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Bloat is any abnormal gas swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain and is sometimes accompanied by increased stomach growling, or more seriously, the total lack of it.

Pains that are due to bloating will feel sharp and cause the stomach to cramp. These pains may occur anywhere in the body and can change locations quickly.They are so painful that they are sometimes mistaken for heart pains when they develop on the upper left side of the chest. Pains on the right side are often confused with problems in the appendix or the gallbladder.

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Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. In many people, it's marked by a severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like "whoop."Before the vaccine was developed, whooping cough was considered a childhood disease. Now whooping cough primarily affects children too young to have completed the full course of vaccinations and teenagers and adults whose immunity has faded.Deaths associated with whooping cough are rare but most commonly occur in infants. That's why it's so important for pregnant women — and other people who will have close contact with an infant — to be vaccinated against whooping cough.

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X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a condition that affects the immune system and occurs almost exclusively in males. People with XLA have very few B cells, which are specialized white blood cells that help protect the body against infection. B cells can mature into the cells that produce special proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins. Antibodies attach to specific foreign particles and germs, marking them for destruction. Individuals with XLA are more susceptible to infections because their body makes very few antibodies.Children with XLA are usually healthy for the first 1 or 2 months of life because they are protected by antibodies acquired before birth from their mother. After this time, the maternal antibodies are cleared from the body, and the affected child begins to develop recurrent infections. In children with XLA, infections generally take longer to get better and then they come back again, even with antibiotic medications. The most common bacterial infections that occur in people with XLA are lung infections (pneumonia and bronchitis), ear infections (otitis), pink eye (conjunctivitis), and sinus infections (sinusitis). Infections that cause chronic diarrhea are also common. Recurrent infections can lead to organ damage. People with XLA can develop severe, life-threatening bacterial infections; however, affected individuals are not particularly vulnerable to infections caused by viruses. With treatment to replace antibodies, infections can usually be prevented, improving the quality of life for people with XLA.


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Plague is a serious bacterial infection that's transmitted by fleas. Known as the Black Death during medieval times, today plague occurs in fewer than 5,000 people a year worldwide. It can be deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics.The organism that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, lives in small rodents found most commonly in rural and semirural areas of Africa, Asia and the United States. The organism is transmitted to humans who are bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents or by humans handling infected animals.The most common form of plague results in swollen and tender lymph nodes — called buboes — in the groin, armpits or neck. The rarest and deadliest form of plague affects the lungs, and it can be spread from person to person.


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Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare condition in which one or more tumors form in your pancreas or the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum). These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin, which causes your stomach to produce too much acid. The excess acid then leads to peptic ulcers, as well as to diarrhea and other symptoms.


Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is rare. The disease may occur at any time in life, but people are usually diagnosed between ages 20 and 50. Medications to reduce stomach acid and heal the ulcers is the usual treatment for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

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Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased.

Some forms of colon hydrotherapy use tubes to inject water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Oral cleaning regimens use dietary fiber, herbs, dietary supplements, or laxatives. People who practice colon cleansing believe that accumulations of putrefied feces line the walls of the large intestine and that these accumulations harbor parasites or pathogenic gut flora, causing nonspecific symptoms and general ill-health. This "auto-intoxication" hypothesis is based on medical beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks and was discredited in the early 20th century.

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A drug allergy is the abnormal reaction of your immune system to a medication. Any medication — over-the-counter, prescription or herbal — is capable of inducing a drug allergy. However, a drug allergy is more likely with certain medications.


The most common signs and symptoms of drug allergy are hives, rash or fever. A drug allergy may cause serious reactions, including a life-threatening condition that affects multiple body systems (anaphylaxis).


A drug allergy is not the same as a drug side effect, a known possible reaction listed on a drug label. A drug allergy is also different from drug toxicity caused by an overdose of medication.

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Dumping syndrome is a condition that can develop after surgery to remove all or part of your stomach or after surgery to bypass your stomach to help you lose weight. Also called rapid gastric emptying, dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, moves from your stomach into your small bowel too quickly.


Most people with dumping syndrome develop signs and symptoms, such as abdominal cramps and diarrhea, 10 to 30 minutes after eating. Other people have symptoms one to three hours after eating, and still others have both early and late symptoms.


Generally, you can help prevent dumping syndrome by changing your diet after surgery. Changes might include eating smaller meals and limiting high-sugar foods. In more-serious cases of dumping syndrome, you may need medications or surgery.

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Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as sneezing and runny nose. Many people with dust mite allergy also experience signs of asthma, such as wheezing and difficulty breathing.


Dust mites, close relatives of ticks and spiders, are too small to see without a microscope. Dust mites eat skin cells shed by people, and they thrive in warm, humid environments. In most homes, such items as bedding, upholstered furniture and carpeting provide an ideal environment for dust mites.


By taking steps to reduce the number of dust mites in your home, you may get control of dust mite allergy. Medications or other treatments are sometimes necessary to relieve symptoms and manage asthma.

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Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) means it takes more time and effort to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach. Dysphagia may also be associated with pain. In some cases, swallowing may be impossible.

Occasional difficulty swallowing, which may occur when you eat too fast or don't chew your food well enough, usually isn't cause for concern. But persistent dysphagia may indicate a serious medical condition requiring treatment.

Dysphagia can occur at any age, but it's more common in older adults. The causes of swallowing problems vary, and treatment depends on the cause.


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Earwax blockage occurs when earwax (cerumen) accumulates in your ear or becomes too hard to wash away naturally.

Earwax is a helpful and natural part of your body's defenses. It cleans, lubricates and protects your ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria.

If earwax blockage becomes a problem, you or your doctor can take simple steps to remove the wax safely.

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Eating disorders are serious conditions related to persistent eating behaviors that negatively impact your health, your emotions and your ability to function in important areas of life. The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.


Most eating disorders involve focusing too much on your weight, body shape and food, leading to dangerous eating behaviors. These behaviors can significantly impact your body's ability to get adequate nutrition. Eating disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and teeth and mouth, and lead to other diseases.


Eating disorders often develop in the teen and young adult years, although they can develop at other ages. With treatment, you can return to healthier eating habits and sometimes reverse serious complications caused by the eating disorder.

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An ectopic pregnancy is an early pregnancy that occurs outside of the normal location (uterine lining) for a developing pregnancy. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tubes. An ectopic pregnancy cannot progress normally and typically results in the death of the embryo or fetus.

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Eggs are one of the most common allergy-causing foods for children.

Egg allergy symptoms usually occur a few minutes to a few hours after eating eggs or foods containing eggs. Signs and symptoms range from mild to severe and can include skin rashes, hives, nasal congestion, and vomiting or other digestive problems. Rarely, egg allergy can cause anaphylaxis — a life-threatening reaction.

Egg allergy can occur as early as infancy. Most children, but not all, outgrow their egg allergy before adolescence.

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Eisenmenger (I-sun-meng-uhr) syndrome is a complication of a heart defect that you're born with (congenital).

A heart defect that causes a hole (shunt) to develop between two chambers of your heart is the most common cause of Eisenmenger syndrome. This hole causes blood to circulate abnormally in your heart and lungs. Increased blood flow returns to your lungs instead of going to the rest of your body. The blood vessels in your lung arteries become stiff and narrow, increasing the pressure in your lungs' arteries. This permanently damages the blood vessels in your lungs.

Eisenmenger syndrome occurs when the increased pressure of the blood flow in the lung becomes so great that the direction of blood flow through the shunt reverses. Oxygen-poor (blue) blood from the right side of the heart flows into the left ventricle and is pumped to your body so you don't receive enough oxygen to all your organs and tissues.

Eisenmenger syndrome is a life-threatening condition requiring careful medical monitoring. Medications can improve symptoms and prognosis.

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An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) isn't a disease, but rather a sign of another condition.


The term "cardiomegaly" refers to an enlarged heart seen on any imaging test, including a chest X-ray. Other tests are then needed to diagnose the condition causing your enlarged heart.


You may develop an enlarged heart temporarily because of a stress on your body, such as pregnancy, or because of a medical condition, such as the weakening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, heart valve problems or abnormal heart rhythms.


Certain conditions may cause the heart muscle to thicken or one of the chambers of the heart to dilate, making the heart larger. Depending on the condition, an enlarged heart may be temporary or permanent.


An enlarged heart may be treatable by correcting the cause. Treatment for an enlarged heart can include medications, medical procedures or surgery.


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If your doctor tells you that you've got an enlarged liver, it means it's swollen beyond its normal size. There's usually another condition that's causing it, such as hepatitis. You have a lot of treatment choices, but you first need to find out the source of the problem.


Getting treated is important. Your liver has a lot of big jobs to do. Just to name a few key ones, it helps clean your blood by getting rid of harmful chemicals that your body makes. It makes a liquid called bile, which helps you break down fat from food. And it also stores sugar, called glucose, which gives you a quick back-up energy boost when you need it.


Depending on what's causing your liver to swell, you could end up with long-term damage if you don't get treated.

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In eosinophilic esophagitis (e-o-sin-o-FILL-ik uh-sof-uh-JIE-tis), a type of white blood cell (eosinophil) builds up in the lining of the tube that connects your mouth to your stomach (esophagus). This buildup, which is a reaction to foods, allergens or acid reflux, can inflame or injure the esophageal tissue. Damaged esophageal tissue can lead to difficulty swallowing or cause food to get stuck when you swallow.


Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune system disease. It has been identified only in the past two decades, but is now considered a major cause of digestive system (gastrointestinal) illness. Research is ongoing and will likely lead to revisions in the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

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Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) – Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) (Cardiovascular) pipeline landscape.

Heart failure is also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump out enough oxygen-rich blood. Symptoms include cough, fatigue, weakness, faintness, loss of appetite, swollen (enlarged) liver or abdomen, swollen feet and ankles and weight gain. The predisposing factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, alcohol use and irregular heartbeats. Treatment includes surgery, vasodilator, beta blockers and diuretics.

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Epiglottitis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the epiglottis — a small cartilage "lid" that covers your windpipe — swells, blocking the flow of air into your lungs.


A number of factors can cause the epiglottis to swell — burns from hot liquids, direct injury to your throat and various infections. The most common cause of epiglottitis in children in the past was infection with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), the same bacterium that causes pneumonia, meningitis and infections in the bloodstream. Epiglottitis can occur at any age.


Routine Hib vaccination for infants has made epiglottitis rare, but epiglottitis remains a concern. If you suspect that you or someone in your family has epiglottitis, seek emergency help immediately. Prompt treatment can prevent life-threatening complications.

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Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus — a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Your esophagus helps move the food you swallow from the back of your throat to your stomach to be digested.


Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus. Esophageal cancer can occur anywhere along the esophagus. More men than women get esophageal cancer.


Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Incidence rates vary within different geographic locations. In some regions, higher rates of esophageal cancer cases may be attributed to tobacco and alcohol use or particular nutritional habits and obesity.


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Normally, contractions of the esophagus camera.gif (the tube that connects the mouth and the stomach) move food from the mouth to the stomach with a regular, coordinated rhythm.


Esophageal spasm means that contractions of the esophagus are irregular, uncoordinated, and sometimes powerful. This condition may be called diffuse esophageal spasm, or DES. These spasms can prevent food from reaching the stomach. When this happens, the food gets stuck in the esophagus.


Sometimes the squeezing moves down the esophagus in a coordinated way, but it is very strong. This can be called nutcracker esophagus. These contractions move food through the esophagus but can cause severe pain.

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Esophageal varices are abnormal, enlarged veins in the tube that connects the throat and stomach (esophagus). This condition occurs most often in people with serious liver diseases.


Esophageal varices develop when normal blood flow to the liver is blocked by a clot or scar tissue in the liver. To go around the blockages, blood flows into smaller blood vessels that aren't designed to carry large volumes of blood. The vessels can leak blood or even rupture, causing life-threatening bleeding.


A number of drugs and medical procedures can help prevent and stop bleeding from esophageal varices.

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Farsightedness (hyperopia) is a common vision condition in which you can see distant objects clearly, but objects nearby may be blurry.


The degree of your farsightedness influences your focusing ability. People with severe farsightedness may see clearly only objects a great distance away, while those with mild farsightedness may be able to clearly see objects that are closer.


Farsightedness usually is present at birth and tends to run in families. You can easily correct this condition with eyeglasses or contact lenses. Another treatment option is surgery.

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Galactorrhea (guh-lack-toe-REE-uh) is a milky nipple discharge unrelated to the normal milk production of breast-feeding. Galactorrhea itself isn't a disease, but it could be a sign of an underlying problem. It usually occurs in women, even those who have never had children or after menopause. But galactorrhea can happen in men and even in infants.


Excessive breast stimulation, medication side effects or disorders of the pituitary gland all may contribute to galactorrhea. Often, galactorrhea results from increased levels of prolactin, the hormone that stimulates milk production.

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Gallbladder cancer is cancer that begins in the gallbladder.


Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by your liver.


Gallbladder cancer is uncommon. When gallbladder cancer is discovered at its earliest stages, the chance for a cure is very good. But most gallbladder cancers are discovered at a late stage, when the prognosis is often very poor.


Gallbladder cancer is difficult to diagnose because it often causes no specific signs or symptoms. Also, the relatively hidden nature of the gallbladder makes it easier for gallbladder cancer to grow without being detected.

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Ganglion cysts are noncancerous lumps that most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of your wrists or hands. They also may occur in the ankles and feet. Ganglion cysts are typically round or oval and are filled with a jellylike fluid.


Small ganglion cysts can be pea-sized, while larger ones can be around an inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter. Ganglion cysts can be painful if they press on a nearby nerve. Their location can sometimes interfere with joint movement.


If your ganglion cyst is causing you problems, your doctor may suggest trying to drain the cyst with a needle. Removing the cyst surgically also is an option. But if you have no symptoms, no treatment is necessary. In many cases, the cysts go away on their own.

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Gangrene is a condition that occurs when body tissue dies. It is caused by a loss of blood supply due to an underlying illness, injury, and/or infection. Fingers, toes, and limbs are most often affected, but gangrene can also occur inside the body, damaging organs and muscles. There are different types of gangrene and all require immediate medical attention.

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Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a symptom of a disorder in your digestive tract. The blood often appears in stool or vomit but isn't always visible, though it may cause the stool to look black or tarry. The level of bleeding can range from mild to severe and life-threatening.


Bleeding in the stomach or colon can usually be easily identified, but finding the cause of bleeding that occurs in the small intestine can be difficult. But sophisticated imaging technology can usually locate the problem, and minimally invasive procedures often can fix it.

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Gastroparesis means weakness of the muscles of the stomach. Gastroparesis results in poor grinding of food in the stomach into small particles and slow emptying of food from the stomach into the small intestine.


The stomach is a hollow organ composed primarily of muscle. Solid food that has been swallowed is stored in the stomach while it is ground into tiny pieces by the constant churning generated by rhythmic contractions of the stomach's muscles. Smaller particles are digested better in the small intestine than larger particles, and only food that has been ground into small particles is emptied from the stomach and well digested. Liquid food does not require grinding.


