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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex among others.Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system.This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, an irregular heart beat, liver failure, and an increase in the risk of cancer, among other diseases Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Generally women are more sensitive to alcohol's harmful physical and mental effects than men

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Cold sores, also called fever blisters, can show up anywhere on your body. They're most likely to appear on the outside of your mouth and lips, but you can also find them on your nose, cheeks, or fingers.

After the blisters form, you may notice that they break and ooze. A yellow crust or a scab builds up and eventually falls off, revealing new skin underneath.

The sores usually last 7 to 10 days and can spread to other people until they crust over completely.

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White blood cells (leukocytes) orchestrate the host response to pathogens. Leukocytes are divided into myeloid (eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils) and lymphoid (B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells) elements. Monocytes and neutrophils mediate innate immune defenses and present antigens to lymphocytes, the principal effectors of the adaptive immune system. Eosinophils and basophils defend against parasitic pathogens, play important roles in inflammation, and mediate allergic reactions.Monocytes and neutrophils, as part of innate immunity, phagocytose bacteria and debris, eliminate virus-infected cells, and destroy parasites and fungi. Phagocytosis is assisted by serum complement proteins, which adhere to pathogens and promote chemotaxis and opsonization. Monocytes mature in tissue to become macrophages, where they, along with dendritic cells and B cells, serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs) to the adaptive immune system.B and T cells, as part of adaptive immunity, confer long-term protection against pathogens, especially extracellular bacterial infections. Adaptive immunity orchestrates both antibody-mediated humoral immunity and T-cell mediated cellular cytotoxicity. B cells secrete neutralizing antigen-specific antibodies (i.e. humoral) upon stimulation by the macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells. In contrast, T cells and NK cells, upon stimulation, can directly kill aberrant cells (i.e. cell-mediated). These aberrant cells include those infected with viruses, bacteria, and fungi, tumorigenic cells, and transplanted tissue.


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Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. In many people, it's marked by a severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like "whoop."Before the vaccine was developed, whooping cough was considered a childhood disease. Now whooping cough primarily affects children too young to have completed the full course of vaccinations and teenagers and adults whose immunity has faded.Deaths associated with whooping cough are rare but most commonly occur in infants. That's why it's so important for pregnant women — and other people who will have close contact with an infant — to be vaccinated against whooping cough.

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Most adults have 32 teeth, including 4 wisdom teeth that usually emerge between the ages of 17 and 21.

This final set of molars can play a useful part in the mouth for many people.

However, for others, if they don’t come through properly or don’t emerge at all, they may need to be removed.

Having wisdom teeth out is one of the most common dental procedures in the UK.


Wisdom Teeth


Wisdom teeth present potential problems when they are misaligned as they can position themselves horizontally, be angled toward or away from the second molars or be angled inward or outward. Poor alignment of wisdom teeth can crowd or damage adjacent teeth, the jawbone, and nerves. Wisdom teeth that lean toward the second molars make those teeth more vulnerable to decay by entrapping plaque and debris.


In addition, wisdom teeth can be entrapped completely within the soft tissue and/or the jawbone or only partially break through, or erupt, through the gum.


Teeth that remain partially or completely entrapped within the soft tissue or the jawbone are called impacted. Wisdom teeth that only partially erupt allow an opening for bacteria to enter around the tooth and cause an infection, which results in pain, swelling, jaw stiffness, and general illness. Partially erupted teeth are also more prone to tooth decay and gum disease because their hard-to-reach location and awkward positioning makes brushing and flossing difficult.

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A wrist fracture is a medical term for a broken wrist. The wrist is made up of eight small bones which connect with the two long forearm bones called the radius and ulna. Although a broken wrist can happen in any of these 10 bones, by far the most common bone to break is the radius. This is called a distal radius fracture by hand surgeons (Figure 1).Some wrist fractures are stable. “Non-displaced” breaks, in which the bones do not move out of place initially, can be stable. Some “displaced” breaks (which need to be put back into the right place, called “reduction” or “setting”) also can be stable enough to treat in a cast or splint. Other fractures are unstable. In unstable fractures, even if the bones are put back into position and a cast is placed, the bone pieces tend to move or shift into a bad position before they solidly heal. This can make the wrist appear crooked.Some fractures are more severe than others. Fractures that break apart the smooth joint surface or fractures that shatter into many pieces (comminuted fractures) may make the bone unstable. These severe types of fractures often require surgery to restore and hold their alignment. An open fracture occurs when a fragment of bone breaks and is forced out through the skin. This can cause an increased risk of infection in the bone.

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Colic is uncontrollable crying in an otherwise healthy baby. Your baby is considered colicky if he’s younger than 5 months old and cries for more than three hours in a row on three or more days a week for at least three weeks (phew!). Colic isn't a disease and won't cause your baby any long-term harm, but it's a tough thing to go through for babies and their parents.

If your baby is colicky, find more than 20 sanity-saving tips to help you deal with it in our article about coping with colic.

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A dislocation is an injury to a joint — a place where two or more bones come together — in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. This painful injury temporarily deforms and immobilizes your joint.


Dislocation is most common in shoulders and fingers. Other sites include elbows, knees and hips. If you suspect a dislocation, seek prompt medical attention to return your bones to their proper positions.

When treated properly, most dislocations return to normal function after several weeks of rest and rehabilitation. However, some joints, such as your shoulder, may have an increased risk of repeat dislocation.

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Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve experiencing a disconnection and lack of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways that are involuntary and unhealthy and cause problems with functioning in everyday life.


Dissociative disorders usually develop as a reaction to trauma and help keep difficult memories at bay. Symptoms — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — depend in part on the type of dissociative disorder you have. Times of stress can temporarily worsen symptoms, making them more obvious.


Treatment for dissociative disorders may include talk therapy (psychotherapy) and medication. Although treating dissociative disorders can be difficult, many people learn new ways of coping and lead healthy, productive lives.

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Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased.

Some forms of colon hydrotherapy use tubes to inject water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Oral cleaning regimens use dietary fiber, herbs, dietary supplements, or laxatives. People who practice colon cleansing believe that accumulations of putrefied feces line the walls of the large intestine and that these accumulations harbor parasites or pathogenic gut flora, causing nonspecific symptoms and general ill-health. This "auto-intoxication" hypothesis is based on medical beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks and was discredited in the early 20th century.

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The typical scenario for dry socket is the occurrence of throbbing pain about two to four days after the tooth is extracted. Dry socket pain is often accompanied by bad breath and a foul taste in the mouth. With this onset of pain, it is obvious that proper healing has been interrupted.


Dry socket is a condition in which there is inflammation of the jawbone (or alveolar bone) after a tooth extraction. It is also referred to as "alveolar osteitis" and is one of the many complications that can occur from a tooth extraction. The occurrence of dry socket is relatively rare, occurring in about 2% of tooth extractions. However, that percentage rises to at least 20% when it involves the removal of mandibular impacted third molars (lower wisdom teeth).

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The cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from secretions, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex consists of three phases:
  • An inhalation
  • A forced exhalation against a closed glottis
  • A violent release of air from the lungs following the opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.
  • Cough can be either voluntary or involuntary. Frequent coughing usually indicates the presence of a disease. Coughing can be due to respiratory tract infection and can also be triggered by:
  • Choking
  • Smoking
  • Air pollution
  • Asthma
  • Gastro esophageal reflux disease(GERD)
  • Post-nasal drip
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • lung tumors
  • Heart failure and medications such as ACE inhibitors.
Types:
  • Acute cough: It begins suddenly and can be caused due to sinus, flu or sinus infection.
  • Sub acute cough: It lasts for 3-8 weeks
  • Chronic Cough: It lasts longer than 8 weeks.
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Earwax blockage occurs when earwax (cerumen) accumulates in your ear or becomes too hard to wash away naturally.

Earwax is a helpful and natural part of your body's defenses. It cleans, lubricates and protects your ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria.

If earwax blockage becomes a problem, you or your doctor can take simple steps to remove the wax safely.

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An ectopic pregnancy is an early pregnancy that occurs outside of the normal location (uterine lining) for a developing pregnancy. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tubes. An ectopic pregnancy cannot progress normally and typically results in the death of the embryo or fetus.

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Ectropion (ek-TROH-pee-on) is a condition in which your eyelid turns outward. This leaves the inner eyelid surface exposed and prone to irritation.

Ectropion is more common in older adults, and it generally affects only the lower eyelid. In severe ectropion, the entire length of the eyelid is turned out. In less severe ectropion, only one segment of the eyelid sags away from the eye.

Artificial tears and lubricating ointments can help relieve symptoms of ectropion. But usually surgery is needed to fully correct the condition.

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Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial illness transmitted by ticks that causes flu-like symptoms. The signs and symptoms of ehrlichiosis range from mild body aches to severe fever and usually appear within a week or two of a tick bite. If treated quickly with appropriate antibiotics, ehrlichiosis generally improves within a few days.

Another tick-borne infection — anaplasmosis — is closely related to ehrlichiosis. But the two have distinct differences and are caused by different microorganisms.

The best way to prevent these infections is to avoid tick bites. Tick repellents, thorough body checks after being outside and proper removal of ticks give you the best chance of avoiding ehrlichiosis.

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Encopresis (en-ko-PREE-sis), sometimes called fecal incontinence or soiling, is the repeated passing of stool (usually involuntarily) into clothing. Typically it happens when impacted stool collects in the colon and rectum: the colon becomes too full and liquid stool leaks around the retained stool, staining underwear. Eventually, stool retention can cause swelling (distention) of the bowels and loss of control over bowel movements.


Encopresis usually occurs after age 4, when the child has already learned to use a toilet. In most cases, soiling is a symptom of chronic constipation. Far less frequently it occurs without constipation and may be the result of emotional issues.


Encopresis can be frustrating for parents — and embarrassing for the child. However, with patience and positive reinforcement, treatment for encopresis is usually successful

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Some couples are almost desperate to conceive a baby of one particular gender. Fathers especially, can be eager to have a boy but there are also mothers who long for a son. Most couples however, are happy with either a boy or a girl baby, as long as it is healthy and strong. But if you are keen to try to sway the odds of having a boy then there is no harm in trying. Just remember that there are no guarantees and the odds of conceiving a boy or a girl are almost exactly the same for each and every pregnancy.

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Endocarditis generally occurs when bacteria, fungi or other germs from another part of your body, such as your mouth, spread through your bloodstream and attach to damaged areas in your heart. If it's not treated quickly, endocarditis can damage or destroy your heart valves and can lead to life-threatening complications. Treatments for endocarditis include antibiotics and, in certain cases, surgery.


Since there are many ways to develop endocarditis, your doctor might not be able to pinpoint the exact cause of your condition. However, people at greatest risk of endocarditis usually have damaged heart valves, artificial heart valves or other heart defects.

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Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ in women where fetal development occurs.


Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer. Other types of cancer can form in the uterus, including uterine sarcoma, but they are much less common than endometrial cancer.


Endometrial cancer is often detected at an early stage because it frequently produces abnormal vaginal bleeding, which prompts women to see their doctors. If endometrial cancer is discovered early, removing the uterus surgically often cures endometrial cancer.

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In eosinophilic esophagitis (e-o-sin-o-FILL-ik uh-sof-uh-JIE-tis), a type of white blood cell (eosinophil) builds up in the lining of the tube that connects your mouth to your stomach (esophagus). This buildup, which is a reaction to foods, allergens or acid reflux, can inflame or injure the esophageal tissue. Damaged esophageal tissue can lead to difficulty swallowing or cause food to get stuck when you swallow.


Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune system disease. It has been identified only in the past two decades, but is now considered a major cause of digestive system (gastrointestinal) illness. Research is ongoing and will likely lead to revisions in the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

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Epidermoid (ep-ih-DUR-moid) cysts are noncancerous small bumps beneath the skin. They can appear anywhere on the skin, but are most common on the face, neck and trunk.


Epidermoid cysts are slow growing and often painless, so they rarely cause problems or need treatment. You might choose to have a cyst removed by a doctor if its appearance bothers you or if it's painful, ruptured or infected.


Many people refer to epidermoid cysts as sebaceous cysts, but they're different. True sebaceous cysts are less common. They arise from the glands that secrete oily matter that lubricates hair and skin (sebaceous glands).

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Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) – Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) (Cardiovascular) pipeline landscape.

Heart failure is also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump out enough oxygen-rich blood. Symptoms include cough, fatigue, weakness, faintness, loss of appetite, swollen (enlarged) liver or abdomen, swollen feet and ankles and weight gain. The predisposing factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, alcohol use and irregular heartbeats. Treatment includes surgery, vasodilator, beta blockers and diuretics.

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Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus — a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Your esophagus helps move the food you swallow from the back of your throat to your stomach to be digested.


Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus. Esophageal cancer can occur anywhere along the esophagus. More men than women get esophageal cancer.


Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Incidence rates vary within different geographic locations. In some regions, higher rates of esophageal cancer cases may be attributed to tobacco and alcohol use or particular nutritional habits and obesity.


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Esophageal varices are abnormal, enlarged veins in the tube that connects the throat and stomach (esophagus). This condition occurs most often in people with serious liver diseases.


Esophageal varices develop when normal blood flow to the liver is blocked by a clot or scar tissue in the liver. To go around the blockages, blood flows into smaller blood vessels that aren't designed to carry large volumes of blood. The vessels can leak blood or even rupture, causing life-threatening bleeding.


A number of drugs and medical procedures can help prevent and stop bleeding from esophageal varices.

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Exercise headaches occur during or after sustained, strenuous exercise. Some activities associated with exercise headaches include running, rowing, tennis, swimming and weightlifting.


Doctors divide exercise headaches into two categories. Primary exercise headaches are usually harmless, aren't connected to any underlying problems and can often be prevented with medication.


Secondary exercise headaches are caused by an underlying, often serious problem within the brain — such as bleeding or a tumor — or outside the brain — such as coronary artery disease. Secondary exercise headaches may require emergency medical attention.

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Factitious disorder is a serious mental disorder in which someone deceives others by appearing sick, by purposely getting sick or by self-injury. Factitious disorder also can happen when family members or caregivers falsely present others, such as children, as being ill, injured or impaired.


Factitious disorder symptoms can range from mild (slight exaggeration of symptoms) to severe (previously called Munchausen syndrome). The person may make up symptoms or even tamper with medical tests to convince others that treatment, such as high-risk surgery, is needed.


Factitious disorder is not the same as inventing medical problems for practical benefit, such as getting out of work or winning a lawsuit. Although people with factitious disorder know they are causing their symptoms or illnesses, they may not understand the reasons for their behaviors or recognize themselves as having a problem.


Factitious disorder is challenging to identify and hard to treat. However, medical and psychiatric help are critical for preventing serious injury and even death caused by the self-harm typical of this disorder.

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Inability to completely evacuate the bowels or passing very hard stools is known as Constipation or Vibandh in Ayurveda. This prevalent problem is due to an incorrect lifestyle and poor eating patterns. Although constipation is often looked upon as a common problem, if not treated or if treatment is delayed, it can lead to further problems such as fissures, fistulas, piles, lack of appetite and indigestion.

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Fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements, causing stool (feces) to leak unexpectedly from the rectum. Also called bowel incontinence, fecal incontinence ranges from an occasional leakage of stool while passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control.


Common causes of fecal incontinence include diarrhea, constipation, and muscle or nerve damage. The muscle or nerve damage may be associated with aging or with giving birth.


Whatever the cause, fecal incontinence can be embarrassing. But don't shy away from talking to your doctor. Treatments are available that can improve fecal incontinence and your quality of life.

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A sexual problem, or sexual dysfunction, refers to a problem during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. The sexual response cycle has four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.


While research suggests that sexual dysfunction is common (43% of women and 31% of men report some degree of difficulty), it is a topic that many people are hesitant or embarrassed to discuss. Fortunately, most cases of sexual dysfunction are treatable, so it is important to share your concerns with your partner and doctor.

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The term "fetal macrosomia" is used to describe a newborn who's significantly larger than average.


A baby diagnosed with fetal macrosomia has a birth weight of more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams), regardless of his or her gestational age. About 9 percent of babies born worldwide weigh more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces.


However, the risks associated with fetal macrosomia increase greatly when birth weight is more than 9 pounds 15 ounces (4,500 grams).


Fetal macrosomia may complicate vaginal delivery and could put the baby at risk of injury during birth. Fetal macrosomia also puts the baby at increased risk of health problems after birth.

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Fibrocystic breasts are composed of tissue that feels lumpy or rope-like in texture. Doctors call this nodular or glandular breast tissue.


It's not at all uncommon to have fibrocystic breasts. More than half of women experience fibrocystic breast changes at some point in their lives. In fact, medical professionals have stopped using the term "fibrocystic breast disease" and now simply refer to "fibrocystic breasts" or "fibrocystic breast changes" because having fibrocystic breasts isn't really a disease. Breast changes categorized as fibrocystic are considered normal.


Although many women with fibrocystic breasts don't have symptoms, some women experience breast pain, tenderness and lumpiness — especially in the upper, outer area of the breasts. Breast symptoms tend to be most bothersome just before menstruation. Simple self-care measures can usually relieve discomfort associated with fibrocystic breasts.

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Fibromuscular dysplasia is a condition that causes narrowing (stenosis) and enlargement (aneurysm) of the medium-sized arteries in your body. Reduced blood flow from narrowed arteries to the organs can affect the function of the organs.


Fibromuscular dysplasia appears most commonly in the arteries leading to the kidneys. Fibromuscular dysplasia can also affect the arteries leading to your brain, heart, abdomen, arms and legs.


Fibromuscular dysplasia can cause a number of complications, such as high blood pressure or tears of the artery (arterial dissection), if left untreated. Arterial dissection, or spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), can limit blood flow to the organ supplied by the injured artery.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.

Many people mistake their increased breathlessness and coughing as a normal part of aging. In the early stages of the disease, you may not notice the symptoms. COPD can develop for years without noticeable shortness of breath. You begin to see the symptoms in the more developed stages of the disease. 

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Folliculitis is an inflammatory condition affecting hair follicles. It appears as a small red tender bump occasionally surmounted with dot of pus surrounding a hair. Older lesions that have lost the pus appear as red bumps surrounding the opening of the follicle absent the hair. One to hundreds of follicles can be affected anywhere that hair is present. Actually, acne vulgaris, the facial rash that teenagers develop, is a type of folliculitis.


Depending on the cause and severity of folliculitis, it may require no treatment and resolve spontaneously, or it may require treatment with powerful antibiotics or other drugs.

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Galactorrhea (guh-lack-toe-REE-uh) is a milky nipple discharge unrelated to the normal milk production of breast-feeding. Galactorrhea itself isn't a disease, but it could be a sign of an underlying problem. It usually occurs in women, even those who have never had children or after menopause. But galactorrhea can happen in men and even in infants.


Excessive breast stimulation, medication side effects or disorders of the pituitary gland all may contribute to galactorrhea. Often, galactorrhea results from increased levels of prolactin, the hormone that stimulates milk production.

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Gallbladder cancer is cancer that begins in the gallbladder.


Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by your liver.


Gallbladder cancer is uncommon. When gallbladder cancer is discovered at its earliest stages, the chance for a cure is very good. But most gallbladder cancers are discovered at a late stage, when the prognosis is often very poor.


Gallbladder cancer is difficult to diagnose because it often causes no specific signs or symptoms. Also, the relatively hidden nature of the gallbladder makes it easier for gallbladder cancer to grow without being detected.

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Ganglion cysts are noncancerous lumps that most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of your wrists or hands. They also may occur in the ankles and feet. Ganglion cysts are typically round or oval and are filled with a jellylike fluid.


Small ganglion cysts can be pea-sized, while larger ones can be around an inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter. Ganglion cysts can be painful if they press on a nearby nerve. Their location can sometimes interfere with joint movement.


If your ganglion cyst is causing you problems, your doctor may suggest trying to drain the cyst with a needle. Removing the cyst surgically also is an option. But if you have no symptoms, no treatment is necessary. In many cases, the cysts go away on their own.

