and you may lack the desire or skill to form close personal relationships. Because you don't tend to show emotion, you may appear as though you don't care about others or what's going on around you.


The cause of schizoid personality disorder is unknown. Talk therapy, and in some cases medications, can help.

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People with schizotypal personality disorder are often described as odd or eccentric and usually have few, if any, close relationships. They generally don't understand how relationships form or the impact of their behavior on others. They may also misinterpret others' motivations and behaviors and develop significant distrust of others.


These problems may lead to severe anxiety and a tendency to turn inward in social situations, as the person with schizotypal personality disorder responds inappropriately to social cues and holds peculiar beliefs.


Schizotypal personality disorder typically is diagnosed in early adulthood and is likely to endure, though treatment, such as medications and therapy, can improve symptoms.

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A schwannoma is a type of nerve tumor of the nerve sheath. It's the most common type of benign peripheral nerve tumor in adults. It can occur anywhere in your body, at any age.


A schwannoma typically comes from a single bundle (fascicle) within the main nerve and displaces the rest of the nerve. When a schwannoma grows larger, more fascicles are affected, making removal more difficult. In general, a schwannoma grows slowly.


If you develop a schwannoma in an arm or leg, you may notice a painless lump. Schwannomas are rarely cancerous, but they can lead to nerve damage and loss of muscle control. See your doctor if you have any unusual lumps or numbness.

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The scrotum contains the male testes, the two male sex organs that produce and store semen as well as the hormone testosterone. A scrotal mass is a lump or bulge that can be felt in the scrotum, and may result from a variety of factors There are several kinds of scrotal masses:


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Sebaceous glands are part of epidermal appendages. Neoplasms of the sebaceous glands may be benign, such as sebaceous hyperplasia or sebaceous gland adenomas. The malignant sebaceous gland carcinoma most commonly arises in the periocular area. Fewer than 120 cases of sebaceous cell carcinoma have been reported at extraocular sites. The most common site of origin is the meibomian glands of the eyelids, leading to the term meibomian gland carcinoma. However, this neoplasm can occur in other sebaceous glands, such as in the caruncle, the glands of Zeis, and in the eyebrow. Sebaceous cell carcinoma is a lethal eyelid malignancy and can masquerade as benign conditions. Error or delay in diagnosis is common, and this tumor carries a significant mortality rate with metastasis.


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Seborrheic (seb-o-REE-ik) dermatitis is a common skin condition that mainly affects your scalp. It causes scaly patches, red skin and stubborn dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis can also affect oily areas of the body, such as the face, sides of the nose, eyebrows, ears, eyelids and chest. Seborrheic dermatitis may go away without treatment. Or you may need many repeated treatments before the symptoms go away. And they may return later. Daily cleansing with a gentle soap and shampoo can help reduce oiliness and dead skin buildup.Seborrheic dermatitis is also called dandruff, seborrheic eczema and seborrheic psoriasis. For infants, the condition is known as cradle cap and causes crusty, scaly patches on the scalp.


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Seborrheic keratosis (seb-o-REE-ik ker-uh-TOE-sis) is one of the most common noncancerous skin growths in older adults.A seborrheic keratosis usually appears as a brown, black or light tan growth on the face, chest, shoulders or back. The growth has a waxy, scaly, slightly elevated appearance. Seborrheic keratoses don't become cancerous and aren't thought to be related to sun exposure, but they can look like skin cancer. Seborrheic keratoses are normally painless and require no treatment. You may decide to have them removed if they become irritated by clothing or for cosmetic reasons.

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The best way to understand the way that skin discoloration occurs is to understand how the skin gets and maintains its color. The epidermis, the outer layer of your skin, contains a bunch of cells called melanocytes. These cells have many functions, but one of their main jobs is to protect the skin. When it comes to protecting the skin from the sun, the melanocytes do so by darkening it with a pigment called melanin.


Melanin is responsible for making the skin look darker when you are exposed to the sun, but the body, for some reason, will either stop producing melanin in specific areas of the skin, or put its production into overdrive. Sometimes the skin discoloration can affect the entire body, a specific part of the body, or it can occur in just a few random places on the skin

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Selective IgA deficiency is one of the most common types of PI. These individuals lack IgA, but usually have normal amounts of other immunoglobulins (antibodies). Many people go undiagnosed because they are never sick enough to be seen by a doctor, while others may develop a variety of severe problems.


Selective IgA Deficiency

IgA protects the body at surfaces that come in contact with the environment. These sites are the mucosal surfaces—mouth, ears, sinuses, nose, throat, airways within the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and genitals.


IgA antibodies are transported in secretions to these mucosal surfaces and play a role in protecting them from infection, which is why IgA is known as a secretory antibody. Because the area of a person's mucosal surfaces is equal to 1.5 tennis courts, the importance of IgA in protecting these surfaces cannot be overstated.


Although people with selective IgA deficiency do not produce IgA, they do produce all the other immunoglobulins. In addition, the other aspects of their immune systems function properly.


The causes of selective IgA deficiency remain unknown. It is likely there are a variety of causes that vary from person to person.