The ground solid and liquid food is emptied from the stomach into the small intestine slowly in a metered fashion. The metering process allows the emptied food to be well-mixed with the digestive juices of the small intestine, pancreas, and liver (bile) and to be absorbed well from the intestine. The metering process by which solid and liquid foods are emptied from the stomach is a result of a combination of relaxation of the muscle in parts of the stomach designed to accommodate (store) food, and the pressure generated by the muscle in other parts of the stomach that pushes the food into the small intestine. (Thus, the stomach can store and empty food at the same time.) The metering also is controlled by the opening and closing of the pylorus, the muscular opening of the stomach into the small intestine.


When the contractions of the stomach's muscles are weakened, food is not thoroughly ground and does not empty into the intestine normally. Since the muscular actions whereby solid food and liquid food are emptied from the stomach are slightly different, the emptying of solids and liquids follows different time courses, and there may be slow emptying of solid food (most common), solid and liquid food (less common), or liquid food alone (least common).

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Gaucher (go-SHAY) disease is the result of a buildup of certain fatty substances in certain organs, particularly your spleen and liver. This causes these organs to enlarge and can affect their function.


The fatty substances also can build up in bone tissue, weakening the bone and increasing the risk of fractures. If the bone marrow is affected, it can interfere with your blood's ability to clot.


An enzyme that breaks down these fatty substances doesn't work properly in people with Gaucher disease. Treatment often includes enzyme replacement therapy.


An inherited disorder, Gaucher disease is most common in Jewish people of Eastern and Central European descent (Ashkenazi). Symptoms can appear at any age.

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Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Sexual contact is the primary way that the virus spreads. After the initial infection, the virus lies dormant in your body and can reactivate several times a year.


Genital herpes can cause pain, itching and sores in your genital area. But you may have no signs or symptoms of genital herpes. If infected, you can be contagious even if you have no visible sores.


There's no cure for genital herpes, but medications can ease symptoms and reduce the risk of infecting others. Condoms also can help prevent the spread of a genital herpes infection.

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Geographic tongue is the name of a condition that gets its name from its map-like appearance on the upper surface and sides of the tongue. It may occur in other areas of your mouth, as well.


You'll be relieved to know that geographic tongue is a harmless, benign condition that isn't linked to any infection or cancer. Two other names for geographic tongue are benign migratory glossitis and erythema migrans.


Affecting about 1% to 3% of people, geographic tongue can show up at any age. However, it tends to affect middle-aged or older adults more often. It appears to be more common in women than in men.

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Germ cell tumors are growths that form from reproductive cells. Tumors may be cancerous or noncancerous. Most germ cell tumors that are cancerous occur as cancer of the testicles (testicular cancer) or cancer of the ovaries (ovarian cancer).


Some germ cell tumors occur in other areas of the body, such as the abdomen, brain and chest, though it's not clear why. Germ cell tumors that occur in places other than the testicles and ovaries (extragonadal germ cell tumors) are very rare.


Germ cell tumors tend to respond to treatment and many can be cured, even when diagnosed at a late stage.

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Giardiasis is an infection in your small intestine. It’s caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis spreads through contact with infected people. And you can get giardiasis by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Pet dogs and cats also frequently contract giardia.


This condition can be found all over the world, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, it’s more common in overcrowded developing countries that lack sanitary conditions and water quality control.

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Glioblastoma is an aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Glioblastoma forms from cells called astrocytes that support nerve cells.


Glioblastoma can occur at any age, but tends to occur more often in older adults. It can cause worsening headaches, nausea, vomiting and seizures.


Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme, can be very difficult to treat and a cure is often not possible. Treatments may slow progression of the cancer and reduce signs and symptoms.

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Glioma is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain and spinal cord. Gliomas begin in the gluey supportive cells (glial cells) that surround nerve cells and help them function.

Three types of glial cells can produce tumors. Gliomas are classified according to the type of glial cell involved in the tumor.

Types of glioma include:

Astrocytomas, including astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma

Ependymomas, including anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma

Oligodendrogliomas, including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma

Gliomas can affect your brain function and be life-threatening depending on their location and rate of growth.

Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors.

The type of glioma you have helps determine your treatment and your prognosis. In general, glioma treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and experimental clinical trials.

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Glomerulonephritis (gloe-mer-u-low-nuh-FRY-tis) is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli). Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).


Glomerulonephritis occurs on its own or as part of another disease, such as lupus or diabetes. Severe or prolonged inflammation associated with glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys. Treatment depends on the type of glomerulonephritis you have.

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Golfers elbow or medial epicondylitis is an overuse injury similar to tennis elbow (on the outside of the arm) but causing pain on the inside of the elbow instead. It is sometimes known as throwers elbow or little league elbow. We explain the symptoms, causes and treatment to return you back to full fitness in the shortest time.

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A grand mal seizure causes a loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions. It's the type of seizure most people picture when they think about seizures.


A grand mal seizure — also known as a generalized tonic-clonic seizure — is caused by abnormal electrical activity throughout the brain. Usually, a grand mal seizure is caused by epilepsy. But sometimes, this type of seizure can be triggered by other health problems, such as extremely low blood sugar, a high fever or a stroke.


Many people who have a grand mal seizure never have another one and don't need treatment. But someone who has recurrent seizures may need treatment with daily anti-seizure medications to control and prevent future grand mal seizures.


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Granuloma annulare (gran-u-LOW-muh an-u-LAR-e) is a skin condition that most commonly consists of raised, reddish or skin-colored bumps (lesions) that form ring patterns — usually on your hands and feet.


No one knows exactly what causes granuloma annulare. But it may be triggered by minor skin injuries and certain medications. Some types of granuloma annulare affect adults, and others typically affect children.


In most cases, granuloma annulare isn't itchy or painful, so no treatment is necessary. The lesions usually disappear on their own within two years. If you're bothered by how your skin looks, your doctor can prescribe medications that will speed the disappearance of the lesions.

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Greenstick fractures occur when the force applied to a bone results in bending of the bone such that the structural integrity of the convex surface is overcome. The fact that the integrity of the cortex has been overcome results in fracture of the convex surface. However, the bending force applied does not break the bone completely and the concave surface of the bent bone remains intact.


This can occur following an angulated longitudinal force applied down the bone (e.g. an indirect trauma following a fall on an outstretched arm), or after a force applied perpendicular to the bone (e.g. a direct blow).


This fracture is very different, and much less common, than the torus fracture that results in buckling of the cortex on the concave side of the bend and an intact concave surface.

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Growing pains are often described as an ache or throb in the legs — often in the front of the thighs, the calves or behind the knees. Growing pains tend to affect both legs and occur at night, and may even wake a child from sleep.


Although these pains are called growing pains, there's no evidence that growth hurts. Growing pains may be linked to a lowered pain threshold or, in some cases, to psychological issues.


There's no specific treatment for growing pains. You can make your child more comfortable by putting a warm heating pad on the sore muscles and massaging them.

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The hamstrings are the tendons that attach the large muscles at the back of the thigh to bone. The hamstring muscles are the large muscles that pull on these tendons. It has become common in layman's terminology (and by some medical personnel) to refer to the long muscles at the back of the thigh as the "hamstrings" or "hamstring muscles." Academic anatomists refer to them as the posterior thigh muscles, and more specifically as the semimembranosus, the semitendinosus, and the biceps femoris muscles. These muscles span the thigh, crossing both the hip and the knee. They originate or begin at just below the buttocks, arising from the bone on which we sit (the ischium). They connect by means of their tendons onto the upper parts of the lower leg bones (the tibia and the fibula).


The origin of the word hamstring comes from the old English hamm, meaning thigh. String refers to the characteristic appearance and feel of the tendons just above the back of the knee. Although the tendons are sometimes involved in injuries, this article will refer to the "hamstrings" as the large muscle group at the back of the thigh because the most frequent problems involve this muscle group.

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Hangovers can occur at any time of day, but are usually more common in the morning directly after a night of heavy drinking.


As well as physical symptoms, the person may experience elevated levels of anxiety, regret, shame, embarrassment, and depression. The severity of a hangover is closely linked to how much alcohol was consumed, and whether the sufferer had enough sleep; the less sleep, the worse the hangover.


It is impossible really to say how much alcohol can be safely consumed to avoid a hangover - it depends on the individual and other factors, such as how tired they were before they began drinking, whether they were already dehydrated before the drinking began, whether they drank plenty of water during their drinking session, and how much sleep they got 

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Hemangiomas, or infantile hemangiomas, are noncancerous growths of blood vessels. They’re the most common growths or tumors in children. They usually grow for a period of time and then subside without treatment.


They don’t cause problems in most infants. However, some hemangiomas may open and bleed or ulcerate. This may be painful. Depending on their size and location, they may be disfiguring. Additionally, they may occur with other abnormalities of the central nervous system or spine.


The growths may also occur with other internal hemangiomas. These affect internal organs such as the liver, other parts of the gastrointestinal system, the brain, or organs of the respiratory system. The hemangiomas that affect organs usually don’t cause problems.


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A cough is a common reflex action that clears the throat of mucus or foreign irritants. Coughing to clear the throat is typically an infrequent action, although a number of conditions can cause more frequent bouts of coughing.


In general, a cough that lasts for less than three weeks is an acute cough.


A cough that lasts between 3 and 8 weeks, improving by the end of that period, is a subacute cough.


A persistent cough that lasts more than eight weeks is a chronic cough.


Most cough episodes will clear up, or at least significantly improve, within two weeks. If you cough up blood or have a “barking” cough, talk to your doctor. Any cough that hasn’t improved after a few weeks may be serious, and you should see a doctor.

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Your hip is the joint where your thigh bone meets your pelvis. It is called a ball-and-socket joint, because the ball-like top of your thigh bone fits into a cup-like area within your pelvis, much like a baseball fits into a glove.


Normally, the ball glides smoothly within the socket, but a problem with the ball or socket rim can interfere with smooth motion. This problem can cause hip impingement or femoro acetabular impingement (FAI). It is believed to be a major cause of early osteoarthritis of the hip, particularly in those under age 40.

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Hives — also known as urticaria (ur-tih-KAR-e-uh) — is a skin reaction that causes itchy welts, which can range in size from small spots to large blotches several inches in diameter. Hives can be triggered by exposure to certain foods, medications or other substances.


Angioedema is a related type of swelling that affects deeper layers in your skin, often around your face and lips. In most cases, hives and angioedema are harmless and don't leave any lasting marks, even without treatment.


The most common treatment for hives and angioedema is antihistamine medication. Serious angioedema can be life-threatening if swelling causes your throat or tongue to block your airway.

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Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological condition. It is an inherited disease that happens due to faulty genes. Toxic proteins collect in the brain and cause damage, leading to neurological symptoms.


As parts of the brain deteriorate, this affects movement, behavior, and cognition. It becomes harder to walk, think, reason, swallow, and talk. Eventually, the person will need full-time care. The complications are usually fatal.


There is currently no cure, but treatment can help with symptoms.

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High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication.


It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart.

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Ichthyosis (ick-thee-OH-sis) is a group of skin diseases that causes extremely dry, thick, and scaly skin. The skin often looks like it has fish scales.


There are more than 20 different types of ichthyosis. The most common type is ichthyosis vulgaris (vul-GAR-ris). About 95% of people who develop ichthyosis get this type.


The other types are rare and include harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar type, and x-linked ichthyosis.

Of all the types, ichthyosis vulgaris is the mildest. It often begins in childhood.

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Impetigo (im-puh-TIE-go) is a common and highly contagious skin infection that mainly affects infants and children. Impetigo usually appears as red sores on the face, especially around a child's nose and mouth, and on hands and feet. The sores burst and develop honey-colored crusts.


Treatment with antibiotics is generally recommended to help prevent the spread of impetigo to others. It's important to keep your child home from school or day care until he or she is no longer contagious — usually 24 hours after you begin antibiotic treatment.

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Ingrown toenails occur when the edges or corners of your nails grow into the skin next to the nail. Your big toe is most likely to get an ingrown toenail.


You can treat ingrown toenails at home. However, they can cause complications that might require medical treatment. Your risk of complications is higher if you have diabetes or other conditions that cause poo

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An inguinal hernia occurs in the abdomen near the groin area. They develop when fatty or intestinal tissues push through a weakness in the abdominal wall near the right or left inguinal canal. Each inguinal canal resides at the base of the abdomen.


Both men and woman have inguinal canals. In men, the testes usually descend through their canal by around a few weeks before birth. In women, each canal is the location of passage for the round ligament of the uterus. If you have a hernia in or near this passageway, it results in a protruding bulge. It may be painful during movement.


Many people don’t seek treatment for this type of hernia because it may be small or not cause any symptoms. Prompt medical treatment can help prevent further protrusion and discomfort.

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Interstitial (in-tur-STISH-ul) lung disease describes a large group of disorders, most of which cause progressive scarring of lung tissue. The scarring associated with interstitial lung disease eventually affects your ability to breathe and get enough oxygen into your bloodstream.


Interstitial lung disease can be caused by long-term exposure to hazardous materials, such as asbestos. Some types of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, also can cause interstitial lung disease. In some cases, however, the causes remain unknown.


Once lung scarring occurs, it's generally irreversible. Medications may slow the damage of interstitial lung disease, but many people never regain full use of their lungs. Lung transplant is an option for some people who have interstitial lung disease.

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Jellyfish are a common sea creature found in every ocean. There are many species of jellyfish, all of them with tentacles. Some carry poisonous venom in their tentacles as a method of self-defense against predators. It’s this venom that makes a jellyfish sting so painful.


Most types of jellyfish stings will cause some discomfort, but some can be life-threatening. According to the National Science Foundation, over 500,000 people are stung by jellyfish every year in North America’s Chesapeake Bay alone.

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Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study.

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Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body, often over months or years. Even small amounts of lead can cause serious health problems. Children younger than 6 years are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning, which can severely affect mental and physical development. At very high levels, lead poisoning can be fatal.


Lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust in older buildings are the most common sources of lead poisoning in children. Other sources include contaminated air, water and soil. Adults who work with batteries, do home renovations or work in auto repair shops also might be exposed to lead.


There is treatment for lead poisoning, but taking some simple precautions can help protect you and your family from lead exposure before harm is done.

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A liver hemangioma is a tangled network of blood vessels in or on the surface of the liver. This tumor is noncancerous and usually doesn’t cause symptoms. In fact, most people don’t even know they have a liver hemangioma. It’s usually only discovered during a test or procedure for an unrelated condition. Even when they’re diagnosed, most liver hemangiomas don’t require treatment.


A liver hemangioma is noncancerous and doesn’t increase your risk of developing cancer. The tumor is usually small, measuring less than 4 centimeters in diameter. In some cases, however, it can grow much larger. A larger tumor is more likely to cause symptoms, such as abdominal pain and nausea. Pregnant women and women using estrogen replacement therapy have a higher risk of developing a large hemangioma. This is because estrogen may contribute to the growth of liver hemangiomas.


Most people only have one liver hemangioma. However, it’s possible for several hemangiomas to form on the liver at once.


A liver hemangioma typically doesn’t cause complications in adults, but it can be more dangerous when it develops in infants. In babies, the growth is called infantile hemangioendothelioma. It’s usually diagnosed before the baby is 6 months old. This is a rare condition in infants. Although the tumor isn’t cancerous, it has been linked to higher rates of heart failure.

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Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heart rhythm condition that can potentially cause fast, chaotic heartbeats. These rapid heartbeats might trigger a sudden fainting spell or seizure. In some cases, the heart can beat erratically for so long that it causes sudden death.