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Foot corns are hardened layers of skin that develop from your skin’s response to friction and pressure. You may have foot corns if you experience the following symptoms on the tips and the sides of your toes:

rough, tough, yellowing patch of lumpy or bumpy skin

skin that’s sensitive to touch

pain when wearing shoes

Foot corns can be safely treated, and you can even prevent future ones. Keep reading to learn tips on how you can manage existing corns and minimize your chances of developing new ones.

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Gaucher (go-SHAY) disease is the result of a buildup of certain fatty substances in certain organs, particularly your spleen and liver. This causes these organs to enlarge and can affect their function.


The fatty substances also can build up in bone tissue, weakening the bone and increasing the risk of fractures. If the bone marrow is affected, it can interfere with your blood's ability to clot.


An enzyme that breaks down these fatty substances doesn't work properly in people with Gaucher disease. Treatment often includes enzyme replacement therapy.


An inherited disorder, Gaucher disease is most common in Jewish people of Eastern and Central European descent (Ashkenazi). Symptoms can appear at any age.

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Geographic tongue is the name of a condition that gets its name from its map-like appearance on the upper surface and sides of the tongue. It may occur in other areas of your mouth, as well.


You'll be relieved to know that geographic tongue is a harmless, benign condition that isn't linked to any infection or cancer. Two other names for geographic tongue are benign migratory glossitis and erythema migrans.


Affecting about 1% to 3% of people, geographic tongue can show up at any age. However, it tends to affect middle-aged or older adults more often. It appears to be more common in women than in men.

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Germ cell tumors are growths that form from reproductive cells. Tumors may be cancerous or noncancerous. Most germ cell tumors that are cancerous occur as cancer of the testicles (testicular cancer) or cancer of the ovaries (ovarian cancer).


Some germ cell tumors occur in other areas of the body, such as the abdomen, brain and chest, though it's not clear why. Germ cell tumors that occur in places other than the testicles and ovaries (extragonadal germ cell tumors) are very rare.


Germ cell tumors tend to respond to treatment and many can be cured, even when diagnosed at a late stage.

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.[14] It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart.


Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction. In adults who go to the emergency department with an unclear cause of pain, about 30% have pain due to coronary artery disease

How Does Coronary Artery Disease Develop?


From a young age, plaque can start to go into your blood vessel walls. As you get older, the plaque builds up. 

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Greenstick fractures occur when the force applied to a bone results in bending of the bone such that the structural integrity of the convex surface is overcome. The fact that the integrity of the cortex has been overcome results in fracture of the convex surface. However, the bending force applied does not break the bone completely and the concave surface of the bent bone remains intact.


This can occur following an angulated longitudinal force applied down the bone (e.g. an indirect trauma following a fall on an outstretched arm), or after a force applied perpendicular to the bone (e.g. a direct blow).


This fracture is very different, and much less common, than the torus fracture that results in buckling of the cortex on the concave side of the bend and an intact concave surface.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.

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A cough is a common reflex action that clears the throat of mucus or foreign irritants. Coughing to clear the throat is typically an infrequent action, although a number of conditions can cause more frequent bouts of coughing.


In general, a cough that lasts for less than three weeks is an acute cough.


A cough that lasts between 3 and 8 weeks, improving by the end of that period, is a subacute cough.


A persistent cough that lasts more than eight weeks is a chronic cough.


Most cough episodes will clear up, or at least significantly improve, within two weeks. If you cough up blood or have a “barking” cough, talk to your doctor. Any cough that hasn’t improved after a few weeks may be serious, and you should see a doctor.

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Hemifacial spasms happen when the muscles on only one side of your face twitch without warning. These types of spasms are caused by damage or irritation to the facial nerve, which is also known as the seventh cranial nerve. Facial spasms occur when the muscles contract involuntarily because of this nerve irritation.


Hemifacial spasms are also known as tic convulsif. At first, they may appear only as small, barely noticeable tics around your eyelid, cheek, or mouth. Over time, the tics may expand to other parts of your face.


Hemifacial spasms can happen to men or women, but they’re most common in women over 40. They also tend to occur more often on the left side of your face. 


Hemifacial spasms aren’t dangerous on their own. But a constant twitch in your face can be frustrating or uncomfortable. In severe cases, these spasms can limit function due to involuntary eye closing or the impact they have on speaking.


In some cases, these spasms may indicate that you have an underlying condition or an abnormality in your facial structure. Either of these causes can compress or damage your nerves and make your face muscles twitch.

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A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age.


Older people are at a higher risk of hip fracture because bones tend to weaken with age (osteoporosis). Multiple medications, poor vision and balance problems also make older people more likely to trip and fall — one of the most common causes of hip fracture.


A hip fracture almost always requires surgical repair or replacement, followed by months of physical therapy. Taking steps to maintain bone density and avoid falls can help prevent hip fracture.

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HPV infection commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths (warts). Certain types of HPV infection cause cervical cancers. More than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV) exist.


Different types of HPV infection cause warts on different parts of your body. For example, some types of HPV infection cause plantar warts on the feet, while others cause warts that mostly appear on the face or neck.


Most HPV infections don't lead to cancer. But some types of genital HPV can cause cancer of the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina (cervix). Other types of cancers, including cancers of the anus, penis, vagina, vulva and back of the throat (oropharyngeal), have been linked to HPV infection.


Vaccines can help protect against the strains of genital HPV most likely to cause genital warts or cervical cancer.

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A hydrocele is a sac filled with fluid that forms around a testicle. Hydroceles are most common in babies.


Nearly 10 percent of males are born with a hydrocele. However, they can affect males of any age.


Hydroceles generally don’t pose any threat to the testicles. They’re usually painless and disappear without treatment. However, if you have scrotal swelling, see your doctor to rule out other causes that are more harmful such as testicular cancer.

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The term hydrocephalus is derived from the Greek words "hydro" meaning water and "cephalus" meaning head. As the name implies, it is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain. Although hydrocephalus was once known as "water on the brain," the "water" is actually cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)--a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal widening of spaces in the brain called ventricles. This widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain.


The ventricular system is made up of four ventricles connected by narrow passages.. Normally, CSF flows through the ventricles, exits into cisterns (closed spaces that serve as reservoirs) at the base of the brain, bathes the surfaces of the brain and spinal cord, and then reabsorbs into the bloodstream.


CSF has three important life-sustaining functions: 1) to keep the brain tissue buoyant, acting as a cushion or "shock absorber"; 2) to act as the vehicle for delivering nutrients to the brain and removing waste; and 3) to flow between the cranium and spine and compensate for changes in intracranial blood volume (the amount of blood within the brain).


The balance between production and absorption of CSF is critically important. Because CSF is made continuously, medical conditions that block its normal flow or absorption will result in an over-accumulation of CSF. The resulting pressure of the fluid against brain tissue is what causes hydrocephalus.

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One of the most common causes of high calcium levels (hypercalcemia), is an overproduction of parathyroid hormone, or hyperparathyroidism.


Hyperparathyroidism tends to be more common in women over 50.

It can be the result of all four parathyroid glands producing too much PTH (parathyroid hyperplasia), or one gland specifically producing an excessive amount of hormone (usually the result of a parathyroid adenoma, or benign tumor).

Hypercalcemia can occur due to other medical conditions. These conditions can vary in severity and chronicity, and may be life-threatening. Malignancy is a common cause of elevated blood calcium. Up to 20% of individuals with cancer will develop hypercalcemia at some point in their disease.

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Think of your feet as your physical base; they're what keep you up and running. So if you're like most people, and don't think your feet need consistent care, think again. Cracked heels are one of the most common foot issues that can arise if you don't pay proper attention. But don't despair, baby soft foot skin is just one article away. Read on to learn more about how to get rid of annoying cracked skin around the heels.

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Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) refers to a rare group of conditions that are associated with persistent eosinophilia with evidence of organ involvement. Signs and symptoms vary significantly based on which parts of the body are affected. Although any organ system can be involved in HES, the heart, central nervous system, skin, and respiratory tract are the most commonly affected. The condition was originally thought to be "idiopathic" or of unknown cause. However, recent advances in diagnostic testing have allowed a cause to be identified in approximately a quarter of cases. Management varies based on the severity of the condition and whether or not an underlying cause has been identified but generally includes imatinib or corticosteroids as an initial treatment.

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High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication.


It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart.

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Ichthyosis (ick-thee-OH-sis) is a group of skin diseases that causes extremely dry, thick, and scaly skin. The skin often looks like it has fish scales.


There are more than 20 different types of ichthyosis. The most common type is ichthyosis vulgaris (vul-GAR-ris). About 95% of people who develop ichthyosis get this type.


The other types are rare and include harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar type, and x-linked ichthyosis.

Of all the types, ichthyosis vulgaris is the mildest. It often begins in childhood.

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Cradle cap causes crusty or oily scaly patches on a baby's scalp. The condition isn't painful or itchy. But it can cause thick white or yellow scales that aren't easy to remove.


Cradle cap usually clears up on its own in a few months. Home-care measures include washing your baby's scalp daily with a mild shampoo. This can help loosen and remove the scales. Don't scratch cradle cap.


If cradle cap persists or seems severe, your doctor may suggest a medicated shampoo, lotion or other 

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An incompetent cervix, also called a cervical insufficiency, is a condition that occurs when weak cervical tissue causes or contributes to premature birth or the loss of an otherwise healthy pregnancy.


Before pregnancy, your cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina — is normally closed and rigid. As pregnancy progresses and you prepare to give birth, the cervix gradually softens, decreases in length (effaces) and opens (dilates). If you have an incompetent cervix, your cervix might begin to open too soon — causing you to give birth too early.


An incompetent cervix can be difficult to diagnose and, as a result, treat. If your cervix begins to open early, your health care provider might recommend preventive medication during pregnancy, frequent ultrasounds or a procedure that closes the cervix with strong sutures (cervical cerclage).

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Jaundice is particularly common in premature babies - boys more often than girls. It usually appears within the baby's first week of life.


In an otherwise healthy baby born at full term, infant jaundice is rarely a cause for alarm; it tends to go away on its own. However, if treatment is necessary, infants tend to respond to non-invasive therapy.


In rare cases, untreated infant jaundice may lead to brain damage and even death.

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Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere - in air, soil and water. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains a germ. Germs can also spread through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent infections.

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Intestinal ischemia (is-KEE-me-uh) describes a variety of conditions that occur when blood flow to your intestines decreases due to a blockage, usually in an artery. Intestinal ischemia can affect your small intestine, your large intestine (colon) or both.


Intestinal ischemia is a serious condition that can cause pain and make it difficult for your intestines to work. In severe cases, loss of blood flow to the intestines can damage intestinal tissue and lead to death.


Treatments are available for intestinal ischemia. To improve the chances of recovery, it's crucial to recognize the early symptoms and get medical help right away.

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Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism.

Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles.

Approximately 2% of the body's creatine is converted to creatinine every day.

Creatinine is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and dispose of it in the urine.

Because the muscle mass in the body is relatively constant from day to day, the creatinine production normally remains essentially unchanged on a daily basis.

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Digested food particles must travel through 25 feet or more of intestines as part of normal digestion. These digested wastes are constantly in motion. However, intestinal obstruction can put a stop to this. An intestinal obstruction occurs when your small or large intestine is blocked. The blockage can be partial or total, and it prevents passage of fluids and digested food.


If intestinal obstruction happens, food, fluids, gastric acids, and gas build up behind the site of the blockage. If enough pressure builds up, your intestine can rupture, leaking harmful intestinal contents and bacteria into your abdominal cavity. This is a life-threatening complication.


There are many potential causes of intestinal obstruction. Often, this condition can’t be prevented. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. An untreated intestinal obstruction can be fatal.

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An intracranial hematoma is a collection of blood within the skull, most commonly caused by rupture of a blood vessel within the brain or from trauma such as a car accident or fall. The blood collection can be within the brain tissue or underneath the skull, pressing on the brain.


Although some head injuries — such as one that causes only a brief lapse of consciousness (concussion) — can be minor, an intracranial hematoma is potentially life-threatening. It usually requires immediate treatment, often surgery to remove the blood.

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Intussusception (in-tuh-suh-SEP-shun) is the most common abdominal emergency affecting children under 2 years old. It happens when one portion of the bowel slides into the next, much like the pieces of a telescope.


When this "telescoping" happens, the flow of fluids and food through the bowel can become blocked, the intestine can swell and bleed, and the blood supply to the affected part of the intestine can get cut off. Eventually, this can cause part of the bowel to die.


Intussusception happens in 1 to 4 out of every 1,000 infants and is most common in babies 5 to 9 months old, though older children also can have it. Boys get intussusception more often than girls.

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Invasive lobular carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast.


Invasive cancer means the cancer cells have broken out of the lobule where they began and have the potential to spread to the lymph nodes and other areas of the body.


Invasive lobular carcinoma makes up a small portion of all breast cancers. The most common type of breast cancer begins in the breast ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma).


Invasive lobular carcinoma typically doesn't form a lump, which is common in breast cancer. Instead, there is a change in the breast that feels like a thickening or fullness in one part of the breast and is different from the surrounding breast tissue.

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Ischemic colitis occurs when blood flow to part of the large intestine (colon) is reduced, usually due to narrowed or blocked blood vessels (arteries). The diminished blood flow doesn't provide enough oxygen for the cells in your digestive system.


Ischemic colitis can cause pain and may damage your colon. Any part of the colon can be affected, but ischemic colitis usually causes pain on the left side of the belly area (abdomen).


The condition can be misdiagnosed because it can easily be confused with other digestive problems. Ischemic colitis may heal on its own. But you may need medication to treat ischemic colitis or prevent infection, or you may need surgery if your colon has been damaged.

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Islet cell cancer is a term used to describe a group of cancers that can occur in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. Islet cell cancers, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, are very rare.


Islet cells are small hormone-producing cells normally found in your pancreas. Islet cell cancer arises from these cells. Some islet cell cancer cells continue to secrete hormones, creating too much of the given hormone in your body. Examples of these types of islet cell cancers include gastrinoma and glucagonoma.

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Crohn's disease (sometimes called Crohn disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the physician who described the disease in 1932. It also is called granulomatous enteritis or colitis, regional enteritis, ileitis, or terminal ileitis.


Crohn's disease is related closely to another chronic inflammatory condition that involves only the colon called ulcerative colitis. Together, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are frequently referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have no medical cure. Once the diseases begin, they tend to fluctuate between periods of inactivity (remission) and activity (relapse).


 Men and women are affected equally by inflammatory bowel disease. Americans of Jewish European descent are more likely to develop IBD than the general population. IBD has historically been considered predominately disease of Caucasians, but there has been an increase in reported cases in African Americans suffering from IBD. The prevalence appears to be lower among Hispanic and Asian populations. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood (usually between the ages of 15 and 35). There is a small second peak of newly-diagnosed cases after age 50. The number of new cases (incidence) and number of cases (prevalence) of Crohn's disease in the United States are rising, although the reason for this is not completely understood.

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Crohn's disease (sometimes called Crohn disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the physician who described the disease in 1932. It also is called granulomatous enteritis or colitis, regional enteritis, ileitis, or terminal ileitis.


Crohn's disease is related closely to another chronic inflammatory condition that involves only the colon called ulcerative colitis. Together, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are frequently referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have no medical cure. Once the diseases begin, they tend to fluctuate between periods of inactivity (remission) and activity (relapse).


 Men and women are affected equally by inflammatory bowel disease. Americans of Jewish European descent are more likely to develop IBD than the general population. IBD has historically been considered predominately disease of Caucasians, but there has been an increase in reported cases in African Americans suffering from IBD. The prevalence appears to be lower among Hispanic and Asian populations. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood (usually between the ages of 15 and 35). There is a small second peak of newly-diagnosed cases after age 50. The number of new cases (incidence) and number of cases (prevalence) of Crohn's disease in the United States are rising, although the reason for this is not completely understood.


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We see through the cornea, which is the clear outer lens or "windshield" of the eye. Normally, the cornea has a dome shape, like a ball. Sometimes, however, the structure of the cornea is just not strong enough to hold this round shape and the cornea bulges outward like a cone. This condition is called keratoconus.

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Kidney cancer -- also called renal cancer -- is a disease in which kidney cells become malignant (cancerous) and grow out of control, forming a tumor. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. The good news is that most of kidney cancers are found before they spread (metastasize) to distant organs. And cancers caught early are easier to treat successfully. However, these tumors can grow to be quite large before they are detected.


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They lie in your lower abdomen on each side of your spine. Their main job is to clean your blood, removing waste products and making urine.

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A simple kidney cyst is a round pouch of smooth, thin-walled tissue or a closed pocket that is usually filled with fluid. One or more may form within the kidneys. Simple cysts are the most common type of kidney cyst. They are not the same thing as polycystic kidney disease, which is a progressive disease that can lead to kidney failure. Simple kidney cysts most often do not cause harm.

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Oh, what a beautiful smile you have there. Every time you smile, your eyes light up. Ah, those crinkles at the corners of the eyes make you look prettier still.


Crow’s feet may or may not look charming, but if I’m guessing right, you would still want to iron them out. Want to know the best treatment for crows feet? Worry not! Have a look at these remedies I’ve gathered, and you can have your wish come true in no time.

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Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma. Soft tissue sarcomas can develop in muscle, fat, blood vessels, or any of the other tissues that support, surround and protect the organs of the body.


Leiomyosarcoma is one of the more common types of soft tissue sarcoma to develop in adults. We don’t yet know the exact cause.


Leiomyosarcomas are usually treated at a specialist hospital. The usual treatment for a leiomyosarcoma is surgery to remove the tumour. You may have radiotherapy after surgery, to reduce the chance of the cancer coming back. Chemotherapy is also sometimes used for a leiomyosarcomas that has come back, or that has spread.


You may be asked to take part in clinical trial looking at new ways of treating leiomyosarcomas. Your doctor or specialist nurse can talk to you about this.


After treatment, you will have regular check-ups. If you have any problems or notice any new symptoms between these check-ups, it’s important to let your doctor know as soon as possible

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Lichen nitidus is an unusual/ rare non-infectious skin condition most commonly seen in children. It occurs in the form of hundreds and hundreds of tiny grids of bumps over the skin. They are often found in tight groups that appear like a big patch.


The arms and the folds of the skin are most commonly affected, but they can occur anywhere in the body. In fairer skinned people, these bumps are slightly reddish in color, whereas in darker skinned people, the bumps may vary between lighter or darker in color than the normal skin.

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Lichen sclerosus (LIE-kun skluh-ROW-sus) is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. But it most often involves skin of the vulva, foreskin of the penis or skin around the anus.


Anyone can get lichen sclerosus but postmenopausal women have a high risk.


Sometimes lichen sclerosus improves on its own, and you won't need any treatment. If you do need treatment, your doctor can suggest options to return a more normal appearance to your skin and decrease the tendency for scarring.

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Limited scleroderma, also known as CREST syndrome, is one subtype of scleroderma — a condition whose name means "hardened skin."


The skin changes associated with limited scleroderma typically occur only in the lower arms and legs, below the elbows and knees, and sometimes affect the face and neck. Limited scleroderma can also affect your digestive tract, heart, lungs or kidneys.


The problems caused by limited scleroderma may be minor. Sometimes, however, the disease affects the lungs or heart, with potentially serious results. Limited scleroderma has no known cure. Treatments focus on managing symptoms, preventing serious complications and improving quality of life.

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Lip cancers are abnormal cells that grow out of control and form lesions or tumors on the lips. They are the most common type of oral cancers. These cancers develop in thin, flat cells — called squamous cells — that line the lips, mouth, tongue, cheeks, sinuses, throat, and hard and soft palates.


Lip cancer and other kinds of oral cancers are types of head and neck cancers.


Certain lifestyle choices, such as smoking, drinking, sun exposure, and tanning, increase your risk of developing lip cancer. Dentists are typically the first to notice signs of lip cancers, often during a routine dental exam.


Lip cancers are highly curable when diagnosed early.