Low serum IgA, like absent serum IgA, is relatively common. Most people with low serum IgA have no apparent illness; others have symptoms similar to 


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A separated shoulder is an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments might just be stretched. In severe injuries, ligaments might be torn. In most people, a separated shoulder doesn't usually require surgery. Instead, conservative treatment — such as rest, ice and pain relievers — is often enough to relieve the pain. Most people regain full shoulder function within a few weeks after having a separated shoulder.


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Septic arthritis is also known as infectious arthritis, and is usually caused by bacteria. It can also be caused by a virus or fungus. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that's caused by infection. Typically, septic arthritis affects one large joint in the body, such as the knee or hip. Less frequently, septic arthritis can affect multiple joints.



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Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head and neck that builds up as sexual excitement increases. Or, more commonly, you may experience a sudden, severe headache just before or during orgasm.


Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some can be a sign of something serious, such as problems with the blood vessels that feed your brain.


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Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella (shih-GEHL-uh). Most who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5 to 7 days. Some people who are infected may have no symptoms at all, but may still pass the Shigella bacteria to others. The spread of Shigella can be stopped by frequent and careful handwashing with soap and taking other hygiene measures.


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The colon is a long tube-like structure approximately 6 feet in length that stores and then eliminates waste material left over after digestion of food in the small intestine takes place. It is thought that pressure within the colon causes bulging pockets of tissue (sacs) that push out from the colonic walls as a person ages. A small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall is called a diverticulum. More than one bulging sac is referred to in the plural as diverticula. Diverticula can occur throughout the colon but are most common near the end of the left colon, referred to as the sigmoid colon, in Western countries. In Asia, the diverticula occur mostly on the right side of the colon. The condition of having these diverticula in the colon is called diverticulosis.


Diverticula are common in the Western world but are rare in areas such as Asia and Africa. Diverticula increase with age. They are uncommon before the age of 40, but are seen in more than 74% of people over the age of 80 years in the U.S. A person with diverticulosis usually has few or no symptoms. The most common symptoms associated with diverticulosis are abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. In some of these patients the symptoms may be due to the concomitant presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or abnormalities in the function of the muscles of the sigmoid colon (in which case it is referred to as diverticular disease); simple diverticula should cause no symptoms. Occasionally, bleeding originates from a diverticulum, and it is referred to as diverticular bleeding.

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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia — a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. Normally, your red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through your blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells become rigid and sticky and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body. There's no cure for most people with sickle cell anemia. But treatments can relieve pain and help prevent problems associated with the disease.

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Your sinuses are air-filled spaces inside your forehead, cheekbones, and behind the bridge of your nose. When they get inflamed -- usually because of an allergic reaction or an infection -- they swell, make more mucus, and the channels that drain them can get blocked. The build-up of pressure in your sinuses causes pain that feels like a headache.


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Central sleep apnea is a disorder in which your breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.Central sleep apnea occurs because your brain doesn't send proper signals to the muscles that control your breathing. This condition is different from obstructive sleep apnea, in which you can't breathe normally because of upper airway obstruction. Central sleep apnea is less common than obstructive sleep apnea. Central sleep apnea may occur as a result of other conditions, such as heart failure and stroke. Sleeping at a high altitude also may cause central sleep apnea. Treatments for central sleep apnea may involve treating existing conditions, using a device to assist breathing or using supplemental oxygen.


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Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder. It causes breathing to repeatedly stop and start during sleep.There are several types of sleep apnea, but the most common is obstructive sleep apnea. This type of apnea occurs when your throat muscles intermittently relax and block your airway during sleep. A noticeable sign of obstructive sleep apnea is snoring. Treatments for obstructive sleep apnea are available. One treatment involves using a device that keep your airway open while you sleep. Another option is a mouthpiece to thrust your jaw forward during sleep. In more severe cases, surgery may be an option too


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Sleepwalking, formally known as somnambulism, is a behavior disorder that originates during deep sleep and results in walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep. It is much more common in children than adults and is more likely to occur if a person is sleep deprived. Because a sleepwalker typically remains in deep sleep throughout the episode, he or she may be difficult to awaken and will probably not remember the sleepwalking incident.

Sleepwalking usually involves more than just walking during sleep; it is a series of complex behaviors that are carried out while sleeping, the most obvious of which is walking. Symptoms of sleepwalking disorder range from simply sitting up in bed and looking around, to walking around the room or house, to leaving the house and even driving long distances. It is a common misconception that a sleepwalker should not be awakened. In fact, it can be quite dangerous not to wake a sleepwalker.

The prevalence of sleepwalking in the general population is estimated to be between 1% and 15%. The onset or persistence of sleepwalking in adulthood is common, and is usually not associated with any significant underlying psychiatric or psychological problems. Common triggers for sleepwalking include sleep deprivation, sedative agents (including alcohol), febrile illnesses, and certain medications.

The prevalence of sleepwalking is much higher for children, especially those between the ages of three and seven, and occurs more often in children with sleep apnea. There is also a higher instance of sleepwalking among children who experience bedwetting. Sleep terrors are a related disorder and both tend to run in families.


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