You can have a genetic mutation that puts you at risk of being born with congenital long QT syndrome. In addition, certain medications, imbalances of the body's salts and minerals (electrolyte abnormalities), and medical conditions might cause acquired long QT syndrome.


Long QT syndrome is treatable. You might need to take medications to prevent an erratic heart rhythm. In some cases, treatment for long QT syndrome involves surgery or an implantable device.


You'll also need to avoid certain medications that could trigger your long QT syndrome. After treatment, you likely can live and thrive, even with this condition. You may be able to continue being active in recreational — and even competitive — sports.

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Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough testosterone — the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an impaired ability to produce sperm orboth.You may be born with male hypogonadism, or it can develop later in life, often from injury or infection. The effects — and what you can do about them — depend on the cause and at what point in your life male hypogonadism occurs. Some types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy.


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Malignant hyperthermia is a condition that triggers a severe reaction to certain drugs used as part of anesthesia for surgery. Without prompt treatment, the disease can be fatal.The genes that cause malignant hyperthermia are inherited. In most cases, no signs or symptoms of the condition exist until you are exposed to anesthesia.


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A meningioma is a tumor that arises from the meninges — the membranes that surround your brain and spinal cord. Although not technically a brain tumor, it is included in this category because it may compress or squeeze the adjacent brain, nerves and vessels. Meningioma is the most common type of tumor that forms in the head.

Most meningiomas grow very slowly, often over many years without causing symptoms. But in some instances, their effects on adjacent brain tissue, nerves or vessels may cause serious disability.

Meningiomas occur most commonly in women, and are often discovered at older ages, but a meningioma may occur at any age.

Because most meningiomas grow slowly, often without any significant signs and symptoms, they do not always require immediate treatment and may be monitored over time.


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Meralgia paresthetica is a condition characterized by tingling, numbness and burning pain in your outer thigh. The cause of meralgia paresthetica is compression of the nerve that supplies sensation to the skin surface of your thigh.

Tight clothing, obesity or weight gain, and pregnancy are common causes of meralgia paresthetica. However, meralgia paresthetica can also be due to local trauma or a disease, such as diabetes.

In most cases, you can relieve meralgia paresthetica with conservative measures, such as wearing looser clothing. In severe cases, treatment may include medications to relieve discomfort or, rarely, surgery.

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Does your hair feel brittle and stiff? Dyeing, bleaching, straightening or blowing out your hair a lot can damage it over time. These processes dry out your hair and leave it prone to breakage and split ends. Once your hair is damaged, the best way to restore it is to give it time to grow back in healthy and strong. Use deep conditioning treatments to help bring back its luster, and be healthy from the inside out to promote the growth of new healthy hair.

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Metatarsalgia (met-uh-tahr-SAL-juh) is a condition in which the ball of your foot becomes painful and inflamed. You might develop it if you participate in activities that involve running and jumping. There are other causes as well, including foot deformities and shoes that are too tight or too loose.Although generally not serious, metatarsalgia can sideline you. Fortunately, at-home treatments, such as ice and rest, often relieve symptoms. Wearing proper footwear with shock-absorbing insoles or arch supports might prevent or minimize future problems with metatarsalgia.

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Migraine with aura (also called classic migraine) is a headache that strikes after or along with sensory disturbances called aura. These disturbances can include flashes of light, blind spots and other vision changes or tingling in your hand or face.Treatments for migraine with aura and migraine without aura (also called common migraine) are usually the same. You can try to prevent migraine with aura with the same medications and self-care measures used to prevent migraine.

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Between 2 and 3 percent of children younger than 3 are allergic to milk. Although experts once believed that the vast majority of them would outgrow this allergy by the time they turned 3, recent studies contradict this theory. In one study, fewer than 20 percent of children had outgrown their allergy by age 4. Still, about 80 percent of children are likely to outgrow their milk allergy before they are 16.

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  • A molar pregnancy is the result of a genetic error during the fertilization process that leads to a growth of abnormal tissue within the uterus. Molar pregnancies rarely involve a developing embryo, and the growth of this material is rapid compared to normal fetal growth. It has the appearance of a large and random collection of grape-like cell clusters. There are two types of molar pregnancies, “complete,” and “partial.”
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Mold allergies can be tough to outrun. The fungus can grow in your basement, in your bathroom, in the cabinet under your sink where a leak went undetected, in the pile of dead leaves in your backyard and in the field of uncut grass down the road.There are roughly 1,000 species of mold in the United States — many of which aren’t visible to the naked eye. As tiny mold spores become airborne, they can cause allergic reactions in people who have mold allergies.

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Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes. The fluid from the nose is usually clear. Symptom onset is often within minutes following exposure and they can affect sleep, the ability to work, and the ability to concentrate at school. Those whose symptoms are due to pollen typically develop symptoms during specific times of the year. Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, or atopic dermatitis.
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Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum virus). The result of the infection is usually a benign, mild skin disease characterized by lesions (growths) that may appear anywhere on the body. Within 6-12 months, Molluscum contagiosum typically resolves without scarring but may take as long as 4 years.The lesions, known as Mollusca, are small, raised, and usually white, pink, or flesh-colored with a dimple or pit in the center. They often have a pearly appearance. They’re usually smooth and firm. In most people, the lesions range from about the size of a pinhead to as large as a pencil eraser (2 to 5 millimeters in diameter). They may become itchy, sore, red, and/or swollen.Mollusca may occur anywhere on the body including the face, neck, arms, legs, abdomen, and genital area, alone or in groups. The lesions are rarely found on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.


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Myasthenia gravis (my-us-THEE-nee-uh GRAY-vis) is characterized by weakness and rapid fatigue of any of the muscles under your voluntary control.Myasthenia gravis is caused by a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles.There is no cure for myasthenia gravis, but treatment can help relieve signs and symptoms, such as weakness of arm or leg muscles, double vision, drooping eyelids, and difficulties with speech, chewing, swallowing and breathing.Though myasthenia gravis can affect people of any age, it's more common in women younger than 40 and in men older than 60.

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Naegleria (nay-GLEER-e-uh) infection is a rare and usually fatal brain infection caused by an amoeba commonly found in freshwater lakes, rivers and hot springs. Exposure occurs during swimming or other water sports.The amoeba — called Naegleria fowleri — travels up the nose to the brain, where it causes severe damage. Most people who have naegleria infection die within a week.Millions of people are exposed to the amoeba that causes naegleria infection each year, but only a handful of them ever get sick from it. Health officials don't know why some people develop naegleria infection while others don't.Avoiding warm bodies of fresh water and wearing nose clips while in the water may help prevent such infections.

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Nasopharyngeal (nay-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul) carcinoma is cancer that occurs in the nasopharynx, which is located behind your nose and above the back of your throat.Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States. In other parts of the world — specifically Southeast Asia — nasopharyngeal carcinoma occurs much more frequently.Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is difficult to detect early. That's probably because the nasopharynx isn't easy to examine and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma mimic those of other, more-common conditions.Treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma usually involves radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of the two. You can work with your doctor to determine the exact approach depending on your particular situation

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Nearsightedness (myopia) is a common vision condition in which you can see objects near to you clearly, but objects farther away are blurry.Nearsightedness may develop gradually or rapidly, often worsening during childhood and adolescence. Nearsightedness tends to run in families.A basic eye exam can confirm nearsightedness. You can easily correct the condition with eyeglasses or contact lenses. Another treatment option for nearsightedness is surgery.

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Your doctor can usually diagnose nickel allergy based on your skin's appearance, and a recent exposure to items that may contain nickel.If the cause of your rash isn't apparent, however, your doctor may recommend a patch test (contact hypersensitivity allergy test). He or she may refer you to an allergy specialist (allergist) or a skin specialist (dermatologist) for this test.

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A nightmare is a disturbing dream associated with negative feelings, such as anxiety or fear that awakens you. Nightmares are common in children, but can happen at any age, and occasional nightmares usually are nothing to worry about.Nightmares may begin in children between 3 and 6 years old and tend to decrease after the age of 10. During the teen and young adult years, girls appear to have nightmares more often than boys do. Some people have them as adults or throughout their lives.Although nightmares are common, nightmare disorder is relatively rare. Nightmare disorder is when nightmares happen often, cause distress, disrupt sleep, cause problems with daytime functioning or create fear of going to sleep.

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Nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is a clinical syndrome comprising symptoms consistent with allergic rhinitis in which an absence of atopy has been demonstrated by allergen skin testing, and nasal cytology analysis demonstrates more than 20% eosinophils. Anosmia is a prominent feature not shared with allergic rhinitis. The pathophysiology of NARES is poorly understood, but a key component involves a self-perpetuating, chronic eosinophilic nasal inflammation with development of nasal micropolyposis and polyposis. Mast cells likely play an important role as well. NARES is a risk factor for the development of nasal polyposis and aspirin sensitivity, as well as obstructive sleep apnea. Treatment consists mainly of intranasal corticosteroids with or without the addition of second-generation antihistamines and/or leukotriene-receptor antagonists.

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Oligodendrogliomas are generally soft, grayish-pink tumors. They often contain mineral deposits (called calcifications), areas of hemorrhage, and/or cysts. Under the microscope, these tumor cells appear to have “short arms,” or a fried-egg shape.

Sometimes oligodendrogliomas are mixed with other cell types. These tumors may be graded using an “A to D” system, which is based on microscopic features of the individual tumor cells. The grade indicates how quickly the tumor cells reproduce and how aggressive the tumor is.

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The bones of children and adolescents possess a special area where the bone is growing called the growth plate. Growth plates are areas of cartilage located near the ends of bones. When a child is fully grown, the growth plates harden into solid bone.Some growth plates serve as attachment sites for tendons, the strong tissues that connect muscles to bones. A bony bump called the tibial tubercle covers the growth plate at the end of the tibia. The group of muscles in the front of the thigh (called the quadriceps) attaches to the tibial tubercle.When a child is active, the quadriceps muscles pull on the patellar tendon which in turn, pulls on the tibial tubercle. In some children, this repetitive traction on the tubercle leads to inflammation of the growth plate. The prominence, or bump, of the tibial tubercle may become very pronounced.

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A paraganglioma is a rare tumor that begins in certain nerve cells that are dispersed throughout the body. This tumor can affect people of any age but most often shows up between the ages of 30 and 50. The tumor is often slow growing and noncancerous (benign). But it can invade nearby parts of the body, become cancerous (malignant) and spread distantly (metastasize).With about half of paraganglioma tumors, the abnormal cells produce hormones known as catecholamines or adrenaline, which is the fight-or-flight hormone. This may induce high blood pressure, a rapid heartbeat, flushed skin, sweating, headache and tremors.Surgery to remove the tumor is usually the first treatment choice for a paraganglioma, if feasible. If left untreated, a paraganglioma can result in severe or life-threatening damage and progress to the point where surgical treatment isn't an option. In people with cancerous and distantly spread (metastatic) paraganglioma, medicine and other treatments can help control the disease and symptoms and even extend survival.


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Many schools have declared that they are “nut-free,” meaning that the onetime staple of kids’ lunchboxes — a peanut butter and jelly sandwich — is nowhere to be found on school grounds these days. That’s because peanuts can cause a life-threatening reaction in some people. Peanuts are one of the food allergens most commonly associated with anaphylaxis, a sudden and potentially deadly condition that requires immediate attention and treatment.In recent years, awareness about peanut allergy in children has risen, as has the number of peanut allergy cases reported. In May 2010, a study noted that the rate of peanut allergies in children, as reported in a telephone survey, had more than tripled between 1997 and 2008.There are several misconceptions about peanut allergies. A peanut is a legume (belonging to the same family as soybeans, peas and lentils), not a tree nut. And while it was previously believed that an allergy to peanuts was lifelong, research by the National Institutes of Health shows that about 20 percent of individuals with a peanut allergy eventually outgrow it.


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Pemphigus is a group of rare skin disorders that cause blisters and sores on the skin or mucous membranes, such as in the mouth or on the genitals.The two main types are pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. Pemphigus vulgaris usually starts in your mouth. It can be painful. Pemphigus foliaceus affects the skin and tends to be more itchy than painful. Pemphigus can occur at any age, but it's most often seen in people who are middle-aged or older.Pemphigus is not to be confused with bullous pemphigoid, another blistering skin condition. Usually a chronic condition, pemphigus is best controlled by early diagnosis and treatment. Treatment may include medications and therapies similar to those used for severe burns

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Penicillin allergy is an abnormal reaction of your immune system to the antibiotic drug penicillin. Penicillin is prescribed for treating various bacterial infections.


Common signs and symptoms of penicillin allergy include hives, rash and itching. Severe reactions include anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition that affects multiple body systems.


Research has shown that penicillin allergies may be over-reported — a problem that can result in the use of less appropriate and more expensive antibiotic treatments. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is needed when penicillin allergy is suspected to ensure the best treatment options in the future.


Other antibiotics, particularly those with chemical properties similar to penicillin, can also result in allergic reactions.

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If your nose runs and your eyes water or you start sneezing and wheezing after petting or playing with a cat, you likely have a cat allergy. A cat allergy can contribute to constant allergy symptoms, as exposure can occur at work, school, day care or in other indoor environments, even if a cat is not present.

Cats produce multiple allergens (proteins that can cause allergy). These allergens are found on the fur and skin and in saliva. All cats produce allergens; studies have not shown that cats can be hypoallergenic (meaning that they don’t cause allergy). Homes with more than one cat have higher levels of cat allergens. Characteristics such as the length of a cat’s hair, its sex and the amount of time a cat spends indoors are not associated with cat allergen levels.Dust and pollen in a cat’s coat can also cause allergy symptoms. In those cases, the allergy is to the dust or pollen, not to the cat.

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Polymyalgia rheumatica (sometimes referred to as PMR) is a common cause of widespread aching and stiffness that affects adults over the age of 50, especially Caucasians. Because polymyalgia rheumatica does not often cause swollen joints, it may be hard to recognize. It may occur with another health problem, giant cell arteritis.


The average age when symptoms start is 70, so people who have PMR may be in their 80s or even older. The disease affects women somewhat more often than men. It is more frequent in whites than nonwhites, but all races can get PMR.

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Postherpetic neuralgia (also termed PHN) is a condition of recurring or persistent pain in an area of the body that has undergone an outbreak of herpes zoster virus (HZ), also known as the varicella zoster virus, commonly termed shingles. It usually begins after shingles lesions (blisters) begin to crust over and heal but may occur in some patients who do not produce lesions. Some investigators suggest the pain has to be present for three months to be termed PHN.


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What Is an Allergy?

This article explains the basics of an allergic reaction. Learn what happens when your immune system goes on high alert.

Who Gets Allergies?

Anyone can get them, at any age. You could develop them as a child, or you might not have any symptoms until you’re an adult.

What Causes an Allergic Reaction?

While your problem may seem to start in the nose or the eyes, allergies actually come from an immune system run wild.

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Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants.


Every medicine has some risk of side effects. Doctors take this into account when prescribing medicines. People who abuse these drugs may not understand the risks. The medicines may not be safe for them, especially at higher doses or when taken with other medicines.

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Pseudogout is a type of inflammation of joints (arthritis) that is caused by deposits of crystals, called calcium pyrophosphate, in and around the joints. Pseudogout literally means "false gout." It derives its name from its similarity to gout.