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A diagnosis of liposarcoma and its treatment made Mayor Rob Ford, the controversial former mayor of Toronto, decide to take his name out of the running for the election for Toronto's mayor in 2014. The disease caused his death on Tues., Mar. 22, 2016. His disease and death at age 46 has stimulated further interest in liposarcoma, especially pleomorphic liposarcoma, a relatively rare cancer that is difficult to treat because the tumors are usually found or diagnosed when the disease is advanced.

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Listeriosis is an infection caused by a gram stain-positive motile bacterium named Listeria monocytogenes. The foodborne illness produces fever, muscle aches, and, in many people, diarrhea. Severe infections can cause headaches, meningitis, convulsions, and death. Most healthy people exposed to the bacteria have minor or no symptoms, but a few people, especially the elderly, pregnant females and their fetus, newborns, and anyone with a compromised immune system are especially susceptible to these organisms. Listeria bacteria are widespread throughout the world and are often associated with farm animals that may show no signs of infection. Research shows that many animals are uninfected carriers, and they suggest that some humans carry these organisms as part of their bowel flora. Except for pregnant women and their fetus or newborn, there is no direct transfer of Listeria from human to human.


The organisms (Listeria monocytogenes) that cause listeriosis have probably been infecting humans for centuries. Listeria was first isolated from an infected WWI soldier in 1918 and had many different names until 1940, when the genus and species names were firmly established. However, the bacteria were first recognized as a food-borne (food poisoning) pathogen in 1979. The bacteria can penetrate human cells and can multiply inside them. People with altered or impaired immune systems have cells that are less able to control the spread of these organisms into the blood or into other cells. In 2010, a known species, Listeria ivanovii, thought only to infect cattle, was found to infect humans so there are two Listeria species that can infect humans.


Outbreaks of listeriosis can occur with some frequency. For example, in 2017, soft raw milk cheese was a source of an outbreak (Vulto Creamery). In this outbreak, eight people were infected and two died. Other recalls of products in 2017 include 3 tons of cheese for possible Listeria contamination (La Nica Products INC.), macadamia nuts (Simple Truth brand), Ava's Organic Cashews, and Queso Fresco cheese, for the same problem.

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Each strand of hair is made up of the medulla, cortex, and cuticle.[4] The innermost region, the medulla, is not always present and is an open, unstructured region.[5] The highly structural and organized cortex, or middle layer of the hair, is the primary source of mechanical strength and water uptake. The cortex contains melanin, which colors the fiber based on the number, distribution and types of melanin granules. The shape of the follicle determines the shape of the cortex, and the shape of the fiber is related to how straight or curly the hair is. People with straight hair have round hair fibers. Oval and other shaped fibers are generally more wavy or curly. The cuticle is the outer covering. Its complex structure slides as the hair swells and is covered with a single molecular layer of lipid that makes the hair repel water.[4] The diameter of human hair varies from 0.017 to 0.18 millimeters (0.00067 to 0.00709 in).[6] There are two million small, tubular glands and sweat glands that produce watery fluids that cool the body by evaporation. The glands at the opening of the hair produce a fatty secretion that lubricates the hair.[7]


Hair growth begins inside the hair follicle. The only "living" portion of the hair is found in the follicle. The hair that is visible is the hair shaft, which exhibits no biochemical activity and is considered "dead". The base of a hair's root (the "bulb") contains the cells that produce the hair shaft.[8] Other structures of the hair follicle include the oil producing sebaceous gland which lubricates the hair and the arrector pili muscles, which are responsible for causing hairs to stand up. In humans with little body hair, the effect results in goose bumps.

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Answer: Low sperm count implies that the fluids (semen) you ejaculate in the course of an orgasm consist of lesser sperm when compared with normal.


A low sperm count can be referred to as oligospermia. A total lack of sperm is known as Azoospermia. Your own sperm count is regarded as less than normal when you have less than fifteen million sperm per millilitre of semen.


Having a low sperm count reduces the chances that one of your own sperm will certainly fertilize the partner’s egg, leading to pregnancy. Nevertheless, numerous males that have a low sperm count will still be in a position to father a baby.

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Lynch syndrome, often called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is an inherited disorder that increases the risk of many types of cancer, particularly cancers of the colon (large intestine) and rectum, which are collectively referred to as colorectal cancer. People with Lynch syndrome also have an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, small intestine, liver, gallbladder ducts, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin. Additionally, women with this disorder have a high risk of cancer of the ovaries and lining of the uterus (the endometrium). People with Lynch syndrome may occasionally have noncancerous (benign) growths (polyps) in the colon, called colon polyps. In individuals with this disorder, colon polyps occur earlier but not in greater numbers than they do in the general population.

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Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a woman's disease, male breast cancer does occur.Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age.Men diagnosed with male breast cancerat an early stage have a good chance for a cure. Still, many men delay seeing their doctors if they notice one of the usual signs or symptoms, such as a breast lump. For this reason, many male breast cancers are diagnosed when the disease is more advanced.


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Mammary duct ectasia (ek-TAY-zhuh) occurs when a milk duct beneath your nipple widens, the duct walls thicken and the duct fills with fluid. The milk duct may become blocked or clogged with a thick, sticky substance. The condition often causes no symptoms, but some women may have nipple discharge, breast tenderness or inflammation of the clogged duct (periductal mastitis).

Mammary duct ectasia most often occurs in women of perimenopausal age — around 45 to 55 years — but it can happen after menopause, too. The condition sometimes improves without treatment. If symptoms persist, you may need antibiotics or possibly surgery to remove the affected milk duct.Though it's normal to worry about any changes in your breasts, mammary duct ectasia and periductal mastisis aren't risk factors for breast cancer


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Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs, digestive system and other organs in the body.


Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery. But in people with cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes the secretions to become sticky and thick. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas.


Although cystic fibrosis requires daily care, people with the condition are usually able to attend school and work, and often have a better quality of life than people with cystic fibrosis had in previous decades. Improvements in screening and treatments mean people with cystic fibrosis now may live into their mid- to late 30s, on average, and some are living into their 40s and 50s.

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Meralgia paresthetica is a condition characterized by tingling, numbness and burning pain in your outer thigh. The cause of meralgia paresthetica is compression of the nerve that supplies sensation to the skin surface of your thigh.

Tight clothing, obesity or weight gain, and pregnancy are common causes of meralgia paresthetica. However, meralgia paresthetica can also be due to local trauma or a disease, such as diabetes.

In most cases, you can relieve meralgia paresthetica with conservative measures, such as wearing looser clothing. In severe cases, treatment may include medications to relieve discomfort or, rarely, surgery.

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MCC usually develops on sun-exposed skin (e.g., head, neck, arms) as a painless, firm bump that can be red-purple or skin-colored. Patients frequently point out a new MCC to their doctor because a bump is growing rapidly and/or does not look like anything the patient has ever had before.  Most MCCs are diagnosed when a skin biopsy
The removal of cells or tissue in order to determine the presence, characteristics, or extent of a disease by a pathologist usually using microscopic analysis. is performed to rule out another sun-induced skin cancer
A term used to describe diseases in which abnormal cells continually divide without normal regulation. Cancerous cells may invade surrounding tissues and may spread to other regions of the body via blood and the lymphatic system.
 or to remove a presumed cyst. In the vast majority of cases, both the doctor and the patient are surprised by the diagnosis of MCC. For more examples of MCC tumors beyond those presented on this page, visit 
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Mesenteric ischemia (mez-un-TER-ik is-KEE-me-uh) is a condition caused by poor blood supply to your intestines. Mesenteric ischemia usually affects the small intestine, colon or both. It may also involve other organs in the digestive system. Mesenteric ischemia may be acute or chronic.Acute mesenteric ischemia occurs suddenly as a result of blockage to the flow of oxygen-rich blood and can permanently damage your intestines. You may experience sudden abdominal pain and, less often, bloody stools. This situation requires immediate medical care.

Chronic mesenteric ischemia occurs gradually from narrowing in one or more of the arteries supplying blood to your intestines (visceral arteries). You may develop pain 1 to 2 hours after eating, This pain may make it hard for you to eat, leading to weight loss. You may also notice changes in the frequency of your bowel movements, as well as bloating, nausea and vomiting.


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Lymphadenitis is a condition in which your lymph nodes become inflamed. When the condition affects the lymph nodes in the membrane that connects your bowel to the abdominal wall (mesentery), it's called mesenteric lymphadenitis (mez-un-TER-ik lim-fad-uh-NIE-tis).Mesenteric lymphadenitis, which is also called mesenteric adenitis, usually results from an intestinal infection. It mainly affects children and teens. This painful condition can mimic the warning signs of appendicitis. Unlike appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis is seldom serious and usually clears up on its own

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Microcephaly (my-kroh-SEF-uh-lee) is a rare neurological condition in which an infant's head is significantly smaller than the heads of other children of the same age and sex. Sometimes detected at birth, microcephaly usually is the result of the brain developing abnormally in the womb or not growing as it should after birth.Microcephaly can be caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Children with microcephaly often have developmental issues. Generally there's no treatment for microcephaly, but early intervention with supportive therapies, such as speech and occupational therapies, may help enhance your child's development and improve quality of life.

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MC is an inflammatory bowel condition that presents with chronic watery diarrhea but with macroscopically normal colonoscopy findings. Histological evidence of pathology is only seen through biopsies of the colonic mucosa. This is a fairly recent disease entity that was first described in the 1970s; hence, information on incidences may be underreported. Epidemiological analyses of endoscopic biopsies performed for diarrhea in North America found an incidence of 8.6 per 100,000 from 1985 to 2001.1 However, more recent studies based on the same population from 2002 to 2010 showed that incidences of MC more than doubled over that last decade with rates of 21.0 cases per 100,000 person-years.2 This probably reflects increasing awareness of the disease among both endoscopists and pathologists, leading to higher rates of detection.

Collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC) are two subtypes of MC that have similar presentations. Histologically, however, they have distinct characteristics. It is still a controversy whether CC and LC are just really one disease under MC, or if they should be considered as two distinct diseases that share some features. A review of 226 studies on CC and LC found little to no differences in epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and response to treatment.

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Mittelschmerz is one-sided, lower abdominal pain associated with ovulation. German for "middle pain," mittelschmerz occurs midway through a menstrual cycle — about 14 days before your next menstrual period.In most cases, mittelschmerz doesn't require medical attention. For minor mittelschmerz discomfort, over-the-counter pain relievers and home remedies are often effective. If your mittelschmerz pain is troublesome, your doctor may prescribe an oral contraceptive to stop ovulation and prevent midcycle pain.


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  • A molar pregnancy is the result of a genetic error during the fertilization process that leads to a growth of abnormal tissue within the uterus. Molar pregnancies rarely involve a developing embryo, and the growth of this material is rapid compared to normal fetal growth. It has the appearance of a large and random collection of grape-like cell clusters. There are two types of molar pregnancies, “complete,” and “partial.”
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Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes. The fluid from the nose is usually clear. Symptom onset is often within minutes following exposure and they can affect sleep, the ability to work, and the ability to concentrate at school. Those whose symptoms are due to pollen typically develop symptoms during specific times of the year. Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, or atopic dermatitis.
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Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum virus). The result of the infection is usually a benign, mild skin disease characterized by lesions (growths) that may appear anywhere on the body. Within 6-12 months, Molluscum contagiosum typically resolves without scarring but may take as long as 4 years.The lesions, known as Mollusca, are small, raised, and usually white, pink, or flesh-colored with a dimple or pit in the center. They often have a pearly appearance. They’re usually smooth and firm. In most people, the lesions range from about the size of a pinhead to as large as a pencil eraser (2 to 5 millimeters in diameter). They may become itchy, sore, red, and/or swollen.Mollusca may occur anywhere on the body including the face, neck, arms, legs, abdomen, and genital area, alone or in groups. The lesions are rarely found on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.


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Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is often called the kissing disease. The virus that causes mono is transmitted through saliva, so you can get it through kissing, but you can also be exposed through a cough or sneeze, or by sharing a glass or food utensils with someone who has mono. However, mononucleosis isn't as contagious as some infections, such as the common cold.You're most likely to get mononucleosis with all the signs and symptoms if you're an adolescent or young adult. Young children usually have few symptoms, and the infection often goes unrecognized.If you have mononucleosis, it's important to be careful of certain complications such as an enlarged spleen. Rest and adequate fluids are key to recovery.

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Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer, is where a tumour develops in the lining of the mouth. It may be on the surface of the tongue, the insides of the cheeks, the roof of the mouth (palate), or the lips or gums.Tumours can also develop in the glands that produce saliva, the tonsils at the back of the mouth, and the part of the throat connecting your mouth to your windpipe (pharynx). However, these are less common.

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Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common skin bacteria. It is sometimes called staph, and it most often causes skin and soft tissue infections. Although S. aureus has been causing staph infections as long as humans have existed, MRSA has only been around since 1961. Methicillin was one of the first antibiotics used to treat S. aureus and other infections. S. aureus developed a gene mutation that allowed it to escape being killed by methicillin, so it became resistant to methicillin. That makes it harder to treat someone who gets an infection. Stronger, more expensive, or intravenous antibiotics may be needed.


Since the 1960s, MRSA has picked up more resistance to different antibiotics. Overuse of antibiotics has increased resistance in MRSA and other infectious bacteria, because resistance genes (the genes that code for resistance) can be passed from bacteria to bacteria.


If a doctor orders a test for bacteria on a specimen of pus, for example, the laboratory will alert the doctor if the test shows MRSA, so that precautions can be taken, and the right treatment can be started.

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged.Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms.There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, treatments can help speed recovery from attacks, modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.

Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.

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Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of disorders caused by poorly formed blood cells or ones that don't work properly. Myelodysplastic syndromes result from something amiss in the spongy material inside your bones where blood cells are made (bone marrow).Treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes usually focuses on reducing or preventing complications of the disease and its treatments. In some cases, treatment might involve chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant.

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Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing it from receiving enough oxygen. The reduced blood flow is usually the result of a partial or complete blockage of your heart's arteries (coronary arteries).Myocardial ischemia, also called cardiac ischemia, can damage your heart muscle, reducing its ability to pump efficiently. A sudden, severe blockage of a coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. Myocardial ischemia might also cause serious abnormal heart rhythms.Treatment for myocardial ischemia involves improving blood flow to the heart muscle. Treatment may include medications, a procedure to open blocked arteries or bypass surgery.Making heart-healthy lifestyle choices is important in treating and preventing myocardial ischemia.


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Myocarditis is a disease marked by inflammation and damage of the heart muscle. Although the exact incidence of myocarditis is not known, it is estimated that several thousand patients per year are diagnosed in the United States. Myocarditis usually attacks otherwise healthy people. It is believed that 5 to 20% of all cases of sudden death in young adults are due to myocarditis.There are many causes of myocarditis, including viral infections, autoimmune diseases, environmental toxins, and adverse reactions to medications. The prognosis is variable but chronic heart failure is the major long term complication. Myocarditis and the associated disorder of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy are the cause of approximately 45% of heart transplants in the United States.Subscribe to the Myocarditis Foundation Newsletter to receive the latest news and real-life stories delivered right to your email inbox!

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Myoclonus refers to a sudden, brief, and involuntary muscle jerk. Healthy people can have myoclonus in the form of hiccups and “sleep starts”, which are the sudden jerky sensations that can occur as people fall asleep. Myoclonus can also occur due to underlying neurological disorders such as epilepsy, metabolic conditions, or adverse reactions to medications. Importantly, myoclonus is a symptom, not a diagnosis of a disease.Sudden positive muscle contractions are called positive myoclonus, whereas muscle relaxation is called negative myoclonus. Myoclonus can vary in frequency, and can occur alone or in a sequence. There are several underlying conditions that can give rise to myoclonus symptoms. Doctors aim to isolate and treat the underlying cause of myoclonus symptoms. When the underlying cause cannot be treated or cured, the aim of treatment is to alleviate severe myoclonus

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Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) refers to pain and presumed inflammation in the body's soft tissues or muscles. Myofascial pain is a chronic, painful condition that affects the fascia (connective tissue that covers the muscles). Myofascial pain syndrome might involve either a single muscle or a muscle group. In some cases, the area where a person experiences the pain might not be where the myofascial pain generator is located. Experts believe that the actual site of the injury or the strain prompts the development of a trigger point that, in turn, causes pain in other areas. This situation is known as referred pain.

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Myxofibrosarcoma is a common connective tissue neoplasm of malignant fibrocytes in a myxoid matrix favoring the extremities. Like many other tumors of connective tissue, soft tissue sarcoma exhibits high recurrence rates but is rarely known to metastasize. We present a patient with myxofibrosarcoma of the hand with metastases to the lungs, pleura, and mediastinum. The mediastinal metastasis presented clinically with gastrointestinal symptoms due to compression of the gastroesophageal junction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma of the hand and also the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma to mediastinal lymph nodes at the level of the gastroesophageal junction. We also performed a comprehensive literature review of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma.

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Naegleria (nay-GLEER-e-uh) infection is a rare and usually fatal brain infection caused by an amoeba commonly found in freshwater lakes, rivers and hot springs. Exposure occurs during swimming or other water sports.The amoeba — called Naegleria fowleri — travels up the nose to the brain, where it causes severe damage. Most people who have naegleria infection die within a week.Millions of people are exposed to the amoeba that causes naegleria infection each year, but only a handful of them ever get sick from it. Health officials don't know why some people develop naegleria infection while others don't.Avoiding warm bodies of fresh water and wearing nose clips while in the water may help prevent such infections.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.


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Nasopharyngeal (nay-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul) carcinoma is cancer that occurs in the nasopharynx, which is located behind your nose and above the back of your throat.Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States. In other parts of the world — specifically Southeast Asia — nasopharyngeal carcinoma occurs much more frequently.Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is difficult to detect early. That's probably because the nasopharynx isn't easy to examine and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma mimic those of other, more-common conditions.Treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma usually involves radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of the two. You can work with your doctor to determine the exact approach depending on your particular situation

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Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine.Nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys that filter waste and excess water from your blood. Nephrotic syndrome causes swelling (edema), particularly in your feet and ankles, and increases the risk of other health problems.Treatment for nephrotic syndrome includes treating the underlying condition that's causing it and taking medications. Nephrotic syndrome can increase your risk of infections and blood clots. Your doctor may recommend medications and dietary changes to prevent these and other complications of nephrotic syndrome.

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Neuroendocrine tumors are abnormal growths that begin in specialized cells called neuroendocrine cells. Neuroendocrine cells have traits similar to nerve cells and to hormone-producing cells.Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and can occur anywhere in the body. Most neuroendocrine tumors occur in the lungs, appendix, small intestine, rectum and pancreas.Neuroendocrine tumors can be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant).Diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors depend on the type of tumor, its location, whether it produces excess hormones, how aggressive it is and whether it has spread to other parts of the body

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Your doctor can usually diagnose nickel allergy based on your skin's appearance, and a recent exposure to items that may contain nickel.If the cause of your rash isn't apparent, however, your doctor may recommend a patch test (contact hypersensitivity allergy test). He or she may refer you to an allergy specialist (allergist) or a skin specialist (dermatologist) for this test.

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Nicotine dependence ― also called tobacco dependence ― is an addiction to tobacco products caused by the drug nicotine. Nicotine dependence means you can't stop using the substance, even though it's causing you harm.Nicotine produces physical and mood-altering effects in your brain that are temporarily pleasing. These effects make you want to use tobacco and lead to dependence. At the same time, stopping tobacco use causes withdrawal symptoms, including irritability and anxiety.While it's the nicotine in tobacco that causes nicotine dependence, the toxic effects of tobacco result from other substances in tobacco. Smokers have much higher rates of heart disease, stroke and cancer than nonsmokers do.Regardless of how long you've smoked, stopping smoking can improve your health. Many effective treatments for nicotine dependence are available to help you manage withdrawal and stop smoking for good. Ask your doctor for hel

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Niemann-Pick is a rare, inherited disease that affects the body's ability to metabolize fat (cholesterol and lipids) within cells. These cells malfunction and, over time, die. Niemann-Pick disease can affect the brain, nerves, liver, spleen, bone marrow and, in severe cases, lungs.People with this condition experience symptoms related to progressive loss of function of nerves, the brain and other organs.Niemann-Pick can occur at any age but mainly affects children. The disease has no known cure and is sometimes fatal. Treatment is focused on helping people live with their symptoms.

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Nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is a clinical syndrome comprising symptoms consistent with allergic rhinitis in which an absence of atopy has been demonstrated by allergen skin testing, and nasal cytology analysis demonstrates more than 20% eosinophils. Anosmia is a prominent feature not shared with allergic rhinitis. The pathophysiology of NARES is poorly understood, but a key component involves a self-perpetuating, chronic eosinophilic nasal inflammation with development of nasal micropolyposis and polyposis. Mast cells likely play an important role as well. NARES is a risk factor for the development of nasal polyposis and aspirin sensitivity, as well as obstructive sleep apnea. Treatment consists mainly of intranasal corticosteroids with or without the addition of second-generation antihistamines and/or leukotriene-receptor antagonists.

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Nonulcer stomach pain is a term for recurring signs and symptoms of indigestion that have no obvious cause. Nonulcer stomach pain is also called functional dyspepsia (dis-PEP-see-uh) or nonulcer dyspepsia.Nonulcer stomach pain is common and can be long lasting. The condition can cause signs and symptoms that resemble those of an ulcer, such as pain or discomfort in your upper abdomen, often accompanied by bloating, belching and nausea.

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Norovirus infection can cause the sudden onset of severe vomiting and diarrhea. The virus is highly contagious and commonly spread through food or water that is contaminated during preparation or contaminated surfaces. You can also be infected through close contact with an infected person.Diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting typically begin 12 to 48 hours after exposure. Norovirus symptoms last one to three days, and most people recover completely without treatment. However, for some people — especially infants, older adults and people with underlying disease — vomiting and diarrhea can be severely dehydrating and require medical attention.Norovirus infection occurs most frequently in closed and crowded environments such as hospitals, nursing homes, child care centers, schools and cruise ships.

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Occupational asthma is asthma that's caused or worsened by breathing in chemical fumes, gases, dust or other substances on the job. Like other types of asthma, occupational asthma can cause chest tightness, wheezing and shortness of breath.When treated early, occupational asthma may be reversible. Long-term exposure to allergy-causing substances can cause worsening symptoms and lifelong asthma.Treatment for occupational asthma is similar to treatment for other types of asthma, and it generally includes taking medications to reduce symptoms. But the only sure way to eliminate your symptoms and prevent lung damage due to occupational asthma is to avoid whatever's triggering it.

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Ocular rosacea is inflammation that causes redness, burning and itching of the eyes. It often develops in people who have rosacea, a chronic skin condition that affects the face. Sometimes ocular, or eye, rosacea is the first sign that you may later develop the facial type.Ocular rosacea (roe-ZAY-she-uh) primarily affects adults between the ages of 30 and 50. It seems to develop in people who tend to blush and flush easily.Medications and a good eye-care routine can help control the signs and symptoms. But treatment doesn't cure ocular rosacea. It often recurs after an apparent remission.

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Optic neuritis is an inflammation that damages the optic nerve, a bundle of nerve fibers that transmits visual information from your eye to your brain. Pain and temporary vision loss in one eye are common symptoms of optic neuritis.

Optic neuritis is linked to multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease that causes inflammation and damage to nerves in your brain and spinal cord. Signs and symptoms of optic neuritis can be the first indication of multiple sclerosis, or they can occur later in the course of MS. Besides MS, optic neuritis can occur with other infections or immune diseases, such as lupus.

Most people who have a single episode of optic neuritis eventually recover their vision. Treatment with steroid medications may speed up vision recovery after optic neuritis.

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Lichen planus is an itchy skin rash that is caused by an immune response. It can occur anywhere on your skin.oral lichen planusIn cases of oral lichen planus, the mucous membranes inside your mouth are the only area affected. Oral lichen planus presents symptoms different from other cases of lichen planus. Instead of a rash, people may experience swollen tissues, white patches, and open sores.Oral lichen planus isn’t contagious, and it can’t be spread to another person.

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Orchitis (or-KIE-tis) is an inflammation of one or both testicles. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection or by the mumps virus.Bacterial orchitis can be caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly gonorrhea or chlamydia. Bacterial orchitis often results from epididymitis, an inflammation of the coiled tube (epididymis) at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. In that case, it's called epididymo-orchitis.Orchitis causes pain and can affect fertility. Medication can treat the causes of bacterial orchitis and can ease some signs and symptoms of viral orchitis. But it may take several weeks for scrotal tenderness to disappear.

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The bones of children and adolescents possess a special area where the bone is growing called the growth plate. Growth plates are areas of cartilage located near the ends of bones. When a child is fully grown, the growth plates harden into solid bone.Some growth plates serve as attachment sites for tendons, the strong tissues that connect muscles to bones. A bony bump called the tibial tubercle covers the growth plate at the end of the tibia. The group of muscles in the front of the thigh (called the quadriceps) attaches to the tibial tubercle.When a child is active, the quadriceps muscles pull on the patellar tendon which in turn, pulls on the tibial tubercle. In some children, this repetitive traction on the tubercle leads to inflammation of the growth plate. The prominence, or bump, of the tibial tubercle may become very pronounced.

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Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a condition that develops in joints, most often in children and adolescents. It occurs when a small segment of bone begins to separate from its surrounding region due to a lack of blood supply. As a result, the small piece of bone and the cartilage covering it begin to crack and loosen.The most common joints affected by osteochondritis dissecans are the knee, ankle and elbow, although it can also occur in other joints. The condition typically affects just one joint, however, some children can develop OCD in several joints.In many cases of OCD in children, the affected bone and cartilage heal on their own, especially if a child is still growing. In grown children and young adults, OCD can have more severe effects. The OCD lesions have a greater chance of separating from the surrounding bone and cartilage, and can even detach and float around inside the joint. In these cases, surgery may be necessary.


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Osteosarcoma is the most common type of cancer that develops in bone. Like the osteoblasts in normal bone, the cells that form this cancer make bone matrix. But the bone matrix of an osteosarcoma is not as strong as that of normal bones.Most osteosarcomas occur in children and young adults. Teens are the most commonly affected age group, but osteosarcoma can occur at any ageIn children and young adults, osteosarcoma usually develops in areas where the bone is growing quickly, such as near the ends of the long bones. Most tumors develop in the bones around the knee, either in the distal femur (the lower part of the thigh bone) or the proximal tibia (the upper part of the shinbone). The proximal humerus (the part of the upper arm bone close to the shoulder) is the next most common site. However, osteosarcoma can develop in any bone, including the bones of the pelvis (hips), shoulder, and jaw. This is especially true in older adults.


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Pancreatic cysts are collections (pools) of fluid that can form within the head, body, and tail of the pancreas. Some pancreatic cysts are true cysts (non-inflammatory cysts), that is, they are lined by a special layer of cells that are responsible for secreting fluid into the cysts. Other cysts are pseudocysts (inflammatory cysts) and do not contain specialized lining cells. Often these pseudocysts contain pancreatic digestive juices because they are connected to the pancreatic ducts. Pancreatic cysts can range in size from several millimeters to several centimeters. Many pancreatic cysts are small and benign and produce no symptoms, but some cysts become large and cause symptoms, and others are cancerous or precancerous. (Precancerous cysts are benign cysts that have the potential to become cancerous.)Different types of cysts contain different types of fluids. For example, pseudocysts that form after an attack of acute pancreatitis contain digestive enzymes such as amylase in high concentrations. Mucinous cysts contain mucus (a proteinaceous liquid) produced by the mucinous cells that form the inside lining of the cyst.


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Black neck is a term used to describe a condition in which the skin on your neck is noticeably darker than the surrounding skin, also referred to as “dark neck.” The change in color may be alarming and make you self-conscience, however, in most cases it isn’t cause for concern nor is it contagious.

In some cases, however, this skin darkening may be a warning sign of something more serious, so it’s important to see a doctor to determine the cause and begin any necessary treatment. Read on to learn more about black neck, what causes it, and how to treat it

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Parvovirus infection is a common and highly contagious childhood ailment — sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the distinctive face rash that develops. Parvovirus infection has also been known as fifth disease because, historically, it was one of five common childhood illnesses characterized by a rash.In most children, parvovirus infection is mild and requires little treatment. However, in some adults, the infection can be serious. Parvovirus infection in some pregnant women can lead to serious health problems for the fetus. Parvovirus infection is also more serious for people with some kinds of anemia or who have a compromised immune system.

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Pectus carinatum, sometimes called pigeon chest, is a non-life-threatening condition. It’s marked by an abnormally outward protruding breastbone caused by rapid cartilage growth forcing the chest cavity outward. Occasionally, symptoms are present from birth or early childhood, but it’s most commonly diagnosed around 11 or 12 years of age.For most children, pectus carinatum is an aesthetic issue only. This condition frequently results in an asymmetrical chest. In more severe cases, symptoms may also include difficulty breathing during physical activities, recurring respiratory infections, and asthma.While its cause is unknown, it appears to be more common in boys, and there seems to be a hereditary component. If needed, treatment for pectus carinatum usually includes wearing a brace for children whose bones are still developing. But it can also include surgery for severe cases.

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Pectus excavatum is a condition in which a person's breastbone is sunken into his or her chest. In severe cases, pectus excavatum can look as if the center of the chest has been scooped out, leaving a deep dent.While the sunken breastbone is often noticeable shortly after birth, the severity of pectus excavatum typically worsens during the adolescent growth spurt.Also called funnel chest, pectus excavatum is more common in boys than in girls. Severe cases of pectus excavatum can eventually interfere with the function of the heart and lungs. But even mild cases of pectus excavatum can make children feel self-conscious about their appearance. Surgery can correct the deformity.

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Pediatric brain tumors are masses or growths of abnormal cells that occur in a child's brain or the tissue and structures that are near it. Many different types of pediatric brain tumors exist — some are noncancerous (benign) and some are cancerous (malignant).Treatment and chance of recovery (prognosis) depend on the type of tumor, its location within the brain, whether it has spread, and your child's age and general health. Because new treatments and technologies are continually being developed, several options may be available at different points in treatment.Treatment for brain tumors in children is typically quite different from treatment for adult brain tumors, so it's very important to enlist the expertise and experience of pediatric specialists in neurology and cancer.

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Penicillin allergy is an abnormal reaction of your immune system to the antibiotic drug penicillin. Penicillin is prescribed for treating various bacterial infections.


Common signs and symptoms of penicillin allergy include hives, rash and itching. Severe reactions include anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition that affects multiple body systems.


Research has shown that penicillin allergies may be over-reported — a problem that can result in the use of less appropriate and more expensive antibiotic treatments. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is needed when penicillin allergy is suspected to ensure the best treatment options in the future.


Other antibiotics, particularly those with chemical properties similar to penicillin, can also result in allergic reactions.

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An “ulcer” is an open sore. The word “peptic” means that the cause of the problem is due to acid. Most of the time when a gastroenterologist is referring to an “ulcer” the doctor means a peptic ulcer.The two most common types of peptic ulcer are called “gastric ulcers” and “duodenal ulcers”. These names refer to the location where the ulcer is found. Gastric ulcers are located in the stomach (see Figure 1). Duodenal ulcers are found at the beginning of the small intestine (also called the small bowel) known as the duodenum. A person may have both gastric and duodenal ulcers at the same time.

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Pericardial effusion (per-e-KAHR-dee-ul uh-FU-zhun) is the accumulation of too much fluid in the double-layered, sac-like structure around the heart (pericardium).The space between the layers normally contains a thin layer of fluid. But if the pericardium is diseased or injured, the resulting inflammation can lead to excess fluid. Fluid can also build up around the heart without inflammation, such as from bleeding after a chest trauma.Pericardial effusion puts pressure on the heart, affecting the heart's function. If untreated, it can lead to heart failure or death

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Pericarditis is swelling and irritation of the pericardium, the thin saclike membrane surrounding your heart. Pericarditis often causes chest pain and sometimes other symptoms. The sharp chest pain associated with pericarditis occurs when the irritated layers of the pericardium rub against each other.Pericarditis usually begins suddenly but doesn't last long (acute). When symptoms develop more gradually or persist, pericarditis is considered chronic.Most cases are mild and usually improve on their own. Treatment for more-severe cases may include medications and, rarely, surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment may help to reduce the risk of long-term complications from pericarditis.

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Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is the term used for a rare tumor that has grown in the adrenal glands. These tumors are usually benign, meaning they are not cancerous. Most cases involve only one adrenal gland, but it is possible for both to be involved.In rare cases, PCC can be cancerous. These malignant tumors will spread like other cancers and can cause serious complications.The condition causes the adrenal glands to pump out too much adrenaline and noradrenaline. These two hormones help keep the heart rate, blood pressure, and stress response in balance. They are also responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response.When the body contains too much of these compounds at one time, it goes into a reactive state as if it were in a constant state of high stress.PCC will always form on the inside of the adrenal glands. They are often grouped together with similar tumors called paragangliomas, which are tumors that grow on the outside of the glands. The tumors are different, but both alter the production of the adrenal glands


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A pilonidal (pie-low-NIE-dul) cyst is an abnormal pocket in the skin that usually contains hair and skin debris. A pilonidal cyst is almost always located near the tailbone at the top of the cleft of the buttocks.Pilonidal cysts usually occur when hair punctures the skin and then becomes embedded. If a pilonidal cyst becomes infected, the resulting abscess is often extremely painful. The cyst can be drained through a small incision or removed surgically.Pilonidal cysts most commonly occur in young men, and the problem has a tendency to recur. People who sit for prolonged periods of time, such as truck drivers, are at higher risk of developing a pilonidal cyst.

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A "pinched nerve" is the name given to the uncomfortable sensation, pain, or numbness caused when increased pressure leads to irritation or damage to a peripheral nerve (A peripheral nerve is one that is outside the brain and spinal cord.). Although this condition is often associated with back pain or a neck injury, almost any nerve is susceptible.

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Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines your eyelid and covers the white part of your eyeball. When small blood vessels in the conjunctiva become inflamed, they're more visible. This is what causes the whites of your eyes to appear reddish or pink.

Pink eye is commonly caused by a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction, or — in babies — an incompletely opened tear duct.Though pink eye can be irritating, it rarely affects your vision. Treatments can help ease the discomfort of pink eye. Because pink eye can be contagious, early diagnosis and treatment can help limit its spread.

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A pinworm infection is one of the most common types of human intestinal worm infections. Pinworms are tiny, narrow worms. They’re white in color and less than half an inch long. A pinworm infection, also known as enterobiasis or oxyuriasis, is the most common type of worm infection in humans in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Pinworm infections can spread easily. They’re most common in children between the ages of 5 and 10, people who live in institutions, and those who have regular, close contact with individuals in these groups. An effective treatment for pinworm infections is medication, though reinfection is possible. Serious complications and long-term health effects are rare.


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Placentaaccreta happens when the placenta attaches too firmly to the uterine wall. Normally the placenta attaches to the uterine wall during pregnancy but detaches easily during childbirth. When accreta occurs, the blood vessels andother tissue from the placenta grow more deeply into the tissue of the uterus,which can cause bleeding during the third trimester and possibly dangerous hemorrhaging (blood loss) during delivery. If the placenta penetrates even further into the uterine wall, reaching the muscle, it is called placenta increta. If it grows all the way through the uterine wall, it is called placenta percreta.


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If you have placenta previa, it means that your placenta is lying unusually low in your uterus, next to or covering your cervix. The placenta is the pancake-shaped organ – normally located near the top of the uterus – that supplies your baby with nutrients through the umbilical cord.If you're found to have placenta previa early in pregnancy, it's not usually considered a problem. But if the placenta is still close to the cervix later in pregnancy, it can cause bleeding, which can lead to other complications and may mean that you'll need to deliver early. If you have placenta previa when it's time to deliver your baby, you'll need to have a cesarean section.


If the placenta covers the cervix completely, it's called a complete or total previa. If it's right on the border of the cervix, it's called a marginal previa. (You may also hear the term "partial previa," which refers to a placenta that covers part of the cervical opening once the cervix starts to dilate.) If the edge of the placenta is within two centimeters of the cervix but not bordering it, it's called a low-lying placenta.The location of your placenta will be checked during your mid-pregnancy ultrasound exam (usually done between 16 to 20 weeks) and again later if necessary.


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A placental abruption is a serious condition in which the placenta partially or completely separates from your uterus before your baby's born.The condition can deprive your baby of oxygen and nutrients, and cause severe bleeding that can be dangerous to you both. A placental abruption also increases the risk that your baby will have growth problems (if the abruption is small and goes unnoticed), be born prematurely, or be stillborn.Placental abruption happens in about one in 150 pregnancies. It's most common in the third trimester but can happen any time after 20 weeks.


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Polycythemia vera (pol-e-sy-THEE-me-uh VEER-uh) is a slow-growing blood cancer in which your bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. These excess cells thicken your blood, slowing its flow. They also cause complications, such as blood clots, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.


Polycythemia vera isn't common. It usually develops slowly, and you might have it for years without knowing. Often the condition is found during a blood test done for another reason.


Without treatment, polycythemia vera can be life-threatening. But proper medical care can help ease signs, symptoms and complications of this disease. Over time, in some cases there's a risk of progressing to more-serious blood cancers, such as myelofibrosis or acute leukemia.

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Polymyalgia rheumatica (sometimes referred to as PMR) is a common cause of widespread aching and stiffness that affects adults over the age of 50, especially Caucasians. Because polymyalgia rheumatica does not often cause swollen joints, it may be hard to recognize. It may occur with another health problem, giant cell arteritis.


The average age when symptoms start is 70, so people who have PMR may be in their 80s or even older. The disease affects women somewhat more often than men. It is more frequent in whites than nonwhites, but all races can get PMR.

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Poor or deficient color vision is an inability to see the difference between certain colors, but color is still seen. Many people commonly use the term "colorblind" for this condition. But true colorblindness — in which everything is seen in shades of black and white — is rare.


Poor color vision is usually inherited. Men are more likely to be born with poor color vision. Most people with poor color vision can't distinguish between certain shades of red and green. Less commonly, people with poor color vision can't distinguish between shades of blue and yellow.


Certain eye diseases and some medications also can cause poor color vision.


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Postherpetic neuralgia (also termed PHN) is a condition of recurring or persistent pain in an area of the body that has undergone an outbreak of herpes zoster virus (HZ), also known as the varicella zoster virus, commonly termed shingles. It usually begins after shingles lesions (blisters) begin to crust over and heal but may occur in some patients who do not produce lesions. Some investigators suggest the pain has to be present for three months to be termed PHN.


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Postpartum preeclampsia is a rare condition that can develop soon after birth (usually within the first 48 to 72 hours after delivery) and is marked by high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine. In rare cases, preeclampsia onset can be delayed up to about one month postpartum; it is usually called late postpartum preeclampsia if the onset is more than 48 hours postpartum. "It takes time for the uterus to shed its lining after birth, so this process may be behind the delay that's sometimes seen in late onset preeclampsia after delivery," says James N. Martin, M.D., past president of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. It's also possible this condition begins during pregnancy but doesn't show signs or symptoms until after the baby has arrived.


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Detoxification is one of the more widely used treatments and concepts in alternative medicine. It is based on the principle that illnesses can be caused by the accumulation of toxic substances (toxins) in the body. Eliminating existing toxins and avoiding new toxins are essential parts of the healing process. Detoxification utilizes a variety of tests and techniques.

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After a patient has had a total proctocolectomy (removal by surgery of the large intestine and rectum), a procedure called ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is performed. In an IPAA, the ileum, or lowest part of the small intestine, is connected to the anus to create a structure (pouch) that can store and eliminate stools.


The surgeon creates a J-pouch (which resembles the letter J) to provide for the storage area. Other pouch shapes (S and K) are also possible. The pouch helps improve the patient’s quality of life and reduces the risk of growths that could develop into cancer. However, after this surgery, some patients may get pouchitis.