Pseudogout has many similarities to true gout, which also can cause arthritis. However, the crystal that incites the inflammation of gout is monosodium urate. The crystals that cause pseudogout and gout each have distinct appearances when joint fluid containing them is viewed under a microscope. This makes it possible to precisely identify the cause of the joint inflammation when joint fluid is available.

Pseudogout has been reported to occasionally coexist with gout. This means that the two types of crystals can sometimes be found in the same joint fluid. Researchers have also noted that the cartilage of patients who had both forms of crystals in their joint fluid was often visibly calcified, as seen on X-ray images.

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Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon, ulcerative cutaneous condition of uncertain etiology. It is associated with systemic diseases in at least 50% of patients who are affected. [1, 2] The diagnosis is made by excluding other causes of similar-appearing cutaneous ulcerations, including infection, malignancy, vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, diabetes, and trauma. In a process termed pathergy, new ulcerations may occur after trauma or injury to the skin in 30% of patients who already have pyoderma gangrenosum. (See Presentation, DDx, and Workup.)Patients with pyoderma gangrenosum may have involvement of other organ systems that manifests as sterile neutrophilic infiltrates. Culture-negative pulmonary infiltrates are the most common extracutaneous manifestation. [3] Other organs systems that may be involved include the heart, the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the eyes, [4, 5] the liver, the spleen, the bones, and the lymph nodes. (See Presentation and Workup.)n Therapy for pyoderma gangrenosum involves the use of anti-inflammatory agents, including antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, and biologic agents. The prognosis is generally good; however, the disease can recur and residual scarring is common. (See Prognosis, Treatment, and Medication.)


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A rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is an epithelial-lined tract between the rectum and vagina. For thousands of years, women simply tolerated the distressing symptoms generated by RVFs. Today, there is no need for such tolerance, because most RVFs can be surgically corrected via a number of approaches. [1] A small percentage, however, cannot be corrected, because of patient comorbidity or disease-related factors; in these cases, patients can be helped only by fecal diversion. [2]  This article discusses only acquired RVFs. Most RVFs are located at or just above the dentate line. Fistulas below the dentate line are not true RVFs but, rather, anovaginal fistulas; the treatment required for these differs from that required for RVFs.

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Ejaculation is the ejection of semen out of the urethra (passageway inside the penis) when a man has an orgasm. Under normal circumstances, ejaculation propels semen forward through a man's urethra and out the tip of his penis. This is because a tiny sphincter (circular muscle) at the entrance to the bladder shuts the opening to the bladder and prevents semen from entering. Retrograde ejaculation is when the semen travels backwards into the bladder.


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Ringworm of the body is a fungal infection that develops on the top layer of your skin. It's characterized by a red circular rash with clearer skin in the middle. It may itch. Ringworm gets its name because of its appearance. No actual worm is involved. Also called tinea corporis, ringworm of the body is closely related to athlete's foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris) and ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis). Ringworm often spreads by direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or animal. Mild ringworm often responds to antifungal medications that you apply to your skin. For more-severe infections, you may need to take antifungal pills for several weeks


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Ringworm is a common skin disorder otherwise known as “tinea” or “dermatophytosis.” It is caused by a fungus that can live on skin, surfaces like locker room floors, and household items like towels, bedding, and clothes. While there are multiple forms of ringworm, the most common forms affect:


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Salivary gland tumors are rare types of tumors that begin in the salivary glands.


Salivary gland tumors can begin in any of the salivary glands in your mouth, neck or throat. Salivary glands make saliva, which aids in digestion, keeps your mouth moist and supports healthy teeth.


You have three pairs of major salivary glands under and behind your jaw — parotid, sublingual and submandibular. Many other tiny salivary glands are in your lips, inside your cheeks, and throughout your mouth and throat.


Salivary gland tumors most commonly occur in the parotid gland, accounting for nearly 85 percent of all salivary gland tumors. Approximately 25 percent of parotid tumors are cancerous (malignant).


Treatment for salivary gland tumors often involves surgery. Treatments for salivary gland tumors may also include radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

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Sclerosing mesenteritis, also called mesenteric panniculitis, occurs when the tissue (mesentery) that holds the small intestines in place becomes inflamed and forms scar tissue. Sclerosing mesenteritis is rare, and it's not clear what causes it.


Sclerosing mesenteritis can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea and fever. But some people experience no signs and symptoms and may never need treatment.


In rare cases, scar tissue formed by sclerosing mesenteritis can block food from moving through your digestive tract. In this case, you may need surgery.

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Scorpions use their sting to capture prey and to defend themselves. They hunt at night and will not sting unless provoked or they feel threatened. All scorpions use their stings as a defense mechanism or a weapon to incapacitate prey. But the potency to humans of stings varies, depending on the scorpion species. One thing that all scorpions have in common is that the sting possesses venom, which usually is neurotoxic in nature.






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Selective IgA deficiency is one of the most common types of PI. These individuals lack IgA, but usually have normal amounts of other immunoglobulins (antibodies). Many people go undiagnosed because they are never sick enough to be seen by a doctor, while others may develop a variety of severe problems.


Selective IgA Deficiency

IgA protects the body at surfaces that come in contact with the environment. These sites are the mucosal surfaces—mouth, ears, sinuses, nose, throat, airways within the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and genitals.


IgA antibodies are transported in secretions to these mucosal surfaces and play a role in protecting them from infection, which is why IgA is known as a secretory antibody. Because the area of a person's mucosal surfaces is equal to 1.5 tennis courts, the importance of IgA in protecting these surfaces cannot be overstated.


Although people with selective IgA deficiency do not produce IgA, they do produce all the other immunoglobulins. In addition, the other aspects of their immune systems function properly.


The causes of selective IgA deficiency remain unknown. It is likely there are a variety of causes that vary from person to person.


Low serum IgA, like absent serum IgA, is relatively common. Most people with low serum IgA have no apparent illness; others have symptoms similar to 


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Nonsuicidal self-injury, often simply called self-injury, is the act of deliberately harming the surface of your own body, such as cutting or burning yourself. It's typically not meant as a suicide attempt. Rather, this type of self-injury is an unhealthy way to cope with emotional pain, intense anger and frustration. While self-injury may bring a momentary sense of calm and a release of tension, it's usually followed by guilt and shame and the return of painful emotions. Although life-threatening injuries are usually not intended, with self-injury comes the possibility of more serious and even fatal self-aggressive actions.


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Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella (shih-GEHL-uh). Most who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5 to 7 days. Some people who are infected may have no symptoms at all, but may still pass the Shigella bacteria to others. The spread of Shigella can be stopped by frequent and careful handwashing with soap and taking other hygiene measures.


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Sjögren syndrome is a systemic chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltrates in exocrine organs. Most individuals with Sjögren syndrome present with sicca symptoms, such as xerophthalmia (dry eyes), xerostomia (dry mouth), and parotid gland enlargement, which is seen in the image below. [1] (See Presentation.)

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Sleep terrors are episodes of screaming, intense fear and flailing while still asleep. Also known as night terrors, sleep terrors often are paired with sleepwalking. Like sleepwalking, sleep terrors are considered a parasomnia — an undesired occurrence during sleep. A sleep terror episode usually lasts from seconds to a few minutes, but episodes may last longer. Sleep terrors affect almost 40 percent of children and a much smaller percentage of adults. However frightening, sleep terrors aren't usually a cause for concern. Most children outgrow sleep terrors by their teenage yearsSleep terrors may require treatment if they cause problems getting enough sleep or they pose a safety risk.

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Sleepwalking, formally known as somnambulism, is a behavior disorder that originates during deep sleep and results in walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep. It is much more common in children than adults and is more likely to occur if a person is sleep deprived. Because a sleepwalker typically remains in deep sleep throughout the episode, he or she may be difficult to awaken and will probably not remember the sleepwalking incident.

Sleepwalking usually involves more than just walking during sleep; it is a series of complex behaviors that are carried out while sleeping, the most obvious of which is walking. Symptoms of sleepwalking disorder range from simply sitting up in bed and looking around, to walking around the room or house, to leaving the house and even driving long distances. It is a common misconception that a sleepwalker should not be awakened. In fact, it can be quite dangerous not to wake a sleepwalker.

The prevalence of sleepwalking in the general population is estimated to be between 1% and 15%. The onset or persistence of sleepwalking in adulthood is common, and is usually not associated with any significant underlying psychiatric or psychological problems. Common triggers for sleepwalking include sleep deprivation, sedative agents (including alcohol), febrile illnesses, and certain medications.

The prevalence of sleepwalking is much higher for children, especially those between the ages of three and seven, and occurs more often in children with sleep apnea. There is also a higher instance of sleepwalking among children who experience bedwetting. Sleep terrors are a related disorder and both tend to run in families.


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Allergy to soy, a product of soybeans, is a common food allergy. Often, soy allergy starts in infancy with reaction to soy-based infant formula. Although most children outgrow soy allergy, some carry the allergy into adulthood.Mild signs and symptoms of soy allergy include hives or itching in and around the mouth. In rare cases, soy allergy can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).If you or your child has a reaction to soy, let your doctor know. Tests can help confirm a soy allergy.Having a soy allergy means avoiding products that contain soy, which can be difficult. Many foods, such as meat products, bakery goods, chocolate and breakfast cereals, may contain soy.

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Stuttering affects the fluency of speech. It begins during childhood and, in some cases, lasts throughout life. The disorder is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds, also called "disfluencies." Most people produce brief disfluencies from time to time. For instance, some words are repeated and others are preceded by "um" or "uh." Disfluencies are not necessarily a problem; however, they can impede communication when a person produces too many of them.In most cases, stuttering has an impact on at least some daily activities. The specific activities that a person finds challenging to perform vary across individuals. For some people, communication difficulties only happen during specific activities, for example, talking on the telephone or talking before large groups. For most others, however, communication difficulties occur across a number of activities at home, school, or work. Some people may limit their participation in certain activities. Such "participation restrictions" often occur because the person is concerned about how others might react to disfluent speech. Other people may try to hide their disfluent speech from others by rearranging the words in their sentence (circumlocution), pretending to forget what they wanted to say, or declining to speak. Other people may find that they are excluded from participating in certain activities because of stuttering. Clearly, the impact of stuttering on daily life can be affected by how the person and others react to the disorder.

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The subarachnoid space is the area between the brain and the skull. It is normally filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which acts as a floating cushion to protect the brain (see Anatomy of the Brain When blood is released into the subarachnoid space, it irritates the lining of the brain, increases pressure on the brain, and damages brain cells. At the same time, the area of brain that previously received oxygen-rich blood from the affected artery is now deprived of blood, resulting in a stroke. SAH is frequently a sign of a ruptured aneurysm


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Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that's been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is polymorphic light eruption, also known as sun poisoning.Some people have a hereditary type of sun allergy, while others develop signs and symptoms only when triggered by another factor — such as certain types of medications or skin exposure to plants such as limes or wild parsnip.Mild cases of sun allergy may resolve without treatment. More severe cases may require steroid creams or pills. People who have a severe sun allergy may need to take preventative measures and wear sun-protective clothing.

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Drug addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the drug addict and those around them. Drug addiction is a brain disease because the abuse of drugs leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain. Although it is true that for most people the initial decision to take drugs is voluntary, over time the changes in the brain caused by repeated drug abuse can impair a person's self-control and ability to make sound decisions, and at the same time create an intense impulse to take drugs.


It is because of these changes in the brain that it is so challenging for a person to stop abusing drugs. Fortunately, there are treatments that help people to counteract addiction's powerful disruptive effects and regain control of their lives. Research shows that combining addiction treatment medications, when appropriate, with behavioral therapy is the best way to ensure success for most patients. Treatment approaches that are tailored to each patient's drug abuse patterns and any concurrent medical, psychiatric, and social problems can help achieve  sustained recovery and a life without drugs.


As with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, drug addiction can be managed effectively. Yet, it is not uncommon for a person to relapse and begin abusing drugs again. Relapse does not signal failure; rather, it indicates that treatment should be reinstated or adjusted, or that alternate treatment is needed to help the person regain control and recover.

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Syringomyelia is a rare disorder in which a cyst forms within your spinal cord. As this fluid-filled cyst, or syrinx, expands and lengthens over time, it compresses and damages part of your spinal cord from its center outward.Damage to the spinal cord caused by a syrinx can lead to symptoms such as progressive pain, stiffness, and weakness in the:back shoulders arms legs People with the disorder might lose the ability to feel cold and pain normally. Some people with this disorder won’t have any symptoms and won’t need treatment. For others, syringomyelia will cause symptoms and complications that worsen as the syrinx expands.Treatment aims to relieve the pressure on your spinal cord. The treatment your doctor suggests for you will depend on the cause of your syringomyelia. Follow-up care after surgery is important because syringomyelia can reoccur.

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Tetralogy of Fallot (teh-TRAL-uh-jee of fuh-LOW) is a rare condition caused by a combination of four heart defects that are present at birth (congenital).These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause oxygen-poor blood to flow out of the heart and to the rest of the body. Infants and children with tetralogy of Fallot usually have blue-tinged skin because their blood doesn't carry enough oxygen.Tetralogy of Fallot is often diagnosed during infancy or soon after. However, tetralogy of Fallot might not be detected until later in life in some adults, depending on the severity of the defects and symptoms.With early diagnosis followed by appropriate surgical treatment, most children and adults who have tetralogy of Fallot live relatively normal lives, though they'll need regular medical care throughout life and might have restrictions on exercise

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The term tetraplegia refers to a condition that causes total or partial paralysis in all four limbs, including the whole of the body. Tetraplegia can be caused by injury or illness, both  of which can damage the spinal cord permanently between the levels of  C1 - 7. The term tetraplegic refers to an individual who suffers from tetraplegia. Quadriplegic is the American terminology for tetraplegic.

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Transient global amnesia is a sudden, temporary episode of memory loss that can't be attributed to a more common neurological condition, such as epilepsy or stroke.During an episode of transient global amnesia, your recall of recent events simply vanishes, so you can't remember where you are or how you got there. In addition, you may not remember anything about what's happening in the here and now. Consequently, you may keep repeating the same questions because you don't remember the answers you've just been given. You may also draw a blank when asked to remember things that happened a day, a month or even a year ago.With transient global amnesia, you do remember who you are, and recognize the people you know well. But that doesn't make your memory loss less disturbing.Fortunately, transient global amnesia is rare, seemingly harmless and unlikely to happen again. Episodes are usually short-lived, and afterward your memory is fine.

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Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), an inflammatory vasculopathy also known as Buerger disease, is characterized by an inflammatory endarteritis that causes a prothrombotic state and subsequent vaso-occlusive phenomena. The inflammatory process is initiated within the tunica intima. It characteristically affects small and medium-sized arteries as well as veins of the upper and lower extremities. The condition is strongly associated with heavy tobacco use, and disease progression is closely linked to continued use. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.)Patients often present with moderate-to-severe claudication that can quickly progress to critical limb ischemia featuring rest pain or tissue loss. Features of acute limb ischemia (eg, pain, paresthesia, palor, mottling, poikilothermia, paresis, and pulselessness) are common signs and symptoms encountered in the emergency setting. [1, 2, 3, 4] (See Presentation.)Pharmacologic therapy is generally ineffective; abstinence from tobacco is the only measure known to prevent disease progression. (See Treatment.) Given the arteritis of the small and medium-sized vessels, surgical or endovascular revascularization may not be possible, because of the absence of a distal target for revascularization. As the disease evolves, amputation may be the only viable option.