Pouchitis is an inflammation (swelling) of the pouch that occurs when the pouch becomes irritated and inflamed. The inflammation can cause increased bowel frequency (having to go to the bathroom more often), abdominal cramping or bloating, lower abdominal pain, or sometimes blood in the stool. This condition should be evaluated and managed by an experienced gastroenterologist.

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Precocious puberty is when a child's body begins changing into that of an adult (puberty) too soon. Puberty that begins before age 8 in girls and before age 9 in boys is considered precocious puberty.


Puberty includes rapid growth of bones and muscles, changes in body shape and size, and development of the body's ability to reproduce.


The cause of precocious puberty often can't be found. Rarely, certain conditions, such as infections, hormone disorders, tumors, brain abnormalities or injuries, may cause precocious puberty. Treatment for precocious puberty typically includes medication to delay further development.

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Premature ejaculation is uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration. It happens with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes. It may result in unsatisfactory sex for both partners. This can increase the anxiety that may add to the problem. It is one of the most common forms of male sexual dysfunction. It has probably affected every man at some point in his life.


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Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants.


Every medicine has some risk of side effects. Doctors take this into account when prescribing medicines. People who abuse these drugs may not understand the risks. The medicines may not be safe for them, especially at higher doses or when taken with other medicines.

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Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child. It does not progress at the same rate and each stage is affected by the preceding developmental experiences. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation,[1] or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment.


There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending. Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (ages 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6 years); school-aged child (ages 6–12 years); adolescent (ages 13–18).[2]


Promoting child development through parental training, among other factors, promotes excellent rates of child development.[3] Parents play a large role in a child's life, socialization, and development. Having multiple parents can add stability to the child's life and therefore encourage healthy development.[4] Another influential factor in a child's development is the quality of their care. Child care programs present a critical opportunity for the promotion of child development.


The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. There are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child developmen

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When your child has a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD), his body has a harder time fighting germs that make people sick. He may get a lot of infections in his ears, lungs, skin, or other areas that take a long time to go away.

Most cases happen in babies or young children, but sometimes it doesn't show up until adulthood. There are many different types -- more than 200 -- and they affect different parts of the immune system. All make it more likely that he'll get sick from infections.

Everyone with a PIDD has a different experience. If your child has it, in most cases he'll be able to go to school and make friends like other kids. As an adult with a PIDD, he'll be able to work and have an active, normal life.

If your child's PIDD is mild, he may need to take medicines to treat the infections he gets.

Doctors treat some of the more serious types of PIDD with doses of antibodies to fight infections. He'll get these antibodies through an IV in his veins. The treatment takes several hours, and he'll need one every few weeks.

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Proctitis is an inflammation of the lining of the rectum. The rectum is a muscular tube that's connected to the end of your colon. Stool passes through the rectum on its way out of the body.

Proctitis can cause rectal pain and the continuous sensation that you need to have a bowel movement. Proctitis symptoms can be short-lived, or they can become chronic.

Proctitis is common in people who have inflammatory bowel diseases. Sexually transmitted infections are another frequent cause. Proctitis also can be a side effect of radiation therapy for certain cancers.

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A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (called an adenoma) of the pituitary gland. A prolactinoma produces an excessive amount of the hormone prolactin. Prolactin is a natural hormone which supports a woman's normal lactation, which is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands of the breast. Prolactinomas are the most common type of pituitary tumor. Symptoms of prolactinoma are caused by pressure of the tumor on surrounding tissues or by excessive release of prolactin from the tumor into the blood (causing a condition known as hyperprolactinemia).

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Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a condition that’s characterized by episodes of sudden uncontrollable and inappropriate laughing or crying. Pseudobulbar affect typically occurs in people with certain neurological conditions or injuries, which might affect the way the brain controls emotion.

If you have pseudobulbar affect you'll experience emotions normally, but you'll sometimes express them in an exaggerated or inappropriate way. As a result, the condition can be embarrassing and disruptive to your daily life.

Pseudobulbar affect often goes undiagnosed or is mistaken for mood disorders. Once diagnosed, however, pseudobulbar affect can be managed with medication.

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Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is inflammation in your colon that happens when there's too much of certain bacteria in your system. The most common bacterium that causes PMC isClostridium difficile, or C. diff.

PMC is also called antibiotic-associated colitis or C. difficilecolitis. Most of the time, it's a side effect of taking antibiotics.

People in hospitals or nursing homes also can get PMC, especially if they've just had surgery or are receiving treatment for cancer.

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Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition in which the pressure around your brain increases, causing headaches and vision problems. The name means “false brain tumor” because its symptoms are similar to those caused by brain tumors. It’s also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This condition is treatable, but it can return in some cases.

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Pyloric stenosis is an uncommon condition in infants that blocks food from entering the small intestine.Normally, a muscular valve (pylorus) between the stomach and small intestine holds food in the stomach until it is ready for the next stage in the digestive process. In pyloric stenosis, the pylorus muscles thicken and become abnormally large, blocking food from reaching the small intestine.Pyloric stenosis can lead to forceful vomiting, dehydration and weight loss. Babies with pyloric stenosis may seem to be hungry all the time.


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Radiation sickness is damage to your body caused by a large dose of radiation often received over a short period of time (acute). The amount of radiation absorbed by the body — the absorbed dose — determines how sick you'll be.Radiation sickness is also called acute radiation sickness, acute radiation syndrome or radiation poisoning. Common exposures to low-dose radiation, such as X-ray or CT examinations, don't cause radiation sickness.Although radiation sickness is serious and often fatal, it's rare. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, during World War II, most cases of radiation sickness have occurred after nuclear industrial accidents, such as the 1986 fire that damaged the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, Ukraine.


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When the occasional headache strikes, most of us take an over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, or a pain-relief medication containing caffeine. While OTC analgesics can help relieve headache pain they must be taken correctly — or they could actually make your headaches worse. The overuse or misuse of analgesic drugs — exceeding labeling instructions (such as taking the medications three or more days per week) or not following your healthcare provider’s advice — can cause you to "rebound" into another headache. When the pain reliever wears off, you may experience a withdrawal reaction, prompting you to take more medication. This only leads to another headache and the desire to take yet more medication. So the cycle continues until you start to suffer from chronic daily headaches, with more frequent headaches and more severe pain.

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The rectum is the last several inches of the large intestine. It starts at the end of the final segment of your colon and ends when it reaches the short, narrow passage leading to the anus.Cancer inside the rectum (rectal cancer) and cancer inside the colon (colon cancer) are often referred to together as "colorectal cancer."While rectal and colon cancers are similar in many ways, their treatments are quite different. This is mainly because the rectum sits in a tight space, barely separated from other organs and structures in the pelvic cavity. As a result, complete surgical removal of rectal cancer is challenging and highly complex. Additional treatment is often needed before or after surgery — or both — to reduce the chance that the cancer will return.In the past, long-term survival was uncommon for people with rectal cancer, even after extensive treatment. Thanks to treatment advances over the past 30 years, rectal cancer can now, in many cases, be cured.


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This patient education piece is designed to help improve patients’ understanding regarding rectal prolapse, specifically its presentation, evaluation and treatment. This information may also be useful to the friends, families, and caregivers of patients dealing with rectal prolapse. Treatment of this condition may often require surgery, and this patient education material is intended for patients with rectal prolapse who are considering or have been recommended surgery. It will address why surgery may have been recommended, what the various treatment options are, what it involves and how it may help patients.


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A rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is an epithelial-lined tract between the rectum and vagina. For thousands of years, women simply tolerated the distressing symptoms generated by RVFs. Today, there is no need for such tolerance, because most RVFs can be surgically corrected via a number of approaches. [1] A small percentage, however, cannot be corrected, because of patient comorbidity or disease-related factors; in these cases, patients can be helped only by fecal diversion. [2]  This article discusses only acquired RVFs. Most RVFs are located at or just above the dentate line. Fistulas below the dentate line are not true RVFs but, rather, anovaginal fistulas; the treatment required for these differs from that required for RVFs.

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A retractile testicle is a testicle that may move back and forth between the scrotum and the groin. When the retractile testicle is residing in the groin, it might be easily guided by hand into its proper position in the scrotum — the bag of skin hanging behind the penis — during a physical exam.For most boys, the problem of a retractile testicle goes away sometime before or during puberty. The testicle moves to its correct location in the scrotum and stays there permanently.In fewer than 5 percent of cases, the retractile testicle remains in the groin and is no longer movable. When this happens, the condition is called an ascending testicle or an acquired undescended testicle.


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Ejaculation is the ejection of semen out of the urethra (passageway inside the penis) when a man has an orgasm. Under normal circumstances, ejaculation propels semen forward through a man's urethra and out the tip of his penis. This is because a tiny sphincter (circular muscle) at the entrance to the bladder shuts the opening to the bladder and prevents semen from entering. Retrograde ejaculation is when the semen travels backwards into the bladder.


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Sarcomas are cancers that develop from connective tissues in the body, such as muscles, fat, bones, the linings of joints, or blood vessels. There are many types of sarcomas. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a cancer made up of cells that normally develop into skeletal muscles. The body has 3 main types of muscles.


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Rheumatic fever is one of the complications associated with strep throat. It’s a relatively serious illness that can cause stroke, permanent damage to your heart, and death if it’s left untreated. The condition usually appears in children between the ages of 5 and 15, even though older children and adults have been known to contract the fever as well. It’s still common in places like sub-Saharan Africa, south central Asia, and certain populations in Australia and New Zealand.


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Ringworm is a common skin disorder otherwise known as “tinea” or “dermatophytosis.” It is caused by a fungus that can live on skin, surfaces like locker room floors, and household items like towels, bedding, and clothes. While there are multiple forms of ringworm, the most common forms affect:


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The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, keeping the head of your upper arm bone firmly within the shallow socket of the shoulder. A rotator cuff injury can cause a dull ache in the shoulder, which often worsens when you try to sleep on the involved side.Rotator cuff injuries occur most often in people who repeatedly perform overhead motions in their jobs or sports. Examples include painters, carpenters, and people who play baseball or tennis. The risk of rotator cuff injury also increases with age.Many people recover from rotator cuff disease with physical therapy exercises that improve flexibility and strength of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint.Sometimes, rotator cuff tears may occur as a result of a single injury. In those circumstances, medical care should be provided as soon as possible. Extensive rotator cuff tears may require surgical repair, transfer of alternative tendons or joint replacement


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A sacral dimple is a small, usually shallow indentation in the small of the back, just above or within the crease of the buttocks.


About 3 to 8 percent of the population has a sacral dimple. A very small percentage of people with a sacral dimple can have spinal abnormalities.


In most cases, a sacral dimple causes no problems and isn’t associated with any health risks.

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Sacroiliitis (say-kroe-il-e-I-tis) is an inflammation of one or both of your sacroiliac joints — situated where your lower spine and pelvis connect. Sacroiliitis can cause pain in your buttocks or lower back, and can extend down one or both legs. Prolonged standing or stair climbing can worsen the pain.


Sacroiliitis can be difficult to diagnose, because it can be mistaken for other causes of low back pain. It's been linked to a group of diseases that cause inflammatory arthritis of the spine. Treatment might involve physical therapy and medications.

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Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food.


Typically, people with salmonella infection have no symptoms. Others develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within eight to 72 hours. Most healthy people recover within a few days without specific treatment.


In some cases, the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection can be so dehydrating as to require prompt medical attention. Life-threatening complications also may develop if the infection spreads beyond your intestines. Your risk of acquiring salmonella infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

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Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs in the body, but mostly the lungs and lymph glands. In people with sarcoidosis, abnormal masses or nodules (called granulomas) consisting of inflamed tissues form in certain organs of the body. These granulomas may alter the normal structure and possibly the function of the affected organ(s).

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Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria. This illness usually occurs in a few people (about 10%) who have strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis) and occasionally streptococcal skin infections or even wound infections. Scarlet fever is also known as scarlatina in the older articles; group A Streptococcus (for example, Streptococcus pyogenes) is often shortened to read as "group A strep" or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS). Scarlet fever is mainly known for its sunburned-skin-colored sandpaper-like skin rash that is associated with fever.


Outbreaks occur. England reported a 50-year high number of individuals diagnosed with the disease (over 19,206) in 2016

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Schizoaffective disorder is a mental illness that involves persistent psychotic symptoms, like hallucinations or delusions, occurring together with mood problems of depressive, manic, or mixed episodes. The term schizoaffective was first used in 1933 by Jacob Kasanin and has been included in every edition of the mental health diagnostic manual, called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), since 1952. Statistics on how often this condition occurs range from 0.32% in the general United States population up to as much as 9% of psychiatrically hospitalized people. Schizoaffective disorder is thought to occur at least as often as schizophrenia and less often than 

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Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid social activities and consistently shy away from interaction with others. They also have a limited range of emotional expression.


If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may be seen as a loner or dismissive of others, and you may lack the desire or skill to form close personal relationships. Because you don't tend to show emotion, you may appear as though you don't care about others or what's going on around you.


The cause of schizoid personality disorder is unknown. Talk therapy, and in some cases medications, can help.

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People with schizotypal personality disorder are often described as odd or eccentric and usually have few, if any, close relationships. They generally don't understand how relationships form or the impact of their behavior on others. They may also misinterpret others' motivations and behaviors and develop significant distrust of others.


These problems may lead to severe anxiety and a tendency to turn inward in social situations, as the person with schizotypal personality disorder responds inappropriately to social cues and holds peculiar beliefs.


Schizotypal personality disorder typically is diagnosed in early adulthood and is likely to endure, though treatment, such as medications and therapy, can improve symptoms.

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A schwannoma is a type of nerve tumor of the nerve sheath. It's the most common type of benign peripheral nerve tumor in adults. It can occur anywhere in your body, at any age.


A schwannoma typically comes from a single bundle (fascicle) within the main nerve and displaces the rest of the nerve. When a schwannoma grows larger, more fascicles are affected, making removal more difficult. In general, a schwannoma grows slowly.


If you develop a schwannoma in an arm or leg, you may notice a painless lump. Schwannomas are rarely cancerous, but they can lead to nerve damage and loss of muscle control. See your doctor if you have any unusual lumps or numbness.

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Sclerosing mesenteritis, also called mesenteric panniculitis, occurs when the tissue (mesentery) that holds the small intestines in place becomes inflamed and forms scar tissue. Sclerosing mesenteritis is rare, and it's not clear what causes it.


Sclerosing mesenteritis can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea and fever. But some people experience no signs and symptoms and may never need treatment.


In rare cases, scar tissue formed by sclerosing mesenteritis can block food from moving through your digestive tract. In this case, you may need surgery.

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Scoliosis is a disorder that causes an abnormal curve of the spine, or backbone. The spine has normal curves when looking from the side, but it should appear straight when looking from the front. Kyphosis is a curve in the spine seen from the side in which the spine is bent forward. There is a normal kyphosis in the middle (thoracic) spine. Lordosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent backward. There is a normal lordosis in the upper (cervical) spine and the lower (lumbar) spine. People with scoliosis develop additional curves to either side of the body, and the bones of the spine twist on each other, forming a "C" or an "S" shape in the spine.


Scoliosis is about two times more common in girls than boys. It can be seen at any age, but it is most common in those over about 10 years of age. Scoliosis is hereditary in that people with scoliosis are more likely to have children with scoliosis; however, there is no correlation between the severity of the curves from one generation to the next.

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Scorpions use their sting to capture prey and to defend themselves. They hunt at night and will not sting unless provoked or they feel threatened. All scorpions use their stings as a defense mechanism or a weapon to incapacitate prey. But the potency to humans of stings varies, depending on the scorpion species. One thing that all scorpions have in common is that the sting possesses venom, which usually is neurotoxic in nature.






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The scrotum contains the male testes, the two male sex organs that produce and store semen as well as the hormone testosterone. A scrotal mass is a lump or bulge that can be felt in the scrotum, and may result from a variety of factors There are several kinds of scrotal masses:


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Sebaceous glands are part of epidermal appendages. Neoplasms of the sebaceous glands may be benign, such as sebaceous hyperplasia or sebaceous gland adenomas. The malignant sebaceous gland carcinoma most commonly arises in the periocular area. Fewer than 120 cases of sebaceous cell carcinoma have been reported at extraocular sites. The most common site of origin is the meibomian glands of the eyelids, leading to the term meibomian gland carcinoma. However, this neoplasm can occur in other sebaceous glands, such as in the caruncle, the glands of Zeis, and in the eyebrow. Sebaceous cell carcinoma is a lethal eyelid malignancy and can masquerade as benign conditions. Error or delay in diagnosis is common, and this tumor carries a significant mortality rate with metastasis.


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Seborrheic (seb-o-REE-ik) dermatitis is a common skin condition that mainly affects your scalp. It causes scaly patches, red skin and stubborn dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis can also affect oily areas of the body, such as the face, sides of the nose, eyebrows, ears, eyelids and chest. Seborrheic dermatitis may go away without treatment. Or you may need many repeated treatments before the symptoms go away. And they may return later. Daily cleansing with a gentle soap and shampoo can help reduce oiliness and dead skin buildup.Seborrheic dermatitis is also called dandruff, seborrheic eczema and seborrheic psoriasis. For infants, the condition is known as cradle cap and causes crusty, scaly patches on the scalp.


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Seborrheic keratosis (seb-o-REE-ik ker-uh-TOE-sis) is one of the most common noncancerous skin growths in older adults.A seborrheic keratosis usually appears as a brown, black or light tan growth on the face, chest, shoulders or back. The growth has a waxy, scaly, slightly elevated appearance. Seborrheic keratoses don't become cancerous and aren't thought to be related to sun exposure, but they can look like skin cancer. Seborrheic keratoses are normally painless and require no treatment. You may decide to have them removed if they become irritated by clothing or for cosmetic reasons.

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The best way to understand the way that skin discoloration occurs is to understand how the skin gets and maintains its color. The epidermis, the outer layer of your skin, contains a bunch of cells called melanocytes. These cells have many functions, but one of their main jobs is to protect the skin. When it comes to protecting the skin from the sun, the melanocytes do so by darkening it with a pigment called melanin.


Melanin is responsible for making the skin look darker when you are exposed to the sun, but the body, for some reason, will either stop producing melanin in specific areas of the skin, or put its production into overdrive. Sometimes the skin discoloration can affect the entire body, a specific part of the body, or it can occur in just a few random places on the skin

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Selective IgA deficiency is one of the most common types of PI. These individuals lack IgA, but usually have normal amounts of other immunoglobulins (antibodies). Many people go undiagnosed because they are never sick enough to be seen by a doctor, while others may develop a variety of severe problems.


Selective IgA Deficiency

IgA protects the body at surfaces that come in contact with the environment. These sites are the mucosal surfaces—mouth, ears, sinuses, nose, throat, airways within the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and genitals.


IgA antibodies are transported in secretions to these mucosal surfaces and play a role in protecting them from infection, which is why IgA is known as a secretory antibody. Because the area of a person's mucosal surfaces is equal to 1.5 tennis courts, the importance of IgA in protecting these surfaces cannot be overstated.


Although people with selective IgA deficiency do not produce IgA, they do produce all the other immunoglobulins. In addition, the other aspects of their immune systems function properly.


The causes of selective IgA deficiency remain unknown. It is likely there are a variety of causes that vary from person to person.


Low serum IgA, like absent serum IgA, is relatively common. Most people with low serum IgA have no apparent illness; others have symptoms similar to 


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Nonsuicidal self-injury, often simply called self-injury, is the act of deliberately harming the surface of your own body, such as cutting or burning yourself. It's typically not meant as a suicide attempt. Rather, this type of self-injury is an unhealthy way to cope with emotional pain, intense anger and frustration. While self-injury may bring a momentary sense of calm and a release of tension, it's usually followed by guilt and shame and the return of painful emotions. Although life-threatening injuries are usually not intended, with self-injury comes the possibility of more serious and even fatal self-aggressive actions.