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There are two parts to your tongue: the oral tongue and the base of the tongue. Cancer can develop in either part.The oral tongue is the part you see when you poke your tongue out at someone. This is the front two thirds of your tongue. Cancers that develop in this part of the tongue come under a group of cancers called mouth (oral) cancer.The base of the tongue is the back third of the tongue. This part is very near your throat (pharynx). Cancers that develop in this part are called oropharyngeal cancers (pronounced oar-o-farin-gee-al

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Trigger finger is a painful condition that causes the fingers or thumb to catch or lock when bent. In the thumb its called trigger thumb.Trigger finger happens when tendons in the finger or thumb become inflamed. Tendons are tough bands of tissue that connect muscles and bones. Together, the tendons and muscles in the hands and arms bend and straighten the fingers and thumbs.A tendon usually glides easily through the tissue that covers it (called a sheath) because of a lubricating membrane surrounding the joint called the synovium. Sometimes a tendon may become inflamed and swollen. Prolonged irritation of the tendon sheath can produce scarring and thickening that impede the tendon's motion. When this happens, bending the finger or thumb can pull the inflamed tendon through a narrowed tendon sheath, making it snap or pop.

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Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body, despite trying to stop.Hair pulling from the scalp often leaves patchy bald spots, which causes significant distress and can interfere with social or work functioning. People with trichotillomania may go to great lengths to disguise the loss of hair.For some people, trichotillomania may be mild and generally manageable. For others, the compulsive urge to pull hair is overwhelming. Some treatment options have helped many people reduce their hair pulling or stop entirely.

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Transposition of the great arteries is a serious but rare heart defect present at birth (congenital), in which the two main arteries leaving the heart are reversed (transposed). The condition is also called dextro-transposition of the great arteries. A rarer type of this condition is called levo-transposition of the great arteries.Transposition of the great arteries changes the way blood circulates through the body, leaving a shortage of oxygen in blood flowing from the heart to the rest of the body. Without an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood, the body can't function properly and your child faces serious complications or death without treatment.Transposition of the great arteries is usually detected either prenatally or within the first hours to weeks of life.Corrective surgery soon after birth is the usual treatment for transposition of the great arteries. Having a baby with transposition of the great arteries can be alarming, but with proper treatment, the outlook is promising

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Unstable angina belongs to the spectrum of clinical presentations referred to collectively as acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), which also includes ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI). [1, 2] Unstable angina is considered to be an ACS in which there is myocardial ischemia without detectable myocardial necrosis (ie, cardiac biomarkers of myocardial necrosis —such as creatine kinase MB isozyme, troponin, myoglobin—are not released into the circulation). See the image below.

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Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the eye and visual system. The eye, its surrounding structures and the visual system can be affected by a number of clinical conditions. Ophthalmology involves diagnosis and therapy of such conditions, along with microsurgery. Eye health services are becoming more and more important as the UK population ages. An ageing population means there are more and more incidences of age-related diseases of the eye, such as age-related macular degeneration. These eye diseases can be successfully treated if caught early, and can be managed effectively with existing treatments and medicines. Cataracts are the main cause of impaired vision worldwide, and in England and Wales it is estimated that around 2.5 million people aged 65 or older have some degree of visual impairment caused by cataracts. Cataract surgery is the second most common operation performed in the NHS in England – over 300,000 procedures are performed each year. Patients and members of the general public can view more information about eye conditions and treatments in our ‘For Patients‘ section.


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Look around. There are countless articles in magazines and online about gaining size and strength. Everyone wants to get strong, and everyone wants to add muscle, but most don’t achieve the goal. Why? A number of reasons, including ridiculous exercise selection, poor programming, and—from what I’ve seen as a coach for almost 25 years—bad form.If you’re willing to do the hard work and make the commitment to using perfect form, I’ve got the ultimate plan for you: an eight-week guide to getting stronger than you ever thought you could.It’s a simple plan based on compound movements, high-repetition heavy lifting, and maximum-effort training. Throw in the right assistance work and you’ve got a plan for success.


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At the foundation of fusion yoga is a community of people coming together to practice yoga as a way to be free of pain, to think more clearly, and to have a better relationship with the world.  Fusion yoga is a supporting, exciting, and empowering experience for yoga practitioners of every level. Whether you're new or highly experienced, you'll find a class offering that meets your needs.  Our yoga classes are meant to challenge you mentally and physically.  All classes ask you to look within- to tap into your own innate needs, potential and expression as you cultivate your own experience.


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Yoga is a science, that is, it is a body of techniques that lead us to consciously connect with ourselves and with life, the experience of yoga. As yoga is a science, there is no dogma or belief system attached to it. Yoga simply tells us to do a certain practice and then to feel the effect of that practice, e.g. if we breath slowly in a relaxed manner we will slow our heart rate; if we focus the mind we will develop mental peace and deep insight.


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Gym workouts can help you burn calories and lose fat, gain strength, tone muscle groups and develop an overall sense of well-being. To add a twist to your regular workout routine, get together with one or more others at your gym and play a few gym workout games. Be sure all game participants stay hydrated before, during and after the workout. Consult your physician before beginning an exercise program.


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An ECG (electrocardiogram) records the electrical activity of your heart at rest. It provides information about your heart rate and rhythm, and shows if there is enlargement of the heart due to high blood pressure (hypertension) or evidence of a previous heart attack (myocardial infarction). However, it does not show whether you have asymptomatic blockages in your heart arteries or predict your risk of a future heart attack. The resting ECG is different from a stress or exercise ECG or cardiac imaging test. You may need an ECG test if you have risk factors for heart disease such as high blood pressure, or symptoms such as palpitations or chest pain. Or you may need it if you already have heart disease. But in other cases, you may think twice about having this test.

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An echocardiogram (echo) is a graphic outline of the heart's movement. During an echo test, ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) from a hand-held wand placed on your chest provides pictures of the heart's valves and chambers and helps the sonographer evaluate the pumping action of the heart. Echo is often combined with Doppler ultrasound and color Doppler to evaluate blood flow across the heart's valves.

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Pica is the persistent eating of substances such as dirt or paint that have no nutritional value.

The Handbook of Clinical Child Psychologycurrently estimates that prevalence rates of pica range from 4%-26% among institutionalized populations. Research among non-institutionalized populations takes the form of individual case studies, making prevalence rates difficult to estimate.
 
 
 

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Fetal echocardiography is a test similar to an ultrasound. This exam allows your doctor to better see the structure and function of your unborn child’s heart. It’s typically done in the second trimester, between weeks 18 to 24.


The exam uses sound waves that “echo” off of the structures of the fetus’ heart. A machine analyzes these sound waves and creates a picture, or echocardiogram, of their heart’s interior. This image provides information on how your baby’s heart has formed and whether it’s working properly.


It also allows your doctor to see the blood flow through their heart. This in-depth look allows your doctor to find any defects or abnormalities in the baby’s blood flow or heartbeat.

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The child will lie down tilted slightly on his / her side on a hospital bed in our child-friendly examination room, not an operating room. Many exam rooms are equipped with a television to keep a child entertained and alleviate boredom. The child must be undressed from the waist up and can choose to wear a short gown.


To improve the quality of the pictures, a colorless, warm gel is applied to the skin on the area of the chest where the heart is located. A transducer, a small microphone-like device, is placed on top of the gel and against the skin. The transducer uses sound waves, which bounce off the different parts of a child's heart, creating a picture.


The transducer is moved over the chest, abdominal area, and neck in order to obtain the images.


The sounds you may hear from the echo machine are the sounds of the blood flowing from one chamber to another and the valves opening or closing as the blood moves through the heart.


The colors you see on the screen are not the colors of the blood. The colors tell us what direction the blood is flowing. The red color shows the blood is flowing towards the transducer and the blue color shows blood is flowing away. A child may feel some discomfort from the pressure of the transducer. Pediatric echosonographers are trained to complete scans in as pain-free and patient-sensitive manner as possible. 


A computer interprets the information from the transducer to make an image of the heart appear on the screen. This image is recorded into a digital storage system for the cardiologist to measure and review. 

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A stress echocardiography, also called an echocardiography stress test or stress echo, is a procedure that determines how well your heart and blood vessels are working.


During a stress echocardiography, you’ll exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike while your doctor monitors your blood pressure and heart rhythm. When your heart rate reaches peak levels, your doctor will take ultrasound images of your heart to determine whether your heart muscles are getting enough blood and oxygen while you exercise.


Your doctor may order a stress echocardiography test if you have chest pain that they think is due to coronary artery disease or a myocardial infarction, which is a heart attack. This test also determines how much exercise you can safely tolerate if you’re in cardiac rehabilitation. The test can also tell your doctor how well treatments such as bypass grafting, angioplasty, and anti-anginal or antiarrhythmic medications are working.

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An electromyogram (EMG) measures the electrical activity of muscles when they're at rest and when they're being used. Nerve conduction studies measure how well and how fast the nerves can send electrical signals.


Nerves control the muscles in the body with electrical signals called impulses. These impulses make the muscles react in certain ways. Nerve and muscle problems cause the muscles to react in ways that aren't normal.


If you have leg pain or numbness, you may have these tests to find out which nerves are being affected and how much they are affected. These tests check how well your spinal nerves are working. They also check the nerves in your arms and legs.

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We reviewed the records of 52 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients examined between 1995 and 2000 who had needle electromyography (EMG) of their respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, at or near the time of their diagnosis. With respiratory function testing, patients with abnormal diaphragmatic EMG at diagnosis (Group 1, n=23) had significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC), lower daytime arterial PO(2) and higher PCO(2) measurements (p<0.05) than patients with normal diaphragmatic EMG (Group 2, n=29). Twenty-eight percent of the patients without symptoms or signs of respiratory insufficiency at the time they were examined had an abnormal diaphragm EMG. Mean survival of Groups 1 and 2 were similar. However, sub-analysis of patients within each group, comparing those treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with those not treated, showed that treated patients in Group 1 (abnormal diaphragm EMG) survived significantly longer (p<0.05) than untreated patients. They also started NIPPV earlier than treated patients in Group 2. We conclude that respiratory muscle EMG was simply and safely performed on ALS patients at or around the time of diagnosis. The procedure can detect sub-clinical respiratory muscle dysfunction. The technique used for EMG of the respiratory muscles, its pitfalls and contraindications are also reviewed.

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Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure that evaluates the health condition of muscles and the nerve cells that control them. These nerve cells are known as motor neurons. They transmit electrical signals that cause muscles to contract and relax. An EMG translates these signals into graphs or numbers, helping doctors to make a diagnosis.


A doctor will usually order an EMG when someone is showing symptoms of a muscle or nerve disorder. These symptoms may include tingling, numbness, or unexplained weakness in the limbs. EMG results can help the doctor diagnose muscle disorders, nerve disorders, and disorders affecting the connection between nerves and muscles.


There are two components to an EMG test: the nerve conduction study and needle EMG. The nerve conduction study is the first part of the procedure. It involves placing small sensors called surface electrodes on the skin to assess the ability of the motor neurons to send electrical signals. The second part of the EMG procedure, known as needle EMG, also uses sensors to evaluate electrical signals. The sensors are called needle electrodes, and they are directly inserted into muscle tissue to evaluate muscle activity when at rest and when contracted.


During each part of the EMG procedure, one electrode releases a very mild electrical signal while the other electrodes measure how long it takes for the signal to reach them. This mimics the natural electrical signals sent by the nerves to the muscles. The distance between the electrodes and time it takes for a signal to reach them is used to determine the speed at which the nerves are able to send and receive signals. An abnormal speed usually indicates a muscle or nerve disorder.

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This course shows you videos of the commonly studied muscles in the upper extremity, insertional activity and muscle activation and motor unit analysis techniques to help you gain a working understanding of the technical skills you need to perform needle EMG examinations. The video will focus on muscle localization and needle insertion techniques, what results you should expect, how to study the shape, amplitude and duration of motor unit waveforms, pitfalls and common errors you should watch for. Muscles studied include the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI), the Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB), the Flexor Carpi Radialis (FCR) the Brachio-Radialis (BR), the Triceps (TRI), the Deltoid (DEL) and the Cervical Paraspinals.

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This test measures the integrity of nerve tracts which conduct the electric impulses. It is used to assess the nature, severity and duration of the nerve lesion and in combination with EMG helps in predicting the chances of recovery after a nerve lesion.The nerves of interest are stimulated with a very low voltage electric current which causes mild tingling over the area stimulated. The test takes 20 min to 1 hour depending upon the number of nerves to be tested. It is very useful, in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, traumatic neuropathy, plexopathy, varius vitamin deficiencies.

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This test is used to test the nerves and muscles in your entire lower extremity. Your doctor will usually order this test when he suspects that there may be some type of problem with the nerve supply to your foot and leg. Commonly the EMG/NCV test is used to diagnosis one of the following: Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome, Peripheral Neuropathy, Neuromuscular disorders, Nerve palsy or Paralysis, and Radioculopathy. Your doctor typically will refer you to either a hospital or a neurologist to have the test preformed.

The EMG portion of the test is used to record the electrical activity in your muscles. It can diagnose diseases of the nerves and muscles. It can detect conditions such as tarsal tunnel syndrome, inflamed muscles and pinched nerves. A tiny needle, called an electrode, is inserted directly into a specific muscle belly. The electrode then records the activity during the insertion, while the muscle is at rest, and while the muscle contracts. Nerve and muscle diseases alter the pattern of electrical activity in these muscles, which is record both audibly and on a computer screen. After the first muscle is tested, the electrode may be inserted into another muscle. Muscles chosen for the testing vary with the patient's symptoms and may be modified, depending on the results from the first muscles tested. Total testing time may range from just a few minutes to more than an hour, depending upon how many muscles are tested. After the exam, you may feel tenderness in the tested muscles. There is a slight risk of minor, localized inflammation in muscles during the test. This usually lasts only a few hours. Other common patient complaints are pain with insertion of the electrode.

Most of the time the Nerve Conduction Velocity Test will accompany the EMG Test. The NCV evaluates the health of the peripheral nerve by recording how fast electrical impulse travels through it. A peripheral nerve transmits information between the spinal cord and the muscles. You will be resting on a cart or bed and electrodes will be taped to your skin. A stimulator will be held against your skin, which sends out a small electrical charge along the nerve. You may feel a tingle or your muscles may twitch but this shock is not harmful. Each test will take only a few minutes. After the exam the electrodes will be removed and your skin cleaned. The time between the stimulation and response will be recorded to determine how quickly and thoroughly that the impulse is sent. A number of nervous system diseases may reduce the speed of this impulse. Each nerve test takes just a few minutes to an hour, depending upon how many nerves are being tested.

While the hospital or neurologist's office will give you instructions for the day of the examination, a few general preparations will help. Eat normally and take medication as you usually would. If you are taking a blood thinner, make sure you inform the testing facility and ask the ordering physician about the use of the medication and the timing of the test. Bath or shower the morning of the examination. Avoid bath oils or any skin lotions or emollients the day of the examination.


A typical EMG/NCV of the lower extremity takes approximately 45 minutes. This test is an important tool for diagnosing diseases of the nervous system, you can help ensure the best results if you relax and cooperate with the technicians. Make sure that you ask any questions that you have about the test before it is performed. Your physician will discuss the results with you. If you have any further questions regarding why this test was ordered for you, please ask your physician.