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Septic arthritis is also known as infectious arthritis, and is usually caused by bacteria. It can also be caused by a virus or fungus. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that's caused by infection. Typically, septic arthritis affects one large joint in the body, such as the knee or hip. Less frequently, septic arthritis can affect multiple joints.



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Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head and neck that builds up as sexual excitement increases. Or, more commonly, you may experience a sudden, severe headache just before or during orgasm.


Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some can be a sign of something serious, such as problems with the blood vessels that feed your brain.


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Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella (shih-GEHL-uh). Most who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5 to 7 days. Some people who are infected may have no symptoms at all, but may still pass the Shigella bacteria to others. The spread of Shigella can be stopped by frequent and careful handwashing with soap and taking other hygiene measures.


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The colon is a long tube-like structure approximately 6 feet in length that stores and then eliminates waste material left over after digestion of food in the small intestine takes place. It is thought that pressure within the colon causes bulging pockets of tissue (sacs) that push out from the colonic walls as a person ages. A small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall is called a diverticulum. More than one bulging sac is referred to in the plural as diverticula. Diverticula can occur throughout the colon but are most common near the end of the left colon, referred to as the sigmoid colon, in Western countries. In Asia, the diverticula occur mostly on the right side of the colon. The condition of having these diverticula in the colon is called diverticulosis.


Diverticula are common in the Western world but are rare in areas such as Asia and Africa. Diverticula increase with age. They are uncommon before the age of 40, but are seen in more than 74% of people over the age of 80 years in the U.S. A person with diverticulosis usually has few or no symptoms. The most common symptoms associated with diverticulosis are abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. In some of these patients the symptoms may be due to the concomitant presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or abnormalities in the function of the muscles of the sigmoid colon (in which case it is referred to as diverticular disease); simple diverticula should cause no symptoms. Occasionally, bleeding originates from a diverticulum, and it is referred to as diverticular bleeding.

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The sinus node is a specialized group of cells in the upper chamber of the heart, the right atrium, that creates electrical signals that regulate the pace and rhythm of the heartbeat. Normally, the sinus node produces a regular, steady pattern of signals. With SSS, the pattern is irregular. The normal heart beat should increase with activity and decrease with rest and sleep.  With SSS, this function is disrupted, with a heart beat that is too slow for the patient's level of activity.


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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia — a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. Normally, your red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through your blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells become rigid and sticky and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body. There's no cure for most people with sickle cell anemia. But treatments can relieve pain and help prevent problems associated with the disease.

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Your sinuses are air-filled spaces inside your forehead, cheekbones, and behind the bridge of your nose. When they get inflamed -- usually because of an allergic reaction or an infection -- they swell, make more mucus, and the channels that drain them can get blocked. The build-up of pressure in your sinuses causes pain that feels like a headache.


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Central sleep apnea is a disorder in which your breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.Central sleep apnea occurs because your brain doesn't send proper signals to the muscles that control your breathing. This condition is different from obstructive sleep apnea, in which you can't breathe normally because of upper airway obstruction. Central sleep apnea is less common than obstructive sleep apnea. Central sleep apnea may occur as a result of other conditions, such as heart failure and stroke. Sleeping at a high altitude also may cause central sleep apnea. Treatments for central sleep apnea may involve treating existing conditions, using a device to assist breathing or using supplemental oxygen.


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Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder. It causes breathing to repeatedly stop and start during sleep.There are several types of sleep apnea, but the most common is obstructive sleep apnea. This type of apnea occurs when your throat muscles intermittently relax and block your airway during sleep. A noticeable sign of obstructive sleep apnea is snoring. Treatments for obstructive sleep apnea are available. One treatment involves using a device that keep your airway open while you sleep. Another option is a mouthpiece to thrust your jaw forward during sleep. In more severe cases, surgery may be an option too


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The small bowel makes up most of the digestive tract. Cancers of the small bowel are rare. Cancers that have spread to the small bowel from another part of the body, are called secondary cancers. Look at the information about where the cancer started (the primary cancer) because the treatment is the same. 


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It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on a date or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause significant anxiety, fear, self-consciousness and embarrassment because you fear being scrutinized or judged by others In social anxiety disorder, fear and anxiety lead to avoidance that can disrupt your life. Severe stress can affect your daily routine, work, school or other activities.Social anxiety disorder is a chronic mental health condition, but learning coping skills in psychotherapy and taking medications can help you gain confidence and improve your ability to interact with others




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The palate is commonly called the roof of the mouth. It is divided into two parts: the bony hard palate in the front, and the fleshy soft palate (called the velum) in the back of the mouth. The hard palate is part of the oral cavity and the soft palate is part of the oropharynx.The hard palate creates a barrier between the mouth and the nasal cavity. A natural opening in the palate for nerves and blood vessels (near the third molar) can create a passageway for a tumor to spread into the nasal cavity.The soft palate closes the nasal passage during swallowing so food does not enter the nose. It also helps create speech sounds. If the palate does not function correctly during speech, air escapes through the nose, and the speech has a nasal sound. During a sneeze, the soft palate closes the nasal passage to protect it. Substances in the sneeze are thrown out into mouth.


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Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of cancers that grow in parts of your body like your muscles, deep layers of skin, or in fat. They also can form on blood vessels, nerves, or connective tissues, which support organs and other kinds of tissues.Soft tissue sarcomas account for less than 1% of all cases of cancer. But there are dozens of different types, and they can happen in children and adults.About 12,000 people are diagnosed with one of these cancers every year.

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Concern or fear about certain situations, activities, animals or objects is not uncommon. Many people feel anxious when faced with a snake or spider, heights, or travelling by plane. Fear is a rational response to situations that can pose a threat to our safety.However, some people react to objects, activities or situations (the phobic stimulus) by imagining or irrationally exaggerating the danger. Their feelings of panic, fear or terror are completely out of proportion to the actual threat. Sometimes the mere thought of the phobic stimulus, or the sight of it on TV, is enough to cause a reaction. These types of excessive reactions may be indicative of a specific phobia.People with specific phobias are often well aware that their fears are exaggerated or irrational, but feel that their anxious reaction is automatic or uncontrollable. Specific phobias are often associated with panic attacks, during which the person experiences overwhelming physical sensations that may include a pounding heart, choking, nausea, faintness, dizziness, chest pain, hot or cold flushes and perspiration.

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A spermatocele is an often pain-free benign cyst that occurs close to a testicle. It may also be known as a spermatic or epididymal cyst.The cyst forms in the epididymis. The epididymis is a coiled tube behind each testicle. The cyst is filled with fluid and may contain dead sperm. Read on to learn more about identifying and treating this condition

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A fold of fat that some people have under their chin and that looks like a second chin

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A spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord. It’s an extremely serious type of physical trauma that’s likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life.The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves and other tissue that the vertebrae of the spine contains and protects. The vertebrae are the bones stacked on top of each other that make up the spine. The spine contains many nerves, and extends from the brain’s base down the back, ending close to the buttocks.The spinal cord is responsible for sending messages from the brain to all parts of the body. It also sends messages from the body to the brain. We’re able to perceive pain and move our limbs because of messages sent through the spinal cord.If the spinal cord sustains an injury, some or all of these impulses may not be able to “get through.” The result is a complete or total loss of sensation and mobility below the injury. A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout a larger part of the body than one in the lower back area.

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A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your spinal canal or within the bones of your spine. A spinal cord tumor, also called an intradural tumor, is a spinal tumor that that begins within the spinal cord or the covering of the spinal cord (dura). A tumor that affects the bones of the spine (vertebrae) is called a vertebral tumor.Spinal cord tumors may be classified as one of three different types depending on where they occur relative to the protective membranes of the spinal cord.

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A spinal headache, also known as a postdural puncture headache, is a complication of needle insertion into the subarachnoid space through the dural sac. The dural sac encases the spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid.This is a pressurized system that extends from the intracranial cavity down to the sacrum. Fluctuation in pressure can result in headache. This commonly occurs after diagnostic lumbar puncture. It is a less common complication of spinal anesthesia and spinal interventional pain injections.

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Staphylococcus bacteria (also termed staph) are responsible for a number of common infections. Staphylococcus is a genus of bacteria that is characterized by a round shape (coccus or spheroid shaped), Gram-stain positive, and found as either single cells, in pairs, or more frequently, in clusters that resemble a bunch of grapes. The genus name Staphylococcus is derived from Greek terms (staphyle and kokkos) that mean "a bunch of grapes," which is how the bacteria often appear microscopically after Gram-staining. In 1884, Rosenbach first described and named the bacteria. Two major divisions of the genus Staphylococcus are separated by the ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that can clot blood. Most, but not all, human bacterial infections are caused by coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Staphylococcus epidermidis strains and other Staphylococcus species that are coagulase-negative produce slime that interferes with immune defenses. S. epidermidis are often associated with implanted devices (for example, catheters or prosthetic devices).

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Stickler syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes that are responsible for forming collagen, proteins which add strength and elasticity to connective tissue. Stickler syndrome affects connective tissue throughout the body, but most notably in the eyes (it is the most common cause of retinal detachment in children), ears, face, and joints.Stickler syndrome affects 1 out of every 7,500 people, but experts believe that it is widely under-diagnosed. While there is no medical cure for Stickler syndrome, when it is identified early, there is a lot that people can do to treat the problems it causes.

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Stomach cancer usually begins in the mucus-producing cells that line the stomach. This type of cancer is called adenocarcinoma.For the past several decades, rates of cancer in the main part of the stomach (stomach body) have been falling worldwide. During the same period, cancer in the area where the top part of the stomach (cardia) meets the lower end of the swallowing tube (esophagus) has become much more common. This area of the stomach is called the gastroesophageal junction.

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Stomach polyps — also called gastric polyps — are masses of cells that form on the lining inside your stomach. These polyps are rare and usually don't cause any signs or symptoms. Stomach polyps are most often discovered when your doctor is examining you for some other reason.Most stomach polyps don't become cancerous. But certain types can increase your risk of stomach cancer in the future. Depending on the type of stomach polyp you have, treatment might involve removing the polyp or monitoring it for changes.

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Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of a bone that's weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis.Stress fractures are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. Track and field athletes and military recruits who carry heavy packs over long distances are particularly susceptible, but anyone can have a stress fracture. If you start a new exercise program, for example, you might develop stress fractures if you do too much too soon.

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Stress incontinence is the inability to control your urge to urinate in certain circumstances. It’s a serious and embarrassing disorder and can lead to social isolation. Any pressure placed on the abdomen and bladder can lead to the loss of urine.It’s important to remember that the term “stress” is used in a strictly physical sense when describing stress incontinence. It refers to excessive pressure on the bladder and not emotional stress.An overactive bladder is a separate condition. In some cases, both overactive bladder and stress incontinence can occur, which is called mixed incontinence. Your doctor can do tests to determine which is causing your incontinence

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The subarachnoid space is the area between the brain and the skull. It is normally filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which acts as a floating cushion to protect the brain (see Anatomy of the Brain When blood is released into the subarachnoid space, it irritates the lining of the brain, increases pressure on the brain, and damages brain cells. At the same time, the area of brain that previously received oxygen-rich blood from the affected artery is now deprived of blood, resulting in a stroke. SAH is frequently a sign of a ruptured aneurysm


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Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs when the heart stops beating, abruptly and without warning. If this happens, blood stops flowing to the brain and other vital organs. In addition, if the heartbeat is not restored with an electrical shock immediately, death follows within minutes. SCA accounts for more than 350,000 deaths in the U.S. each year.SCA accounts for more than 350,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is one of the leading causes of death in the United States each year. In fact, SCA claims one life every 90 seconds, taking more lives each year than breast cancer, lung cancer or AIDS. Unfortunately, 95 percent of people who experience SCA die as a result, mainly because treatment within minutes is not accessible.

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An arrhythmia is an abnormality in the timing or pattern of the heartbeat. Arrhythmias may cause the heart to beat too rapidly, too slowly, or irregularly. They are common and may cause a wide variety of symptoms, such as a racing, skipping or fluttering sensation (called palpitations) in your chest.Cardiac arrhythmias also may cause light-headedness, fainting, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue or no symptoms at all. Many types of arrhythmia are merely nuisances, other types may be serious problems because they cause the patient to develop heart failure, pass out or even die suddenly when the heart beats too slowly or too rapidly to pump blood to the body.Supraventricular tachycardia is a series of rapid heartbeats that begin in or involve the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. SVT can cause the heart to beat very rapidly or erratically. As a result, the heart may beat inefficiently, and the body may receive an inadequate blood supply. There are three major types of SVT including:

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Tachycardia is a common type of heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) in which the heart beats faster than normal while at rest.It's normal for your heart rate to rise during exercise or as a physiological response to stress, trauma or illness (sinus tachycardia). But in tachycardia (tak-ih-KAHR-dee-uh), the heart beats faster than normal in the upper or lower chambers of the heart or both while at rest.Your heart rate is controlled by electrical signals sent across heart tissues. Tachycardia occurs when an abnormality in the heart produces rapid electrical signals that quicken the heart rate, which is normally about 60 to 100 beats a minute at rest.In some cases, tachycardia may cause no symptoms or complications. But if left untreated, tachycardia can disrupt normal heart function and lead to serious complications, including:


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Drug addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the drug addict and those around them. Drug addiction is a brain disease because the abuse of drugs leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain. Although it is true that for most people the initial decision to take drugs is voluntary, over time the changes in the brain caused by repeated drug abuse can impair a person's self-control and ability to make sound decisions, and at the same time create an intense impulse to take drugs.


It is because of these changes in the brain that it is so challenging for a person to stop abusing drugs. Fortunately, there are treatments that help people to counteract addiction's powerful disruptive effects and regain control of their lives. Research shows that combining addiction treatment medications, when appropriate, with behavioral therapy is the best way to ensure success for most patients. Treatment approaches that are tailored to each patient's drug abuse patterns and any concurrent medical, psychiatric, and social problems can help achieve  sustained recovery and a life without drugs.


As with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, drug addiction can be managed effectively. Yet, it is not uncommon for a person to relapse and begin abusing drugs again. Relapse does not signal failure; rather, it indicates that treatment should be reinstated or adjusted, or that alternate treatment is needed to help the person regain control and recover.

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Swimmer's itch, also called cercarial dermatitis, appears as a skin rash caused by an allergic reaction to certain microscopic parasites that infect some birds and mammals. These parasites are released from infected snails into fresh and salt water (such as lakes, ponds, and oceans). While the parasite's preferred host is the specific bird or mammal, if the parasite comes into contact with a swimmer, it burrows into the skin causing an allergic reaction and rash. Swimmer's itch is found throughout the world and is more frequent during summer months.

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Swimmer's itch is an itchy rash that can occur after you go swimming or wading outdoors. Also known as cercarial dermatitis, swimmer's itch is most common in freshwater lakes and ponds, but it occasionally occurs in salt water.Swimmer's itch is a rash usually caused by an allergic reaction to parasites that burrow into your skin while you're swimming or wading in warm water.The parasites that cause swimmer's itch normally live in waterfowl and some animals. These parasites can be released into the water. Humans aren't suitable hosts, so the parasites soon die while still in your skin.Swimmer's itch is uncomfortable, but it usually clears up on its own in a few days. In the meantime, you can control itching with over-the-counter or prescription medications.


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Synovial sarcoma is a type of soft-tissue sarcoma. It is a rare cancer. Only about 1 to 3 individuals in a million people are diagnosed with this disease each year. It can occur at any age, but it is more common among teenagers and young adults. Synovial sarcoma seems to have a slight preference for males, with 12 male patients for every 10 female patients. Despite its name, synovial sarcoma is not related to the synovial tissues that are a part of the joints. The disease starts most commonly in the legs or arms, but it can appear in any part of the body. On a pathology report, synovial sarcoma may be classified in different subtypes depending on what it looks like under the microscope or what specific gene mutation is involved. Synovial sarcoma is a high grade tumor. It spreads to distant sites in up to 50% of cases.


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Systemic mastocytosis (mas-to-sy-TOE-sis) is a disorder that results in an excessive number of mast cells in your body. Mast cells normally help protect you from disease and aid in wound healing by releasing substances such as histamine and leukotrienes. But if you have systemic mastocytosis, excess mast cells generally build up in your skin, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract and bones. When triggered, these mast cells release substances that can overwhelm your body and result in signs and symptoms such as facial flushing, itching, a rapid heartbeat, abdominal cramps, lightheadedness or even loss of consciousness. Common triggers include alcohol, temperature changes, spicy foods and certain medications.Several types of systemic mastocytosis exist. The most common form — indolent systemic mastocytosis — progresses slowly.The second most common form is systemic mastocytosis associated with a second blood disorder. Another type, aggressive systemic mastocytosis, develops rapidly and is often associated with organ damage. Mast cell leukemia and mast cell sarcoma are extremely rare forms of systemic mastocytosis.


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Tapeworms are long, segmented worms of the class Cestoda, which comprise 1 of 3 classes of parasitic worms (worms that require a host within which to mature). The other classes are Nematoda and Trematoda. These worms lack an intestinal tract and instead can absorb nutrients through their integument.The adult consists of a head (scolex), where the worms attach to the mucosa of the intestine; a neck; and a segmented body that contains both male gonads and female gonads (proglottids).

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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a weakening of the left ventricle, the heart's main pumping chamber, usually as the result of severe emotional or physical stress, such as a sudden illness, the loss of a loved one, a serious accident, or a natural disaster such as an earthquake. (For additional examples, see "Stressors associated with takotsubo cardiomyopathy.") That's why the condition is also called stress-induced cardiomyopathy, or broken-heart syndrome. The main symptoms are chest pain and shortness of breath.

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The Achilles tendon attaches your calf muscles to your heel bone, or calcaneus. You use this tendon to jump, walk, run, and stand on the balls of your feet. Continuous, intense physical activity, such as running and jumping, can cause painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon, known as Achilles tendonitis (or tendinitis).


There are two types of Achilles tendonitis: insertional Achilles tendinitis and noninsertional Achilles tendonitis. Insertional Achilles tendonitis affects the lower portion of your tendon where it attaches to your heel bone. Noninsertional Achilles tendonitis involves fibers in the middle portion of the tendon and tends to affect younger people who are active.


Simple home treatments can help Achilles tendonitis. However, if home treatment doesn’t work, it’s important to see a doctor. If your tendonitis gets worse, your tendon can tear. You may need medication or surgery to ease the pain.


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The cause of the majority of cases is the bell clapper deformity, an anatomic abnormality that is present in some males. This anatomical condition allows the spermatic cord to twist more easily, resulting in compromise of the blood supply to the testicle. This can occur spontaneously or may be associated with trauma. There is no way to detect this deformity. In significant number of men who have this anatomical abnormality will have it in both testicles.

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A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a weakened area in the upper part of the aorta. The aorta is the major blood vessel that feeds blood to the body.A thoracic aortic aneurysm may also be called thoracic aneurysm and aortic dissection (TAAD) because an aneurysm can lead to a tear in the artery wall (dissection) that can cause life-threatening bleeding. Small and slow-growing thoracic aortic aneurysms may not ever rupture, but large, fast-growing aneurysms may rupture.Depending on the size and growth rate of your thoracic aortic aneurysm, treatment may vary from watchful waiting to emergency surgery. Ideally, surgery for a thoracic aortic aneurysm can be planned if necessary.

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The term ‘thoracic outlet syndrome’ describes compression of the neurovascular structures as they exit through the thoracic outlet (cervicothoracobrachial region). The thoracic outlet is marked by the anterior scalene muscle anteriorly, the middle scalene posteriorly, and the first rib inferiorly. This condition has emerged as one of the most controversial topics in musculoskeletal medicine and rehabilitation [2]. This controversy extends to almost every aspect of the pathology including the definition, incidence, pathoanatomical contributions, diagnosis, and treatment.The term ‘TOS’ does not specify the structure being compressed. Investigators namely identify two main categories of TOS: the vascular form (arterial or venous), which raises few diagnostic problems, and the neurological form, which occurs in more than 95-99% of all cases of TOS. Therefore the syndrome should be differentiated by using the terms arterial TOS (ATOS), venous TOS (VTOS) or neurogenic 

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Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which you have a low blood platelet count. Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless blood cells that help blood clot. Platelets stop bleeding by clumping and forming plugs in blood vessel injuries.Thrombocytopenia often occurs as a result of a separate disorder, such as leukemia or an immune system problem. Or it can be a side effect of taking certain medications. It affects both children and adults.Thrombocytopenia may be mild and cause few signs or symptoms. In rare cases, the number of platelets may be so low that dangerous internal bleeding occurs. Treatment options are available.