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A nerve conduction study (NCS) involves activating nerves electrically with small safe pulses over several points on the skin, usually on the limbs, and measuring the responses obtained. Usually, the response or signal is measured from the nerve itself or from a muscle supplied by the nerve being activated. This gives information about the state of health of the nerve, muscle and neuromuscular junction (the portion responsible for communication between the nerve and muscle). A commercial device is normally employed to measure the signals.

Electromyography (also known as needle EMG) involves the measuring of electrical activity within muscles by way of a needle electrode. It is rather similar to having an electrical microphone at the tip of the needle. Muscles are electrically active organs, and the signals and patterns of signals can lend additional information regarding the state of the muscle as well as the nerve supplying it.

In Australia, the person responsible for these tests is a neurologist, who frequently has had further training in the subspecialty of clinical neurophysiology.
A doctor may recommend that you undergo this test. There are a wide variety of conditions that are assessed with this technique. Quite frequently, the examination is requested because the patient is experiencing symptoms that suggest some problem with the nerves (numbness, tingling, weakness or pain) or muscles (weakness or pain), even though the physical examination is normal. Indeed, in many cases, there is no abnormality seen and the test can then be reassuring, but it cannot detect all conditions. In general terms, the test is useful for detecting if there is a significant abnormality, but this is also often easier when there is a definite clinical abnormality. In such cases, the test can help clarify what the problem is, although usually, unless the nerve problem is a common entrapment (site of compression), other tests may be required to ascertain the exact nature of the problem.
There are several types of nerves but generally speaking, the two major types are motor and sensory nerves. Motor nerves carry signals from the brain to the muscle to enable contraction and movement, and sensory nerves relay information to the brain. When the nerve is stimulated with metal electrodes (metallic patch/es that can conduct signals), a response can be measured by surface (on the skin) electrodes some distance away in sensory nerves overlying the nerve itself. For the motor nerves, the response is usually detected over the muscle that is activated by that nerve. In this fashion, results can reveal information about the size and speed of the electrically conducted impulse. The size usually reveals the number of nerve fibres present and the speed, the integrity of the myelin (insulating membrane around the nerve ‘axon’ or cable). This is why the word ‘conduction’ is used.
You will be given instructions on how to prepare for the test. You should not use creams or emollients on your hands and feet (the most common sites of your nerve tests) on the day of the test, and preferably since your last shower or bath. Generally speaking, there are no other preparations of note.

Please advise the neurologist performing the test if you have a pacemaker or other similar devices. If you are taking warfarin, heparin or some other medication to thin your blood, and if you are having a needle EMG test, you should advise both your GP and the neurologist. A measurement of how thin your blood is may be important before that test can be performed.
The NCS procedure is usually very safe and is non-invasive. Firstly, you will be told how to position yourself and the skin area will be prepared. Then some electrodes will be attached to your skin and you will be forewarned when to expect the stimulation. Many people are understandably anxious about the intensities of the small safe electrical pulses that are passed via the skin, but usually relax quickly when they know what to expect. It is faily important that you remain relaxed for the recordings to minimise the ‘noise’ (interference) in the recordings from excessive muscular activity.
Here, a small needle is inserted through the skin into a muscle belly. Sterilisation of the skin and a local anaesthetic is not generally required. Usually the consultation and procedure takes about 30-45 minutes in all. More complicated assessments may demand more time.
Following the test, you will be allowed to put on your garments and shoes. It should be noted that the final interpretation of the clinical meaning of the test rests with the clinician who ordered the test. This is because they can put together the whole picture. For this reason, the neurologist performing the test can only give you limited information about the meaning of the results, and may not even be able to provide any information on the next step or any possible treatments because they are unaware of all the other clinical information.


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Barium tests are used to help see the outline of the upper parts of the gut (gastrointestinal tract) such as the gullet (oesophagus), stomach and upper gut (small intestines). The gut (gastrointestinal tract) does not show up very well on ordinary X-ray pictures. However, if you drink a white liquid that contains a chemical called barium sulfate, the outline of the upper parts of the gut (oesophagus, stomach and small intestines) shows up clearly on X-ray pictures. This is because X-rays do not pass through barium.

Depending on what part of your gut is being looked at, you may have one or more of the tests listed below. In each test, the barium coats the lining of the gut being tested. Therefore, abnormalities in the lining or structure of the gut can be seen on the X-ray pictures. In each of the following tests, several X-ray pictures are taken using low-dose X-rays. The total amount of radiation for each test is quite small and thought to be safe. The X-ray machine is usually linked to a TV monitor. Still pictures, or a video recording of X-ray pictures taken in quick succession, can be taken if necessary.

In this test you drink some barium liquid. The barium liquid is often fruit-flavoured so it is pleasant to drink. You stand in front of an X-ray machine whilst X-ray pictures are taken as you swallow. This test aims to look for problems in the gullet (oesophagus). These include a narrowing (stricture), hiatus hernias, tumours, reflux from the stomach, disorders of swallowing, etc. You will usually be asked not to eat or drink for a few hours before this test. A barium swallow test takes about 10 minutes.

This is similar to a barium swallow (above). However, it aims to look for problems in the stomach and the first part of the gut (small intestine), known as the duodenum. These problems may include ulcers, small fleshy lumps (polyps), tumours, etc. You drink some barium liquid but you then lie on a couch whilst X-ray pictures are taken over your tummy (abdomen). It may take a little longer to do than a barium swallow.

So that the barium coats all around the lining of the stomach, the doctor doing the test (radiologist) may do one or more of the following:

Ask you to swallow some bicarbonate powder and citric acid before swallowing the barium. These 'fizz up' when they mix in the stomach and make some gas. (You may have to resist the urge to burp.) The gas expands the stomach and duodenum and also pushes the barium to coat the lining of the stomach and duodenum. This makes the X-ray pictures much clearer. It is the shape and contours of the lining of the stomach and duodenum which need to be seen most clearly on the pictures.

Ask you to turn over on to your stomach on the couch. Various X-ray pictures may be taken whilst you are in different positions. You may be given an injection of a drug that makes the muscles in the stomach and gut relax.You will usually be asked not to eat anything for several hours before this test. (Food particles in the gut can make it difficult to interpret the X-rays.) However, you may be allowed sips of water up to two hours before the test.


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A Doppler ultrasound is a test that uses high-frequency sound waves to measure the amount of blood flow through your arteries and veins, usually those that supply blood to your arms and legs.


Vascular flow studies, also known as blood flow studies, can detect abnormal flow within an artery or blood vessel. This can help to diagnose and treat a variety of conditions, including blood clots and poor circulation. A Doppler ultrasound can be used as part of a blood flow study.


A Doppler ultrasound is a risk-free and pain-free procedure that requires little preparation. The test provides your doctor with important information about the flow of blood through your major arteries and veins. It can also reveal blocked or reduced blood flow through narrowed areas in the arteries, which could eventually lead to a stroke.

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A prospective study comparing colour Doppler ultrasound (US) with the 'gold standard' of intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of renal transplant artery stenosis was performed. Both the intrarenal vessels and the transplant renal artery were examined by Doppler US. Diagnostic arteriography was performed only if, on Doppler, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant renal artery exceeded 1.5 ms-1. Of 109 patients, the transplant artery could not be visualized using colour Doppler US in three, and these were omitted from statistical analysis. Of the remaining 106 patients, 31 had a peak systolic velocity greater than 1.5 ms-1 in the transplant renal artery and were referred for DSA. Of the multiple renal Doppler indices recorded, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant artery was the best discriminating measurement for the detection of renal artery stenosis. A peak systolic velocity of > or = 2.5 ms-1 in the transplant renal artery had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for the detection of renal artery stenosis ( > 50% diameter reduction). Although a significant difference in Pulsatility Index, Resistive Index, Acceleration Index and Acceleration Time was recorded from the intrarenal vessels in the angiographically normal and stenosed groups with Doppler, these measurements were less useful as discriminating diagnostic tests. In conclusion, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant renal artery is the most sensitive Doppler criterion for renal artery stenosis and is sensitive and specific enough to be used as a screening test. The intrarenal acceleration time and index should not be used in isolation.

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A Doppler ultrasound, also called a Color Doppler test is a non-invasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels. It helps doctors evaluate blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas in the major arteries of the neck that could cause a stroke. It also can reveal blood clots in leg veins (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT) that could break loose and block blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound may be used to look at blood flow in an unborn baby (foetus) to check the health of the foetus.

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You will lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Most often, you will lie on your back with your arms raised above your head.

Once you are inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you. Modern "spiral" scanners can perform the exam without stopping.

A computer creates separate images of the belly area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the belly area can be made by stacking the slices together.

You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.

The scan should take less than 30 minutes.

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An angiogram of the head and neck is an X-ray test that uses a special dye and camera (fluoroscopy) to take pictures of the blood flow in the blood vessels of the head and neck camera.gif. An angiogram of the neck (carotid angiogram) can be used to look at the large arteries in the neck that lead to the brain. An angiogram of the head (cerebral angiogram) can be used to look at the veins or the four arteries (four-vessel study) carrying blood to the brain.


During an angiogram, a thin, soft tube called a catheter is placed camera.gif into a blood vessel in the groin (femoral artery or vein) or just above the elbow (brachial artery or vein). The catheter is guided to the head and neck area. Then an iodine dye (contrast material) is injected into the vessel to make the area show clearly on the X-ray pictures. The angiogram pictures can be made into regular X-ray films or stored as digital pictures in a computer.


An angiogram can find a bulge in a blood vessel (aneurysm). It can also show narrowing or a blockage in a blood vessel that slows or stops blood flow. An abnormal pattern of blood vessels (arteriovenous [AV] malformation) or abnormal vessels near a tumor can be seen.


A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) or computed tomography angiogram (CTA) may be an option instead of a standard angiogram. Each of these tests is less invasive than an angiogram. Some MRA tests and all CTA tests require an injection of dye. A CTA also involves radiation exposure.


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This is a procedure used to evaluate the blood flow of the arteries in the arms or legs. Using image-guidance, doctors can determine if there is damage to or a blockage of blood flow in an artery. This is helpful in diagnosing certain conditions such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the blood vessel) or damage caused by trauma. This helps doctors in planning for future interventions, including vascular procedures (such as stent placement) or surgery.

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You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner.


While inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you.


A computer creates many separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the head and neck area can be created by stacking the slices together.


You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.


Complete scans usually take only a few seconds. The newest scanners can image your entire body, head to toe, in less than 30 seconds.

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A computerized tomography (CT) coronary angiogram is an imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to your heart. It might be used to diagnose the cause of chest pain or other symptoms.


A CT coronary angiogram relies on a powerful X-ray machine to produce images of your heart and its blood vessels. These tests are noninvasive and don't require recovery time. Coronary CT angiograms are increasingly an option for people with a variety of heart conditions.


A traditional (not CT-based) coronary angiogram requires that a flexible tube (catheter) be threaded through your groin or arm to your heart or coronary arteries. If you have known coronary artery disease, your doctor might recommend a traditional coronary angiogram because you can also receive treatment during that procedure.

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The first reported case of the use of computed tomography (CT) to guide biopsy was published in 1975 (1). By 1976, CT was heralded as the single most accurate method for guiding biopsy (2). With the increasing availability of CT and the development of percutaneous techniques, this statement has proved true: CT is now the imaging modality of choice for guiding percutaneous procedures. Over the following 20 years, CT-guided procedures were performed by obtaining a planning image of the region of interest and using cutaneous markers to specify a percutaneous access point. Needle advancement was documented by leaving the scanning room and obtaining one to three contiguous images at the level of the needle plane and repeating the process with each subsequent manipulation of the needle. The advent of CT fluoroscopy in the early 1990s allowed the needle to be visualized in real time, expediting the procedure and markedly reducing its overall length, partly because participants did not leave the scanning room (3). However, the use of real-time CT fluoroscopy potentially increased patient radiation dose and, for the first time, exposed physicians, nurses, and technologists to radiation.


Because CT fluoroscopy–guided procedures have become more common, they account for an important portion of the radiation dose delivered to our patient population. It has been shown that radiation dose may be significantly reduced in diagnostic CT examinations with no loss of diagnostic image quality (4). Likewise, dose should be taken into account when planning interventional procedures, and the radiation dose used should be as low as reasonably achievable to complete the procedure successfully. In this article, we discuss how patient dose is estimated and how knowledge of how a radiation dose is distributed over the course of a procedure is essential in developing low-dose protocols. If certain straightforward steps are followed, it is possible to significantly reduce radiation exposure for both patients and physicians

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Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body.


The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.


CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels.


A cardiac CT scan for coronary calcium is a non-invasive way of obtaining information about the presence, location and extent of calcified plaque in the coronary arteries—the vessels that supply oxygen-containing blood to the heart muscle. Calcified plaque results when there is a build-up of fat and other substances under the inner layer of the artery. This material can calcify which signals the presence of atherosclerosis, a disease of the vessel wall, also called coronary artery disease (CAD). People with this disease have an increased risk for heart attacks. In addition, over time, progression of plaque build up (CAD) can narrow the arteries or even close off blood flow to the heart. The result may be chest pain, sometimes called "angina," or a heart attack.


Because calcium is a marker of CAD, the amount of calcium detected on a cardiac CT scan is a helpful prognostic tool. The findings on cardiac CT are expressed as a calcium score. Another name for this test is coronary artery calcium scoring.

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A doctor or physician may order a CT scan of the leg to make detailed pictures and analyze the internal structure. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning is useful to get a very detailed 3D image of certain parts of legs.


The process begins by taking many different X-ray views at various different angles, which are then combined with the use of computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissue inside of your body, including tissues inside of solid organ. Ordinary X-ray testing does not show clear images of soft tissue, so doctors often request CT scanning to get a good image of soft tissue including organs, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and the brain. Sometimes a contrast dye is used as it shows up clearer on the screen.


A quality CT scan of the leg will use multiple x-rays to make cross sectional pictures of the leg.

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A CT scan uses X-rays to make detailed pictures camera.gif of the spine and vertebrae camera.gif.


During the test, you will lie on a table that is attached to the CT scanner, which is a large doughnut-shaped machine. The CT scanner sends X-rays through the body. Each rotation of the scanner takes a second and provides a picture of a thin slice of the organ or area being studied. One part of the scanning machine can tilt to follow the curve of your spine. All of the pictures are saved as a group on a computer. They also can be printed.


In some cases, a dye called contrast material may be put in a vein (IV) in your arm or into the spinal canal. The dye makes structures and organs easier to see on the CT pictures. The dye may be used to check blood flow and look for tumors, areas of inflammation, or nerve damage.

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X-ray imaging, also called radiography, is a fast and easy way to identify and diagnose bone injuries and disorders such as arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, fractures and infections. It is also used in conjunction with orthopedic surgery to ensure that a fracture or other injury has been properly aligned, and it can aid in the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities in the chest organs, including the heart and lungs. X-rays may be followed up with MRI, PET, CT, or ultrasound imaging if further testing is needed.

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A fistulogram is a special x-ray procedure. It uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based contrast material to produce images of an abnormal passage within the body called a fistula. It looks at the blood flow in your fistula or graft (dialysis access). This procedure can check to see if it is blocked or if there is any narrowing (stenosis).