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Thrombocytosis is a disorder in which your body produces too many platelets (thrombocytes), which play an important role in blood clotting. The disorder is called reactive thrombocytosis or secondary thrombocythemia when it's caused by an underlying condition, such as an infection.Thrombocytosis (throm-boe-sie-TOE-sis) may also, less commonly, be caused by a blood and bone marrow disease. When caused by a bone marrow disorder, thrombocytosis is called autonomous, primary or essential thrombocytosis, or essential thrombocythemia.Your doctor may detect thrombocytosis in routine blood test results that show a high platelet level. If your blood test indicates thrombocytosis, it's important to determine whether it's reactive thrombocytosis or if you have essential thrombocythemia, which is more likely to cause blood clots.


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A thunderclap headache is a severe headache that starts suddenly. This type of headache pain doesn’t gradually build in intensity. Instead, it’s an intense and very painful headache as soon as it starts. In fact, it’s frequently described as the worse headache of one’s life.A thunderclap headache may be a sign of a condition that can be life-threatening. It may be connected to some sort of bleeding in your brain. It’s important that you seek medical attention if you think you may be experiencing one. It may also have a benign cause that’s not life-threatening but should still be checked immediately to find out what’s causing it.


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Tinea capitis causes the gradual appearance of round patches of dry scale, alopecia, or both. T. tonsurans infection causes black dot ringworm, in which hair shafts break at the scalp surface; M. audouinii infection causes gray patch ringworm, in which hair shafts break above the surface, leaving short stubs. Tinea capitis less commonly manifests as diffuse scaling, like dandruff, or in a diffuse pustular pattern.


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There are two parts to your tongue: the oral tongue and the base of the tongue. Cancer can develop in either part.The oral tongue is the part you see when you poke your tongue out at someone. This is the front two thirds of your tongue. Cancers that develop in this part of the tongue come under a group of cancers called mouth (oral) cancer.The base of the tongue is the back third of the tongue. This part is very near your throat (pharynx). Cancers that develop in this part are called oropharyngeal cancers (pronounced oar-o-farin-gee-al

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Tonsils come in a pair located at the back of your throat in an area known as the oropharynx. Their role is to help fight infection. Cancer can develop in your tonsils. Tonsil cancer is classified as head and neck cancer, throat cancer, and oropharynx cancer.Tonsil cancer can develop even in people who’ve had their tonsils removed because a small piece of tonsil tissue may be left behind.

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Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder affecting cellular differentiation, proliferation, and migration early in development, resulting in a variety of hamartomatous lesions that may affect virtually every organ system of the body.The best-known cutaneous manifestation of TSC is adenoma sebaceum, which often does not appear until late childhood or early adolescence. This lesion is an angiofibroma (ie, cutaneous hamartoma) and is not related to excessive sebum or acne. Flat, reddish macular lesions develop first, which can be mistaken for freckles early on. See the image below.

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Tricuspid valve disease affects the valve that connects the upper and lower chambers (atrium and ventricle) on the right side of your heart.Aurora Health Care’s teams are the region’s leaders in diagnosing and treating heart valve diseases. We offer customized treatment using the most advanced, minimally invasive procedures, whether the condition is congenital (a birth defect) or develops later in life.

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richinosis is a disease caused by parasitic roundworms (nematodes) that can infect and damage body tissues. Nematodes are a major division of the helminth family of parasitic worms (for example, Trichinella spiralis). When ingested, these parasitic worms can pass through the intestinal tract to invade other tissues, such as muscle, where they persist. Trichinosis is also termed trichinellosis, trichiniasis, or trichinelliasis. Trichinosis is not to be confused with trichomoniasis, a sexually 

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Trichomoniasis (also called trich) is a common, curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a parasitic protozoa called Trichomonas vaginalis. More than one million new cases occur each year in the U.S. Trichomoniasis may cause symptoms in women, but most men do not have symptoms. You may need to talk to your healthcare provider about whether or not you should be tested. If you have trichomoniasis, you are more likely to contract HIV if you are exposed–so getting tested and treated is important

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Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body, despite trying to stop.Hair pulling from the scalp often leaves patchy bald spots, which causes significant distress and can interfere with social or work functioning. People with trichotillomania may go to great lengths to disguise the loss of hair.For some people, trichotillomania may be mild and generally manageable. For others, the compulsive urge to pull hair is overwhelming. Some treatment options have helped many people reduce their hair pulling or stop entirely.

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Tricuspid atresia is a condition seen in newborns in which they’re born without an important part of the heart called “the tricuspid valve.” This valve plays a part in the heart’s essential function, which is to pump blood between the lungs and body.In some newborns, the tricuspid valve is missing or hasn’t properly developed. Tricuspid atresia is a rare heart disorder that’s congenital, or present at birth. It’s a serious condition, and it can be life-threatening.

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex injury with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. The impact on a person and his or her family can be devastating. The purpose of this site is to educate and empower caregivers and survivors of traumatic brain injuries. This site aims to ease the transition from shock and despair at the time of a brain injury to coping and problem solving. Bookmark this site for the latest medical breakthroughs and brain research, the highest quality treatment for brain damage, the symptoms of brain injuries and the nation's best traumatic brain injury rehabilitation centers and resource information.


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    Toxic Hepatitis defines inflammatory liver disease.  The effect of irritant to liver cells causes inflammation of the liver tissue Irritant toxics to liver cells are alcohol, chemicals, street drugs and some nutritional supplements.  There have bene cases where Toxic Hepatitis has developed in a matter of hours or days since exposure to toxins whereas there have been other instances where it has taken months of regular exposure to the toxin before any symptom of Toxic Hepatitis is observed. Generally, symptoms produced by Toxic Hepatitis are self limiting and tend to go away when the exposure to the toxin is eliminated but there have been cases where Toxic Hepatitis has permanently damaged the liver resulting in cirrhosis and in some instances liver failure


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Toxic shock syndrome is a rare but serious medical condition caused by a bacterial infection. It is caused when the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus gets into the bloodstream and produces toxins.Although toxic shock syndrome has been linked to superabsorbent tampon use in menstruating women, this condition can affect men, children, and people of all ages. 

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Pain in the ear. This can occur because of conditions within the ear itself, the ear canal, or the visible external portion of the ear. Acute infection of the middle ear, medically called acute otitis media (AOM), is inflammation of the middle ear and is the most frequent diagnosis in sick children in the US. The eustachian tube is shorter in children than adults which allows easy entry of bacteria and viruses into the middle ear, resulting in acute otitis media in childhood. Infection of the ear canal (otitis externa) is also called swimmer's ear. Otitis externa is typically caused by bacterial infection. Earache can also be due to pain and inflammation of the outer portion of the ear

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A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than are men. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to your kidneys.Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place

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An umbilical hernia creates a soft swelling or bulge near the navel (umbilicus). If your baby has an umbilical hernia, you may notice the bulge only when he or she cries, coughs or strains. The bulge may disappear when your baby is calm or lies on his or her back.Umbilical hernias in children are usually painless. Umbilical hernias that appear during adulthood may cause abdominal discomfort.

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An ear infection, or otitis media, is the most common cause of earaches. Although this condition is a frequent cause of infant distress and is often associated with children, it can also affect adults.

The infection in the middle ear (the space behind the eardrum where tiny bones pick up vibrations and pass them along to the inner ear) very often accompanies a common cold, the flu, or other types of respiratory infections. This is because the middle ear is connected to the upper respiratory tract by a tiny channel known as the Eustachian tube. Germs that are growing in the nose or sinus cavities can climb up the Eustachian tube and enter the middle ear to start growing.

Most parents are frustratingly familiar with ear infections. Except for wellness baby visits, ear infections are the most common reason for trips to the pediatrician, accounting for approximately 30 million doctor visits a year in the U.S.
 
 
 

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Cancer of the ureter (ureteral cancer) is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line the inside of the tubes (ureters) that connect your kidneys to your bladder. Ureters are part of the urinary tract, and they carry urine produced by the kidneys to the bladder.Ureteral cancer is uncommon. It occurs most often in older adults and in people who have previously been treated for bladder cancer.Ureteral cancer is closely related to bladder cancer. The cells that line the ureters are the same type of cells that line the inside of the bladder. People diagnosed with ureteral cancer have a greatly increased risk of bladder cancer, so your doctor will recommend tests to look for signs of bladder cancer.Treatment for ureteral cancer typically involves surgery. In certain cases, chemotherapy may be recommended.

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Ureteral obstructions are blockages in your urinary tract, which includes your kidneys, bladder, the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder (ureters), and the tube that connects your bladder to the outside of your body (urethra). Blockages can develop for many reasons, including gastrointestinal problems. Ureteral obstructions are more common in men, especially as they get older and their prostate gland enlarges.Obstructions can be cured with surgery, but they need to be treated promptly. If they’re not, they can lead to severe illness, kidney damage and life-threatening infections.

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Imagine that you're exercising. You're working up a sweat, you're breathing hard, your heart is thumping, blood is coursing through your vessels to deliver oxygen to the muscles to keep you moving, and you sustain the activity for more than just a few minutes. That's aerobic exercise (also known as "cardio" in gym lingo), which is any activity that you can sustain for more than just a few minutes while your heart, lungs, and muscles work overtime. In this article, I'll discuss the mechanisms of aerobic exercise: oxygen transport and consumption, the role of the heart and the muscles, the proven benefits of aerobic exercise, how much you need to do to reap the benefits, and more.


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The idea behind functional training is that each exercise should be more natural and carry over into daily life. Functional training exercises tend to activate more muscles and therefore consume more energy. These multidimensional exercises also tend to improve your natural movement skills and enhance your general mobility.See how many of the below functional training exercises you can incorporate into your workouts for a more practical and fat burning workout.


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Step aerobics is a classic cardio workout. It's lasted for decades for a simple reason: It delivers results.The "step" is a 4-inch to 12-inch raised platform. You step up, around, and down from the platform in different patterns to boost your heart rate and breathing, and strengthen your muscles.Step aerobics moves range from simple to advanced. The most basic is a step-up, step-down. Once you get more experienced, you do moves that take you over the top and around the step forwards, sideways, and backwards.Most people take step aerobics classes at a gym, with an instructor showing you each move. The instructor and the upbeat music motivate you to keep going.Your class will start with a warm-up, followed by choreographed routines on the step, and a cooldown at the end. In some classes, you'll use hand weights for strength-training moves off the step.


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An exercise ball, also known as a Swiss Ball, is a ball constructed of soft elastic with a diameter of approximately 35 to 85 centimeters (14 to 34 inches) and filled with air. The air pressure is changed by removing a valve stem and either filling with air or letting the ball deflate. It is most often used in physical therapy, athletic training and exercise. It can also be used for weight training. The ball, while often referred to as a Swiss ball, is also known by a number of different names, including balance ball, birth ball, body ball, ball, fitness ball, gym ball, gymnastic ball, physio ball, pilates ball, Pezzi ball, stability ball, Swedish ball, therapy ball, or yoga ball


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Yoga is a science, that is, it is a body of techniques that lead us to consciously connect with ourselves and with life, the experience of yoga. As yoga is a science, there is no dogma or belief system attached to it. Yoga simply tells us to do a certain practice and then to feel the effect of that practice, e.g. if we breath slowly in a relaxed manner we will slow our heart rate; if we focus the mind we will develop mental peace and deep insight.


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If you are bored of lifting heavy weights, doing yoga and other regular stretching exercises then AEROBICS is the right option for you. You will not only enjoy doing it but also reap several health benefits out of it. Aerobics is a kind of cardio workout that causes you to breathe harder, makes you sweat and gets your heart pumping faster than at rest. Dance moves you perform in this, makes the heart and lungs work harder as the body’s need for oxygen is increased. So, get your heart pumping with Bong beauty Bipasha Basu, performing aerobics dance workout.


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An ECG (electrocardiogram) records the electrical activity of your heart at rest. It provides information about your heart rate and rhythm, and shows if there is enlargement of the heart due to high blood pressure (hypertension) or evidence of a previous heart attack (myocardial infarction). However, it does not show whether you have asymptomatic blockages in your heart arteries or predict your risk of a future heart attack. The resting ECG is different from a stress or exercise ECG or cardiac imaging test. You may need an ECG test if you have risk factors for heart disease such as high blood pressure, or symptoms such as palpitations or chest pain. Or you may need it if you already have heart disease. But in other cases, you may think twice about having this test.

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An echocardiogram (echo) is a graphic outline of the heart's movement. During an echo test, ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) from a hand-held wand placed on your chest provides pictures of the heart's valves and chambers and helps the sonographer evaluate the pumping action of the heart. Echo is often combined with Doppler ultrasound and color Doppler to evaluate blood flow across the heart's valves.

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Fetal echocardiography is a test similar to an ultrasound. This exam allows your doctor to better see the structure and function of your unborn child’s heart. It’s typically done in the second trimester, between weeks 18 to 24.


The exam uses sound waves that “echo” off of the structures of the fetus’ heart. A machine analyzes these sound waves and creates a picture, or echocardiogram, of their heart’s interior. This image provides information on how your baby’s heart has formed and whether it’s working properly.


It also allows your doctor to see the blood flow through their heart. This in-depth look allows your doctor to find any defects or abnormalities in the baby’s blood flow or heartbeat.

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The child will lie down tilted slightly on his / her side on a hospital bed in our child-friendly examination room, not an operating room. Many exam rooms are equipped with a television to keep a child entertained and alleviate boredom. The child must be undressed from the waist up and can choose to wear a short gown.


To improve the quality of the pictures, a colorless, warm gel is applied to the skin on the area of the chest where the heart is located. A transducer, a small microphone-like device, is placed on top of the gel and against the skin. The transducer uses sound waves, which bounce off the different parts of a child's heart, creating a picture.


The transducer is moved over the chest, abdominal area, and neck in order to obtain the images.


The sounds you may hear from the echo machine are the sounds of the blood flowing from one chamber to another and the valves opening or closing as the blood moves through the heart.


The colors you see on the screen are not the colors of the blood. The colors tell us what direction the blood is flowing. The red color shows the blood is flowing towards the transducer and the blue color shows blood is flowing away. A child may feel some discomfort from the pressure of the transducer. Pediatric echosonographers are trained to complete scans in as pain-free and patient-sensitive manner as possible. 


A computer interprets the information from the transducer to make an image of the heart appear on the screen. This image is recorded into a digital storage system for the cardiologist to measure and review. 

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A stress echocardiography, also called an echocardiography stress test or stress echo, is a procedure that determines how well your heart and blood vessels are working.


During a stress echocardiography, you’ll exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike while your doctor monitors your blood pressure and heart rhythm. When your heart rate reaches peak levels, your doctor will take ultrasound images of your heart to determine whether your heart muscles are getting enough blood and oxygen while you exercise.


Your doctor may order a stress echocardiography test if you have chest pain that they think is due to coronary artery disease or a myocardial infarction, which is a heart attack. This test also determines how much exercise you can safely tolerate if you’re in cardiac rehabilitation. The test can also tell your doctor how well treatments such as bypass grafting, angioplasty, and anti-anginal or antiarrhythmic medications are working.

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We reviewed the records of 52 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients examined between 1995 and 2000 who had needle electromyography (EMG) of their respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, at or near the time of their diagnosis. With respiratory function testing, patients with abnormal diaphragmatic EMG at diagnosis (Group 1, n=23) had significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC), lower daytime arterial PO(2) and higher PCO(2) measurements (p<0.05) than patients with normal diaphragmatic EMG (Group 2, n=29). Twenty-eight percent of the patients without symptoms or signs of respiratory insufficiency at the time they were examined had an abnormal diaphragm EMG. Mean survival of Groups 1 and 2 were similar. However, sub-analysis of patients within each group, comparing those treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with those not treated, showed that treated patients in Group 1 (abnormal diaphragm EMG) survived significantly longer (p<0.05) than untreated patients. They also started NIPPV earlier than treated patients in Group 2. We conclude that respiratory muscle EMG was simply and safely performed on ALS patients at or around the time of diagnosis. The procedure can detect sub-clinical respiratory muscle dysfunction. The technique used for EMG of the respiratory muscles, its pitfalls and contraindications are also reviewed.

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Eczema is a common skin condition marked by itchy and inflamed patches of skin. It’s also known as atopic dermatitis. It is more common in babies and young children, and often occurs on the faces of infants. It also often appears inside the elbows and behind the knees of children, teenagers, and adults.
In rare cases, atopic dermatitis can first appear during puberty or adulthood. It affects males and females equally.

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Eczema is a condition where patches of skin become inflamed, itchy, red, cracked, and rough. Blisters may sometimes occur.Different stages and types of eczema affect 31.6 percent of people in the United States.The word "eczema" is also used specifically to talk about atopic dermatitis, the most common type of eczema.

Atopic" refers to a collection of diseases involving the immune system, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever. Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin.Some people outgrow the condition, while others will continue to have it throughout adulthood.This MNT Knowledge Center article will explain what eczema is and discuss the symptoms, causes, treatments, and types.


Fast facts on eczema

Here are some key points about eczema. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

Certain foods can trigger symptoms, such as nuts and dairy.

Symptoms vary according to the age of the person with eczema, but they often include scaly, itchy patches of skin.

Eczema can also be triggered by environmental factors like smoke and pollen. However, eczema is not a curable condition.

Treatment focuses on healing damaged skin and alleviating symptoms. There is not yet a full cure for eczema, but symptoms can be managed.

Eczema is not a contagious condition.


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ifferent stages and types of eczema affect 31.6 percent of people in the United States.


The word "eczema" is also used specifically to talk about atopic dermatitis, the most common type of eczema.

"Atopic" refers to a collection of diseases involving the immune system, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever. Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin.

Some people outgrow the condition, while others will continue to have it throughout adulthood.

This MNT Knowledge Center article will explain what eczema is and discuss the symptoms, causes, treatments, and types.

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This test measures the integrity of nerve tracts which conduct the electric impulses. It is used to assess the nature, severity and duration of the nerve lesion and in combination with EMG helps in predicting the chances of recovery after a nerve lesion.The nerves of interest are stimulated with a very low voltage electric current which causes mild tingling over the area stimulated. The test takes 20 min to 1 hour depending upon the number of nerves to be tested. It is very useful, in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, traumatic neuropathy, plexopathy, varius vitamin deficiencies.

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This test is used to test the nerves and muscles in your entire lower extremity. Your doctor will usually order this test when he suspects that there may be some type of problem with the nerve supply to your foot and leg. Commonly the EMG/NCV test is used to diagnosis one of the following: Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome, Peripheral Neuropathy, Neuromuscular disorders, Nerve palsy or Paralysis, and Radioculopathy. Your doctor typically will refer you to either a hospital or a neurologist to have the test preformed.

The EMG portion of the test is used to record the electrical activity in your muscles. It can diagnose diseases of the nerves and muscles. It can detect conditions such as tarsal tunnel syndrome, inflamed muscles and pinched nerves. A tiny needle, called an electrode, is inserted directly into a specific muscle belly. The electrode then records the activity during the insertion, while the muscle is at rest, and while the muscle contracts. Nerve and muscle diseases alter the pattern of electrical activity in these muscles, which is record both audibly and on a computer screen. After the first muscle is tested, the electrode may be inserted into another muscle. Muscles chosen for the testing vary with the patient's symptoms and may be modified, depending on the results from the first muscles tested. Total testing time may range from just a few minutes to more than an hour, depending upon how many muscles are tested. After the exam, you may feel tenderness in the tested muscles. There is a slight risk of minor, localized inflammation in muscles during the test. This usually lasts only a few hours. Other common patient complaints are pain with insertion of the electrode.