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Hysterosalpingography is a procedure where x rays are taken of a woman's reproductive tract after a dye is injected.Hystero means uterus and salpingo means tubes, so hysterosalpingography literally means to take pictures of the uterusand fallopian tubes. This procedure may also be called hysterography (or HSG).As with other types of pelvic examinations, the woman will lie on her back on an examination table with her legssometimes raised in stirrups. The x-ray equipment is placed above the abdomen.A speculum is inserted into the vagina and a catheter (a thin tube) is inserted into the uterus through the cervix (theopening to the uterus). A small balloon in the catheter is inflated to hold it in place. A liquid water-based or oil-based dyeis then injected through the catheter into the uterus. This process can cause cramping, pain, and uterine spasms.As the dye spreads through the reproductive tract, the doctor may watch for blockages or abnormalities on an x-raymonitor. Several x rays will also be taken. The procedure takes approximately 15-30 minutes. The x rays will bedeveloped while the patient waits, but the final reading and interpretation of the x rays by a radiologist (a doctor whospecializes in x rays) may not be available for a few days.Interestingly, sometimes the hysterosalpingography procedure itself can be considered a treatment. The dye used cansometimes open up small blockages in the fallopian tubes. The need for additional test procedures or surgical treatmentsto deal with infertility should be discussed with the doctor.


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Mammography is a specific type of breast imaging that uses low-dose x-rays to detect cancer early – before women experience symptoms – when it is most treatable. Tell your doctor about any breast symptoms or problems, prior surgeries, hormone use, whether you have a family or personal history of breast cancer, and if there’s a possibility you are pregnant. If possible, obtain copies of your prior mammograms and make them available to your radiologist on the day of your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. Don’t wear deodorant, talcum powder or lotion under your arms or on your breasts as these may appear on the mammogram and interfere with correct diagnosis.

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Mammography plays a central part in early detection of breast cancers because it can show changes in the breast up to two years before a patient or physician can feel them. Current guidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) recommend screening mammography every year for women, beginning at age 40. Research has shown that annual mammograms lead to early detection of breast cancers, when they are most curable and breast-conservation therapies are available.


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Most prostatic enlargement is due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a problem that bothers men increasingly with advancing age. The process of BPH generally begins in a man's 30s, evolves very slowly and usually causes symptoms only after he has passed the half-century mark.

In BPH the normal elements of the prostate gland grow in size and number. Their sheer bulk may compress the urethra which courses through the center of the prostate and impedes the flow of urine through the urethra from the bladder to the outside. The urethral compression leads to urine retention and the need for frequent urination. If severe enough, complete blockage can occur.
BPH is very common. Half of all men over 50 develop symptoms of PBH, but only 10% need medical or surgical intervention.
BPH is completely benign. It is not a precursor (a forerunner) to prostate cancer.
Treatment of BPH is usually reserved for men with significant symptoms. Watchful waiting with medical monitoring once a year is appropriate for most men with BPH.
The medical therapy of BPH includes medication. The prostate enlargement in BPH is directly dependent on dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the principal androgen hormone in the prostate, certain medication blocks the enzyme needed to make DHT and so lowers blood and tissue DHT levels and helps reduce the size of the prostate. Other medication belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-1 blockers which relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and the bladder neck. Relaxing these muscles helps relieve the urinary obstruction caused by the enlarged prostate
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A micturating cysto-urethrogram (or MCU) is a study using X-rays that shows the bladder and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder and out of the body) while passing urine (see children’s X-ray examination). The test is performed to find out if the urine goes from the bladder back up to the kidneys instead of out through the urethra, known as vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR). This can be the cause of recurrent urinary tract (in the bladder or kidneys) infection and kidney damage. The test also shows how the bladder empties and what the urethra looks like.This test is most commonly performed on children under six months of age, but can be used less commonly as an investigation for older children and adults with multiple recurrent urinary tract infections.


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MR angiography (MRA) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to evaluate blood vessels and help identify abnormalities or diagnose atherosclerotic (plaque) disease. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a contrast material called gadolinium, which is less likely to cause an allergic reaction than iodinated contrast material. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. In some instances, your doctor will provide you with a card that includes information about your implant to give to the technologist. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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Constipation has a high prevalence in the general population and is a cause for significant morbidity. It has been estimated that approximately 10% of the Indian population suffers from constipation. [1] Chronic constipation leads to approximately 2.5 million visits to the physicians in the United States annually. [2] Various definitions have been used for chronic constipation. However, recently, the Rome II criteria were developed to promote consistency in the diagnosis. [3] Constipation may be primary or secondary. Primary constipation may be due to slow transit disorder or anorectal expulsion disorder (obstructive defecation) or a combination of these. According to the National Institute for health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines issued in 2010, obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is characterized by the urge to defecate but an impaired ability to expel the fecal bolus. Symptoms include unsuccessful fecal evacuation attempts, excessive straining, pain, bleeding after defecation, and a sense of incomplete fecal evacuation. [4] Patients may also resort to digital rectal evacuation. Evaluation and treatment of these patients has been difficult. Magnetic resonance defecography (MRD) has been shown to demonstrate the structural abnormalities associated with ODS, and patients with significant structural abnormalities may benefit from surgical interventions like stapled transanal resection of rectum (STARR). Patients who do not demonstrate significant structural abnormalities can be referred for biofeedback techniques. We present our experience in a large series of patients with suspected ODS who underwent MRD at our tertiary care center.


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Mammography is a screening tool for breast cancer. At NM Medical we employ advanced digital imaging technology for the dual benefits of optimum diagnostic quality and maximum patient comfort. Mammography is important because in its earliest stages breast cancer may not be palpable; it may be too small to feel as a lump or tissue change. Mammography can help detect these changes two years or more before you would feel them. Physical examination is also important because pre-menopausal breast tissue is often dense and fibrous, which may decrease the reliability of mammography for young women.

  

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You can have peace of mind that we place you first with a focus on giving you comprehensive benefits, value for money and services to improve the quality of care available to you. As a Discovery Health Medical Scheme member you have access to the broadest and best level of healthcare cover in the market based on your medical condition needs. Depending on your medical aid plan, we cover for in- and out-hospital tests and screening, including investigations, radiology and blood tests, vaccinations for adults and children and blood tests


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Diffusion tensor imaging tractography, or DTI tractography, is an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technique that measures the rate of water diffusion between cells to understand and create a map of the body’s internal structures; it is most commonly used to provide imaging of the brain. This advanced imaging technique, which provides much more detailed images of the brain than a conventional MRI, may also be used in the diagnosis of stroke, acute ischemia, brain tumors and multiple sclerosis, as well as pre-operative planning.  Using MRI technology, DTI tractography is non-invasive and uses radio waves and a magnetic field to produce images of the brain, tissues and skull. MRI technology provides detailed images showing small changes in body tissue and blood flow, which makes it an extremely reliable tool for the detection of disease, injury, bleeding and swelling.  Loyola offers state-of-the-art imaging and diagnostic techniques in order to provide timely and accurate diagnosis for our patients. Our expert radiologists are recognized nationally for clinical excellence, innovative diagnostic and therapeutic methods and skilled use of the latest technology. Our experienced technologists provide testing in a caring and compassionate environment where we want you to feel comfortable asking any questions you may have about your test or procedure. 


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A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) is a type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to provide pictures of blood vessels inside the body. In many cases MRA can provide information that can't be obtained from an X-ray, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scan. MRA can find problems with the blood vessels that may be causing reduced blood flow. With MRA, both the blood flow and the condition of the blood vessel walls can be seen. The test is often used to look at the blood vessels that go to the brain, kidneys, and legs. Information from an MRA can be saved and stored on a computer for further study. Photographs of selected views can also be made.During MRA, the area of the body being studied is placed inside an MRI machine. Contrast material is often used during MRA to make blood vessels show up more clearly.


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Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has opened new horizons in the diagnosis and treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases of the ankle and foot. It demonstrates abnormalities in the bones and soft tissues before they become evident at other imaging modalities. The exquisite soft-tissue contrast resolution, noninvasive nature, and multiplanar capabilities of MR imaging make it especially valuable for the detection and assessment of a variety of soft-tissue disorders of the ligaments (eg, sprain), tendons (tendinosis, peritendinosis, tenosynovitis, entrapment, rupture, dislocation), and other soft-tissue structures (eg, anterolateral impingement syndrome, sinus tarsi syndrome, compressive neuropathies [eg, tarsal tunnel syndrome, Morton neuroma], synovial disorders). MR imaging has also been shown to be highly sensitive in the detection and staging of a number of musculoskeletal infections including cellulitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and osteomyelitis. In addition, MR imaging is excellent for the early detection and assessment of a number of osseous abnormalities such as bone contusions, stress and insufficiency fractures, osteochondral fractures, osteonecrosis, and transient bone marrow edema. MR imaging is increasingly being recognized as the modality of choice for assessment of pathologic conditions of the ankle and foot.


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Pruritus ani is the irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, causing the desire to scratch. The intensity of anal itching increases from moisture, pressure, and rubbing caused by clothing and sitting. At worst, anal itching causes intolerable discomfort that often is accompanied by burning and soreness. It is estimated that up to 5% of the population of the United States experiences this type of discomfort daily

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Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the posterior hip and buttock, or the lateral hip. Anterior hip and groin pain is commonly associated with intra-articular pathology, such as osteoarthritis and hip labral tears. Posterior hip pain is associated with piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy, and less commonly ischiofemoral impingement and vascular claudication. Lateral hip pain occurs with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Clinical examination tests, although helpful, are not highly sensitive or specific for most diagnoses; however, a rational approach to the hip examination can be used. Radiography should be performed if acute fracture, dislocations, or stress fractures are suspected. Initial plain radiography of the hip should include an anteroposterior view of the pelvis and frog-leg lateral view of the symptomatic hip. Magnetic resonance imaging should be performed if the history and plain radiograph results are not diagnostic. Magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for the detection of occult traumatic fractures, stress fractures, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance arthrography is the diagnostic test of choice for labral tears.


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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within the knee joint. It is typically used to help diagnose or evaluate pain, weakness, swelling or bleeding in and around the joint. Knee MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and it can help determine whether you require surgery. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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Myelography uses a real-time form of x-ray called fluoroscopy and an injection of contrast material to evaluate the spinal cord, nerve roots and spinal lining (meninges). It is particularly useful for assessing the spine following surgery and for assessing disc abnormalities in patients who cannot undergo MRI. You will be instructed on how to prepare. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking and allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials. You may be advised to stop taking blood thinners or other medications several days prior to your exam. You also may be told to avoid solid food and increase your fluid intake beforehand. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.


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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the bones, tendons, muscles and blood vessels within the shoulder joint. It is primarily used to assess injuries. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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The purpose of this study was to correlate disc position and the type of disc displacement, intra-capsular effusion and degenerative changes of the condyle as demonstrated in MRI studies. In this study, 126 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 63 patients with TMJ disorders were investigated using clinical examination and MRI. One hundred and twelve TMJs were found to have internal derangement as disc displacement. The angle between the posterior margin of the disc and the vertical line drawn through the centre of the condyle was measured on MRI for each TMJ. The positions of the discs were normal, 0 degrees-10 degrees, in 11.11%; slightly displaced, 11 degrees-30 degrees, in 37.30%; mildly displaced 31 degrees-50 degrees, in 15.08%; moderately displaced, 51 degrees-80 degrees, in 7.14% of the TMJs with anterior displacement with reduction (ADDR). The disc position was severely displaced anteriorly, as over 80 degrees, in all TMJs with anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADD), constituting 27.78% of all cases. We found that the smaller the degree of disc displacement the milder the internal derangement and that the intra-capsular effusion was more frequently associated with TMJ with ADDR. The degenerative condylar changes were more severe with an increased degree of anterior disc displacement.


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A retrograde urethrogram is a routine radiologic procedure (most typically in males) used to image the integrity of the urethra. Hence a retrograde urethrogram is essential for diagnosis of urethral injury, or urethral stricture. The procedure involves the insertion of a Foley catheter into the distal urethra and minimally inflating it. This is followed by instillation of 30mL of water-soluble contrast and a plain radiograph is obtained; leakage of the contrast suggests urethral injury (usually secondary to pelvic trauma) and is an indication for surgical intervention.It is used when there is suspicion of urethral trauma, such as a history of trauma to the area followed by pain, inability to void urine, or the presence of blood at the urethral meatus, a scrotal hematoma, or free-floating prostate on rectal examination. If a urethral injury is suspected, a retrograde urethrogram should be performed before attempting to place a Foley catheter into the bladder. If there is a urethral disruption, a suprapubic catheter should be placed.

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A fistulogram uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based contrast material to produce images of an abnormal passage within the body called a fistula. Similarly, a sinogram assesses an abnormal passage called a sinus that originates or ends in one opening, often on the skin. Both examinations are used to assess and diagnose the size and shape of fistulas and sinuses and any related abscess and/or infection. You will be instructed on how to prepare. You may be asked to refrain from eating or drinking anything for several hours before the examination, but you should be allowed to take medications with small amounts of clear fluid up to two hours prior. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking and allergies, especially to contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown


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Ultrasound imaging also called as sonography uses a transducer or probe to generate sound waves and produce pictures of the body's internal structures. It is often used to help diagnose unexplained pain, swelling or infection. It is used to see internal body structures such as tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs. It may also be used to provide imaging guidance to needle biopsies or to see and evaluate conditions related to blood flow. It is also the preferred imaging method for monitoring a pregnant woman and her unborn child. It does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and provides a clear picture of soft tissues that don't show up well on x-ray images.Most of these level II ultrasounds should be done in the second trimester of pregnancy usually between 18 and 22 weeks. It uses sound waves to produce pictures of a baby (embryo or fetus) within a pregnant woman, as well as the mother's uterus and ovaries. It does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is the preferred method for monitoring pregnant women and their unborn babies. A Doppler ultrasound study – a technique that evaluates blood flow in the umbilical cord, fetus or placenta – may be part of this exam. It is a totally painless and safe procedure. It is useful test to establish the presence of fetus, estimate the age of pregnancy, diagnose congenital abnormalities of the fetus, assess fetal growth and well being etc. Preparation - No special preparation is needed.


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Your doctor has requested an ultrasound-guided biopsy. The goal of a biopsy is to remove a sample of tissue for testing in a laboratory. A biopsy can help diagnose abnormalities such as infection, inflammation or malignancy. During your biopsy, an imaging physician will use an ultrasound scanner to accurately guide a needle to the site of the biopsy. The needle will then be used to remove a tissue sample. At the S. Mark Taper Foundation Imaging Center, a highly trained medical team will oversee your procedure. This team will include an imaging physician, a diagnostic medical sonographer and a registered nurse.


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An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan a the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.

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A biophysical profile (BPP) test measures the health of your baby (fetus) during pregnancy. A BPP test may include a non stress test with electronic fetal heart monitoring and a fetal ultrasound. The BPP measures your baby's heart rate, muscle tone, movement, breathing, and the amount of amniotic fluid around your baby. A BPP is commonly done in the last trimester of pregnancy. If there is a chance that your baby may have problems during your pregnancy (high-risk pregnancy), a BPP may be done by 32 to 34 weeks or earlier. Some women with high-risk pregnancies may have a BPP test every week or twice a week in the third trimester. It is usually done to keep track of your baby’s health. 