Most of the time the Nerve Conduction Velocity Test will accompany the EMG Test. The NCV evaluates the health of the peripheral nerve by recording how fast electrical impulse travels through it. A peripheral nerve transmits information between the spinal cord and the muscles. You will be resting on a cart or bed and electrodes will be taped to your skin. A stimulator will be held against your skin, which sends out a small electrical charge along the nerve. You may feel a tingle or your muscles may twitch but this shock is not harmful. Each test will take only a few minutes. After the exam the electrodes will be removed and your skin cleaned. The time between the stimulation and response will be recorded to determine how quickly and thoroughly that the impulse is sent. A number of nervous system diseases may reduce the speed of this impulse. Each nerve test takes just a few minutes to an hour, depending upon how many nerves are being tested.

While the hospital or neurologist's office will give you instructions for the day of the examination, a few general preparations will help. Eat normally and take medication as you usually would. If you are taking a blood thinner, make sure you inform the testing facility and ask the ordering physician about the use of the medication and the timing of the test. Bath or shower the morning of the examination. Avoid bath oils or any skin lotions or emollients the day of the examination.


A typical EMG/NCV of the lower extremity takes approximately 45 minutes. This test is an important tool for diagnosing diseases of the nervous system, you can help ensure the best results if you relax and cooperate with the technicians. Make sure that you ask any questions that you have about the test before it is performed. Your physician will discuss the results with you. If you have any further questions regarding why this test was ordered for you, please ask your physician.



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A nerve conduction study (NCS) involves activating nerves electrically with small safe pulses over several points on the skin, usually on the limbs, and measuring the responses obtained. Usually, the response or signal is measured from the nerve itself or from a muscle supplied by the nerve being activated. This gives information about the state of health of the nerve, muscle and neuromuscular junction (the portion responsible for communication between the nerve and muscle). A commercial device is normally employed to measure the signals.

Electromyography (also known as needle EMG) involves the measuring of electrical activity within muscles by way of a needle electrode. It is rather similar to having an electrical microphone at the tip of the needle. Muscles are electrically active organs, and the signals and patterns of signals can lend additional information regarding the state of the muscle as well as the nerve supplying it.

In Australia, the person responsible for these tests is a neurologist, who frequently has had further training in the subspecialty of clinical neurophysiology.
A doctor may recommend that you undergo this test. There are a wide variety of conditions that are assessed with this technique. Quite frequently, the examination is requested because the patient is experiencing symptoms that suggest some problem with the nerves (numbness, tingling, weakness or pain) or muscles (weakness or pain), even though the physical examination is normal. Indeed, in many cases, there is no abnormality seen and the test can then be reassuring, but it cannot detect all conditions. In general terms, the test is useful for detecting if there is a significant abnormality, but this is also often easier when there is a definite clinical abnormality. In such cases, the test can help clarify what the problem is, although usually, unless the nerve problem is a common entrapment (site of compression), other tests may be required to ascertain the exact nature of the problem.
There are several types of nerves but generally speaking, the two major types are motor and sensory nerves. Motor nerves carry signals from the brain to the muscle to enable contraction and movement, and sensory nerves relay information to the brain. When the nerve is stimulated with metal electrodes (metallic patch/es that can conduct signals), a response can be measured by surface (on the skin) electrodes some distance away in sensory nerves overlying the nerve itself. For the motor nerves, the response is usually detected over the muscle that is activated by that nerve. In this fashion, results can reveal information about the size and speed of the electrically conducted impulse. The size usually reveals the number of nerve fibres present and the speed, the integrity of the myelin (insulating membrane around the nerve ‘axon’ or cable). This is why the word ‘conduction’ is used.
You will be given instructions on how to prepare for the test. You should not use creams or emollients on your hands and feet (the most common sites of your nerve tests) on the day of the test, and preferably since your last shower or bath. Generally speaking, there are no other preparations of note.

Please advise the neurologist performing the test if you have a pacemaker or other similar devices. If you are taking warfarin, heparin or some other medication to thin your blood, and if you are having a needle EMG test, you should advise both your GP and the neurologist. A measurement of how thin your blood is may be important before that test can be performed.
The NCS procedure is usually very safe and is non-invasive. Firstly, you will be told how to position yourself and the skin area will be prepared. Then some electrodes will be attached to your skin and you will be forewarned when to expect the stimulation. Many people are understandably anxious about the intensities of the small safe electrical pulses that are passed via the skin, but usually relax quickly when they know what to expect. It is faily important that you remain relaxed for the recordings to minimise the ‘noise’ (interference) in the recordings from excessive muscular activity.
Here, a small needle is inserted through the skin into a muscle belly. Sterilisation of the skin and a local anaesthetic is not generally required. Usually the consultation and procedure takes about 30-45 minutes in all. More complicated assessments may demand more time.
Following the test, you will be allowed to put on your garments and shoes. It should be noted that the final interpretation of the clinical meaning of the test rests with the clinician who ordered the test. This is because they can put together the whole picture. For this reason, the neurologist performing the test can only give you limited information about the meaning of the results, and may not even be able to provide any information on the next step or any possible treatments because they are unaware of all the other clinical information.


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Proximal conduction studies by F-wave technique, with conventional distal motor and sensory conduction were performed along the ulnar nerves of 20 patients each with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy and with classical motor neurone disease (MND). Such F-wave parameters as shortest F-latency, F-conduction velocity, conduction time and F-ratio were calculated. Twenty-five age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers acted as controls. Proximal slowing associated with sensory conduction abnormalities and normal distal motor conduction favored cervical spondylosis (CS). Distal slowing with a normal proximal motor and sensory conduction was associated with motor neurone disease.


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A nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test is used to assess nerve damage and dysfunction. Also known as a nerve conduction study, the procedure measures how quickly electrical signals move through your peripheral nerves.Your peripheral nerves are located outside of your brain and along your spinal cord. These nerves help you control your muscles and experience the senses. Healthy nerves send electrical signals more quickly and with greater strength than damaged nerves.The NVC test helps your doctor differentiate between an injury to the nerve fiber and an injury to the myelin sheath, the protective covering surrounding the nerve. It can also help your doctor tell the difference between a nerve disorder and a condition where a nerve injury has affected the muscles.Making these distinctions is important for proper diagnosis and determining your course of treatment.

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A nerve conduction velocity test (NCV) is an electrical test that is used to determine the adequacy of the conduction of the nerve impulse as it courses down a nerve. This test is used to detect signs of nerve injury. In this test, the nerve is electrically stimulated, and the electrical impulse 'down stream' from the stimulus is measured. This is usually done with surface patch electrodes (they are similar to those used for an electrocardiogram) that are placed on the skin over the nerve at various locations. One electrode stimulates the nerve with a very mild electrical impulse. The resulting electrical activity is recorded by the other electrodes. The distance between electrodes and the time it takes for electrical impulses to travel between electrodes are used to calculate the speed of impulse transmission (nerve conduction velocity). A decreased speed of transmission indicates nerve disease or abnormal pressure on the nerve. A nerve conduction velocity test is often done at the same time as an electromyogram (EMG). An EMG is carried out in order to exclude or detect muscle conditions which may be present due to muscular or neurologic disease.


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The facial nerve conduction velocity was measured in 30 healthy subjects (60 sides) and in 51 patients with a unilateral Bell's palsy. The normal value was 47.8 +/- 5.1 m/s. Incomplete recovery was common in Bell's palsy when the velocity was below 30 m/s. Mild synkinesis was observed in only one patient when the nerve conduction velocity was above 30 m/s. When the degree of degeneration revealed by electroneuroneography did not exceed 60%, the conduction velocity was in the normal range. For degrees of degeneration in excess of this, the conduction velocity decreased in parallel with the increase in the degree of degeneration.


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Eczema is a skin condition in which the skin of a person becomes dry, itchy, cracked and reddened. This chronic condition affects both males and females and mainly affects children. It is also known as atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis.  About 30 % of the skin diseases diagnosed will be eczema. Atopic eczema means inherited eczema.  It can occur in any part of the body and it is a long term disease. The intensity of the disease increases at some stages in the life and it needs intense treatment. Eczema can be triggered as an allergic response to various substances and situations.


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3D movies, 3D books, 3D printing and now 3D dental scans? Do I have to wear those funny looking glasses? Will I get motion sickness or up close and personal with all sorts of creatures? Don’t get yourself into dental distress! 3D dental scans are the newest advancement in technology that your dentist can use to get a good idea of what’s really going on with your chompers — no silly glasses needed.

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A bone density test is the only test that can diagnose osteoporosis before a broken bone occurs. This test helps to estimate the density of your bones and your chance of breaking a bone. NOF recommends a bone density test of the hip and spine by a central DXA machine to diagnose osteoporosis. DXA stands for dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.


You can find out whether you have osteoporosis or if you should be concerned about your bones by getting a bone density test. Some people also call it a bone mass measurement test. This test uses a machine to measure your bone density. It estimates the amount of bone in your hip, spine and sometimes other bones. Your test result will help your healthcare provider make recommendations to help you protect your bones.


Are you a postmenopausal woman or man age 50 and older? Have you recently broken a bone? If you answered “yes” to both questions, you should talk to your doctor or other healthcare provider about getting a bone density test if you’ve never had one.

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A carotid Doppler test is generally an outpatient procedure, states Johns Hopkins Medicine. During the test, the patient must lie on his back with his neck bent back slightly. A technician applies a gel to the skin, presses a device called a transducer against the neck, and moves it around the area of the carotid artery. The technician then repeats the process on the other side of the neck. Carotid Doppler tests do not expose patients to radiation, and they usually do not cause any discomfort.


Patients who have carotid artery blockage or narrowing sometimes experience symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, drowsiness or headache that prompt a doctor to perform a carotid Doppler test, states Johns Hopkins Medicine. Other symptoms that may indicate problems with blood flow in the carotid arteries include momentary blindness in one eye or temporary problems speaking or moving. Carotid Doppler is sometimes performed as part of an evaluation prior to major cardiac surgery.

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A Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can be used to estimate the blood flow through your blood vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off circulating red blood cells. A regular ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images, but can't show blood flow.


A Doppler ultrasound may help diagnose many conditions, including:


Blood clots

Poorly functioning valves in your leg veins, which can cause blood or other fluids to pool in your legs (venous insufficiency)

Heart valve defects and congenital heart disease

A blocked artery (arterial occlusion)

Decreased blood circulation into your legs (peripheral artery disease)

Bulging arteries (aneurysms)

Narrowing of an artery, such as in your neck (carotid artery stenosis)

A Doppler ultrasound can estimate how fast blood flows by measuring the rate of change in its pitch (frequency). During a Doppler ultrasound, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses a small hand-held device (transducer), about the size of a bar of soap, against your skin over the area of your body being examined, moving from one area to another as necessary.


This test may be done as an alternative to more-invasive procedures, such as angiography, which involves injecting dye into the blood vessels so that they show up clearly on X-ray images.


A Doppler ultrasound test may also help your doctor check for injuries to your arteries or to monitor certain treatments to your veins and arteries.

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Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations.

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This study aimed to evaluate the vascular pattern of solid breast lesions using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) and assess whether the presence of intratumoural penetrating vessels can predict breast cancer malignancy.

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Carotid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the carotid arteries in the neck which carry blood from the heart to the brain. A Doppler ultrasound study – a technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel – is usually part of this exam. It’s most frequently used to screen patients for blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries, a condition called stenosis which may increase the risk of stroke.


Little or no special preparation is required for this procedure. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. A loose-fitting, open necked shirt or blouse is ideal.

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The use of Doppler ultrasound to assess both the changing haemodynamics of the neonatal circulation and the perfusion of the brain is reviewed. The brain is particularly susceptible to both ischaemic and haemorrhagic injury in preterm and asphyxiated infants. However, the unique characteristics of the transitional neonatal circulation, and of the cerebral vasculature, pose considerable problems in the interpretation of Doppler signals from intracranial arteries. A volumetric Doppler method which eliminates some of those problems is discussed. The same method allows full assessment of the cardiovascular status of the newborn infant, including estimation of ductal shunting and left ventricular output. Doppler ultrasound, if used with a full understanding of the inherant assumptions and limitations of the particular methodology, is likely to prove invaluable in investigating pathological cerebral and cardiac vascular events in the newborn.

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With the most advanced Echo-cardiography ultrasound and color Doppler system from Philips which uses a X- Matrix Probe (>9000 piezoelectric crystals) and break-through pure wave single crystal technology deliver high wualty images.


This is the only diagnostic centre in city doing ultrasound contrast study. 

Some of the features are unique in the machine and not available elsewhere. The machine gives extreme resolution for excellent 2D and LIVE 3D (4D) images. It has extreme color sensitivity. 3D images in cross sectional view (all three planes). VOCAL ( Volumetric organ calculation), Multislice CT like images. PANORAMIC images to include a wide area in single image. Dynamic MR to give maximum resolution, Broad band frequency compounding, harmonic imaging etc.

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A recent estimate of the number of men in the United States suffering with complete erectile dysfunction is 10 to 20 million. When partial erectile dysfunction is included, the estimate jumps to 30 million.1 Age-specific prevalence is estimated to be 5% at age 40, increasing to 15% to 25% by age 65. In clinical series, the ratio of organic to psychologic male sexual dysfunction also varies with age: 70% of patients under 35 years of age have a psychogenic cause, and 85% of patients over 50 years of age have organic impotence.2 Patient accounts of coital frequency similarly vary with age: 75% of men in their seventh decade report having coitus once monthly, and 37% of patients 60 to 69 years old describe having weekly coitus.

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Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.

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A Doppler ultrasound is a test that uses high-frequency sound waves to measure the amount of blood flow through your arteries and veins, usually those that supply blood to your arms and legs.


Vascular flow studies, also known as blood flow studies, can detect abnormal flow within an artery or blood vessel. This can help to diagnose and treat a variety of conditions, including blood clots and poor circulation. A Doppler ultrasound can be used as part of a blood flow study.


A Doppler ultrasound is a risk-free and pain-free procedure that requires little preparation. The test provides your doctor with important information about the flow of blood through your major arteries and veins. It can also reveal blocked or reduced blood flow through narrowed areas in the arteries, which could eventually lead to a stroke.

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A Doppler ultrasound, also called a Color Doppler test is a non-invasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels. It helps doctors evaluate blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas in the major arteries of the neck that could cause a stroke. It also can reveal blood clots in leg veins (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT) that could break loose and block blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound may be used to look at blood flow in an unborn baby (foetus) to check the health of the foetus. 

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A prospective study comparing colour Doppler ultrasound (US) with the 'gold standard' of intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of renal transplant artery stenosis was performed. Both the intrarenal vessels and the transplant renal artery were examined by Doppler US. Diagnostic arteriography was performed only if, on Doppler, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant renal artery exceeded 1.5 ms-1. Of 109 patients, the transplant artery could not be visualized using colour Doppler US in three, and these were omitted from statistical analysis. Of the remaining 106 patients, 31 had a peak systolic velocity greater than 1.5 ms-1 in the transplant renal artery and were referred for DSA. Of the multiple renal Doppler indices recorded, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant artery was the best discriminating measurement for the detection of renal artery stenosis. A peak systolic velocity of > or = 2.5 ms-1 in the transplant renal artery had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for the detection of renal artery stenosis ( > 50% diameter reduction). Although a significant difference in Pulsatility Index, Resistive Index, Acceleration Index and Acceleration Time was recorded from the intrarenal vessels in the angiographically normal and stenosed groups with Doppler, these measurements were less useful as discriminating diagnostic tests. In conclusion, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant renal artery is the most sensitive Doppler criterion for renal artery stenosis and is sensitive and specific enough to be used as a screening test. The intrarenal acceleration time and index should not be used in isolation.

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A device called a transducer is passed over the scrotum, directing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) at the structures within, including the testicle, epididymis (the tube that transports sperm from the testicle), and blood vessels. The sound waves are reflected back to the transducer and electronically converted into real-time images displayed on a viewing monitor. These images are then saved on film or video and reviewed for abnormalities.

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Color Doppler is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible Pathology or Lesions. Colour Doppler is also used for the following applications:-

Carotid Colour Doppler to detect risk of stroke and paralysis by   evaluating the vessels   in the neck that supply blood to the brain.  Peripherial Arterial Colour Doppler.

Peripherial Venous Colour Doppler for detection of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).

Renal Doppler (especially for hypertensive patients and diabetics).

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Color Doppler ultrasound is a medical imaging technique which is used to provide visualization of the bloodflow, using color processing to add color to the image so that a doctor or care provider can clearly see what is happening inside the body. This technique requires the use of an ultrasound machine which is capable of color Doppler ultrasound, and can be performed in a hospital or clinic as an outpatient procedure. Having this imaging study performed is not usually painful, and the patient does not require sedatives. 

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Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images of the veins in the body. It is commonly used to search for blood clots, especially in the veins of the leg – a condition often referred to as deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation and has no known harmful effects.


On occasion, you may be asked not to eat or drink anything but water for six to eight hours beforehand. Otherwise, little or no special preparation is required for this procedure. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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A Doppler ultrasound, also called a Color Doppler test is a non-invasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels. It helps doctors evaluate blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas in the major arteries of the neck that could cause a stroke. It also can reveal blood clots in leg veins (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT) that could break loose and block blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound may be used to look at blood flow in an unborn baby (foetus) to check the health of the foetus.

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You will lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Most often, you will lie on your back with your arms raised above your head.

Once you are inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you. Modern "spiral" scanners can perform the exam without stopping.

A computer creates separate images of the belly area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the belly area can be made by stacking the slices together.

You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.

The scan should take less than 30 minutes.

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An angiogram of the head and neck is an X-ray test that uses a special dye and camera (fluoroscopy) to take pictures of the blood flow in the blood vessels of the head and neck camera.gif. An angiogram of the neck (carotid angiogram) can be used to look at the large arteries in the neck that lead to the brain. An angiogram of the head (cerebral angiogram) can be used to look at the veins or the four arteries (four-vessel study) carrying blood to the brain.


During an angiogram, a thin, soft tube called a catheter is placed camera.gif into a blood vessel in the groin (femoral artery or vein) or just above the elbow (brachial artery or vein). The catheter is guided to the head and neck area. Then an iodine dye (contrast material) is injected into the vessel to make the area show clearly on the X-ray pictures. The angiogram pictures can be made into regular X-ray films or stored as digital pictures in a computer.


An angiogram can find a bulge in a blood vessel (aneurysm). It can also show narrowing or a blockage in a blood vessel that slows or stops blood flow. An abnormal pattern of blood vessels (arteriovenous [AV] malformation) or abnormal vessels near a tumor can be seen.


A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) or computed tomography angiogram (CTA) may be an option instead of a standard angiogram. Each of these tests is less invasive than an angiogram. Some MRA tests and all CTA tests require an injection of dye. A CTA also involves radiation exposure.


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This is a procedure used to evaluate the blood flow of the arteries in the arms or legs. Using image-guidance, doctors can determine if there is damage to or a blockage of blood flow in an artery. This is helpful in diagnosing certain conditions such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the blood vessel) or damage caused by trauma. This helps doctors in planning for future interventions, including vascular procedures (such as stent placement) or surgery.

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You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner.


While inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you.


A computer creates many separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the head and neck area can be created by stacking the slices together.


You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.


Complete scans usually take only a few seconds. The newest scanners can image your entire body, head to toe, in less than 30 seconds.

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A computerized tomography (CT) coronary angiogram is an imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to your heart. It might be used to diagnose the cause of chest pain or other symptoms.


A CT coronary angiogram relies on a powerful X-ray machine to produce images of your heart and its blood vessels. These tests are noninvasive and don't require recovery time. Coronary CT angiograms are increasingly an option for people with a variety of heart conditions.


A traditional (not CT-based) coronary angiogram requires that a flexible tube (catheter) be threaded through your groin or arm to your heart or coronary arteries. If you have known coronary artery disease, your doctor might recommend a traditional coronary angiogram because you can also receive treatment during that procedure.

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