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A breast ultrasound uses sound waves to make a picture of the tissues inside the breast. A breast ultrasound can show all areas of the breast, including the area closest to the chest wall, which is hard to study with a mammogram. Breast ultrasound does not use X-rays or other potentially harmful types of radiation. A breast ultrasound is used to see whether a breast lump is filled with fluid (a cyst) or if it is a solid lump. An ultrasound does not replace the need for a mammogram, but it is often used to check abnormal results from a mammogram


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Ultrasound imaging of the breast uses sound waves to produce pictures of the internal structures of the breast. It’s primarily used to help diagnose breast lumps or other abnormalities your doctor may have found during a physical exam, mammogram or breast MRI. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation.This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You will be asked to undress from the waist up and to wear a gown during the procedure.

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 Ultrasound imaging of the head uses sound waves to produce pictures of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. It is most commonly performed on infants, whose skulls have not completely formed. A transcranial Doppler ultrasound evaluates blood flow in the brain’s major arteries. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation.This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Your doctor will instruct you on how to prepare, including whether adults undergoing the exam should refrain from using nicotine-based products that may cause blood vessels to constrict. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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 B-scan ultrasonography is an important adjuvant for the clinical assessment of various ocular and orbital diseases. With understanding of the indications for ultrasonography and proper examination technique, one can gather a vast amount of information not possible with clinical examination alone. This article is designed to describe the principles, techniques, and indications for echographic examination, as well as to provide a general understanding of echographic characteristics of various ocular pathologies. 

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USG scan for Follicular Monitoring is done to study ovarian follicles that are used to identify ovulation of egg. For couples planning for pregnancy, ovulation period is the important period to try on, for conception to happen. Out of many ways available, the most reliable way to understand the ovulation is Follicular monitoring. It’s an endovaginal scan carried to study the ovaries, uterus and uterus lining. Looking at ovaries, the growth of follicles inside ovaries can be assessed giving a chance to predict the ovulation and also look if the womb is getting ready for pregnancy.

With follicular monitoring, you will get to know the growth of follicles, the approximate rupture period of follicles and hence can predict the ovulation period thereby have an intercourse happen at the right time for conception to take place. The womb if not yet ready for pregnancy can be treated by some supplements prescribed by the doctors.

This scan is carried out in a slightly dark examination room. You will have to undress down from your waist while you get covered by a sheet. Now you will be asked to position yourself lying down on your back on a special bed with your knees bent. Once you position yourself comfortably; the transducer, a sterile lubricated covered electronic device, is gently inserted into your vagina to look at the uterus and ovaries. Depending on how relaxed the patient is, the test takes up to 15 minutes.


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 X-ray beams are passed through the abdomen, producing images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder on a special type of film. KUB radiography is often used as a first step in diagnosing problems of the urinary system, and is usually done in conjunction with intravenous pyelography.

 

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An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan a the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.

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Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland within the neck. It does not use ionizing radiation and is commonly used to evaluate lumps or nodules found during a routine physical or other imaging exam.This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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Ultrasound  is safe and paUltrasoundinless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography, involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.


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Ultrasound is a high-frequency sound that you cannot hear but it travels through fluid and soft tissues. However, it bounces back, or echoes, when it hits a more solid, dense surface such as a valve or bile in the gallbladder etc. So, when ultrasound 'hits' structures of different densities in our bodies, it echoes differently with each hit. 


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Ultrasound imaging of the scrotum uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s testicles and surrounding tissues. It is the primary method used to help evaluate disorders of the testicles, epididymis (a tube immediately next to a testicle that collects sperm) and scrotum. Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation.

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An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan a the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels





 

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Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland within the neck. It does not use ionizing radiation and is commonly used to evaluate lumps or nodules found during a routine physical or other imaging exam.This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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A transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) may also be called prostate sonogram or endorectal ultrasound. It is used to look at the prostate and tissues around it. An ultrasound transducer (also called a probe) sends sound waves through the wall of the rectum and into the prostate and surrounding tissue. A computer analyzes the wave patterns (called echoes) as they bounce off the organs and converts them into an image that doctors view on a video screen.

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An ultrasound test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of your internal organs. Imaging tests can identify abnormalities and help doctors diagnose conditions. A transvaginal ultrasound, also called an endovaginal ultrasound, is a type of pelvic ultrasound used by doctors to examine female reproductive organs. This includes the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, and vagina.

“Transvaginal” means “through the vagina.” This is an internal examination. Unlike a regular abdominal or pelvic ultrasound, where the ultrasound wand, or transducer, rests on the outside of the pelvis, this procedure involves your doctor or a technician inserting an ultrasound probe about two or three inches into your vaginal canal.


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An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan a the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.


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Ultrasound imaging also called as sonography uses a transducer or a probe to generate sound waves and produce pictures of the body's internal structures. It is often used to help diagnose unexplained pain, swelling or infection. It is also used to see internal body structures such as tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs. Ultrasound abdomen is primarily used for evaluating the kidneys, liver, pancreas, gall bladder etc.It may also be used to provide imaging guidance to needle biopsies or to see and evaluate conditions related to blood flow. It does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and provides a clear picture of soft tissues that don't show up well on x-ray images. It is a painless, safe and non invasive procedure.
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As an ancillary test for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), particularly in situations in which a diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase and 11-hydroxylase deficiency have been ruled out


Confirming a diagnosis of 3-beta-hydroxy dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD) deficiency


Analysis for 17-hydroxypregnenolone is also useful as part of a battery of tests to evaluate females with hirsutism or infertility; both can result from adult-onset CAH

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The hormone 17-hydroxyprogesterone is a building block for producing the hormone cortisol. Cortisol is produced mainly by the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the two adrenal glands, located above the kidneys). Cortisol is called the "stress hormone" because it's secreted in larger amounts as part of the body's response to physical or emotional stress.


Cortisol levels normally vary throughout the day. They're highest in the morning, just before waking up, and lowest at night.


Some people, however, can't make enough cortisol because they lack an enzyme in the adrenal glands that's needed to make it. They'll have a buildup of 17-hydroxyprogesterone in the blood because it's not being converted to cortisol.


In kids, the most common cause of cortisol deficiency, and consequently high levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, is one of the forms of the genetic disorder congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).


CAH can affect both boys and girls. It causes the adrenal glands to make excess androgens (male steroid hormones) and, in some cases, not enough of the hormones that regulate the body's salt balance.


Though treatable, undetected CAH can sometimes lead to more serious symptoms such as dehydration and shock in infants.

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Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies are autoantibodies produced by the immune system that mistakenly target proteins called acetylcholine receptors that are located on skeletal muscle fibers. This test detects and measures AChR antibodies in the blood.

Acetylcholine receptors function as "docking stations" for acetylcholine, a chemical substance (neurotransmitter) that transmits messages between nerve cells. Muscle movement starts when an impulse is sent down a nerve to the nerve ending, where it stimulates the release of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine travels across a microscopic gap between the nerve ending and a muscle fiber at the "neuromuscular junction." When it reaches the muscle fiber, it binds to one of many acetylcholine receptors and activates it, initiating muscle contraction.

AChR antibodies impede communication between nerves and skeletal muscles, inhibit muscle contraction, and cause rapid muscle fatigue by preventing activation of the acetylcholine receptors. They do this in three major ways:


1.Binding antibodies attach to the receptors on nerve cells and may initiate an inflammatory reaction that destroys the receptors.

2.Blocking antibodies may sit on the receptors, preventing acetylcholine from binding.

3.Modulating antibodies may cross-link the receptors, causing them to be taken up into the muscle cell and removed from the neuromuscular junction.


The end result of this interference is the development of myasthenia gravis (MG), a chronic autoimmune disorder associated with the presence of these antibodies and with their effects on muscle control.

AChR antibodies may be detected in different ways to determine which mechanism may be the problem in a particular individual, and the antibodies may be referred to as "binding," "blocking," or "modulating." However, the technique that measures "binding" is the most commonly performed and, generally speaking, it is rare for the other two tests to be positive without the "binding" test being positive as well. These other approaches may be useful when a healthcare practitioner strongly suspects myasthenia gravis and the "binding" test is negative.

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Approximately 90% of patients with myasthenia gravis MG) express antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (aChR), which can be divided into binding, blocking, and modulating antibody. Binding antibody can activate complement and lead to loss of aChR. Blocking antibody may impair aChR binding to the receptor, leading to poor muscle contraction. Modulating antibody causes receptor endocytosis resulting in loss of aChR expression, which correlates most closely with clinical severity of disease. Approximately 10% of individuals with confirmed myasthenia gravis have no measurable binding, blocking, or modulating antibody. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease in which an acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is the antibody target. The AChR in the motor end-plate of skeletal muscle is an integral membrane protein consisting of five subunits (a pentamer). The alpha chain carries both the binding site for cholinergic ligands (binding site for acetylcholine and bungarotoxin) and the main immunogenic region, a region against which a majority of the antibodies of MG patients are directed. In MG, acetylcholine-dependent neuromuscular transmission is impaired by a loss of signal transduction. The final result is that threshold potential in the cell is never reached and the muscle cannot contract. The patient experiences voluntary muscle weakness and fatigue characteristic of the disease, as well as difficulty in swallowing, diplopia, ptosis (in ocular MG), and, in severe cases, death. Individuals who manifest AChR antibodies generally do not express a single, monoclonal antibody population. The antibody population is divided into three classes: • Binding • Blocking • Modulating Binding antibodies are those that are epitopically directed toward the large hydrophilic domain of the receptor. This class of antibodies can activate the complement cascade, resulting in tissue damage and receptor loss. The AChR binding antibody radioimmunoassay detects a wide population of autoantibodies. The use of soluble receptor measures not only antibody directed against the extracellular region of the receptor, presumably the portion involved in the pathophysiology of the disease, but intracellular determinants of the receptor not normally exposed to immunoglobulins. The assay is incapable of differentiating general binding antibodies from the more specific modulating population. Moreover, the binding assay does not easily measure a blocking population. Blocking autoantibodies prevent the binding of acetylcholine to the receptor. They may act by direct steric interference or by an allosteric mechanism. The pathology associated with this type of antibody will result in the most rapid loss of receptor function. Modulating antibodies as a class accelerate endocytosis, resulting in loss of receptors. It is largely this class of antibodies to which clinical severity has been most closely associated. In fifty-three percent of samples with any measurable autoantibody, all three antibody populations were present. Addition of blocking and modulating antibody assays to the binding assay increased the number of samples that tested positive by approximately 10 percent. Studies show that the presence of modulating antibody generally compares more closely to disease severity than either binding or blocking classes. Drachman et al showed that the blocking population has a disease severity correlation nearly as high as that of modulating antibodies (88% vs. 91%). Approximately 90 percent of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) express antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which can be divided into binding, blocking, and modulating antibody. Binding antibody can activate complement and lead to loss of AChR. Blocking antibody may impair AChR binding to the receptor, leading to poor muscle contraction. Modulating antibody causes receptor endocytosis resulting in loss of AChR expression, which correlates most closely with clinical severity of disease. Approximately 10 percent of individuals with confirmed myasthenia gravis have no measurable binding, blocking, or modulating antibody.


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Approximately 85-90% of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) express antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which can be divided into binding, blocking, and modulating antibodies. Binding antibody can activate complement and lead to loss of AChR. Blocking antibody may impair AChR binding to the receptor, leading to poor muscle contraction. Modulating antibody causes receptor endocytosis resulting in loss of AChR expression, which correlates most closely with clinical severity of disease. Approximately 10-15% of individuals with confirmed myasthenia gravis have no measurable binding, blocking, or modulating antibodies. This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by ARUP Laboratories. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved or cleared this test; however, FDA clearance or approval is not currently required for clinical use. The results are not intended to be used as the sole means for clinical diagnosis or patient management decisions.


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Are you in search of how to make your eyelashes grow?  Like the hair on your scalp. eyelashes naturally grow in cycles and have a genetically determined growth phase which determines the full potential your lashes can reach.  However, only about 24% of your eyelashes ever reach full length? That’s because your lashes will sustain damage from curling, cleansing, wearing makeup and encountering environmental elements over time. So, while you may not be able to reverse damage to your eyelashes. You can learn how to protect and condition them so they can reach their full fluttery potential.

Infinite Lash has a revolutionary formula infused with a blend of vitamins, minerals, polypeptides, and botanicals that nourish and rejuvenate your natural lashes. It also contains natural antioxidants that protect against dryness and damage.

Not all of us are blessed with long, thick, luscious lashes but here are some essential tips you could try – if you ever wanted to know how to make your eyelashes grow.


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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced in the liver of a developing fetus. During a baby's development, some AFP passes through the placenta and into the mother's blood. An AFP test measures the level of AFP in pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy. Too much or too little AFP in a mother's blood may be sign of a birth defect or other condition. These include:


A neural tube defect, a serious condition that causes abnormal development of a developing baby's brain and/or spine

Down syndrome, a genetic disorder that causes intellectual disabilities and developmental delays

Twins or multiple births, because more than one baby is producing AFP

Miscalculation of due date, because AFP levels change during pregnancy

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Your liver’s in charge of making most of the proteins that are in your blood. They are important for good health.


Two of the key ones are:

Albumin. This carries medicines and hormones throughout your body. It also helps with tissue growth and healing.

Globulin. This is a group of proteins. Some of them are made by your liver. Others are made by your immune system. They help fight infection and transport nutrients.


The total serum protein test measures all the proteins in your blood. It can also check the amount of albumin you have compared to globulin, or what’s called your “A/G ratio.”


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The skin of the inner forearm is the usual test site for allergy testing using the Skin Prick Test method. One can also take a blood sample for allergy testing and measure Total Immunoglobulin E (IgE) which is the marker antibody for allergy sensitisation. Then there are the Phadiatop inhalant screen, Food Allergy screens and over 450 individual RAST or ImmunoCAP tests available.


We can quantify allergy severity with another cellular marker, this is the Eosinophil cell in the blood stream. Eosinophils are also found in the allergy sufferer’s phlegm, gullet secretions and nasal mucous. Lung function tests are important in asthma diagnosis, and tests include Peak Flow (PF), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). Measurement of Nitric Oxide (NO) in exhaled air is another measure of allergic inflammation and indicates poor control or ineffective treatment

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To determine whether the presence of circulating desialylated glycoproteins reflect the existence and/or the severity of liver disease, 73 patients were evaluated with liver biopsies, conventional liver function tests, and the measurement of the degree of desialylation of two glycoproteins alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AGP) and alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT). A combination of two immunological methods, available as routine laboratory tests, was used for the determination of the desialylation of alpha 1-AGP and alpha 1-AT. The severity of liver disease was assessed by a clinical classification depending upon the presence or absence of four complications (jaundice, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and weight loss). The presence of serum desialylated alpha 1-AGP did not allow detection of mild liver disease, but asialo alpha 1-AGP (and to a lesser extent of asialo-alpha 1-(AT) correlated with the severity of liver disease. The sensitivity of desialylated alpha 1-AGP in detection of severe liver disease was 65%, and its specificity was 80%.

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Alpha-2-macroglobulin is a protease inhibitor and is 1 of the largest plasma proteins. It transports hormones and enzymes, exhibits effector and inhibitor functions in the development of the lymphatic system, and inhibits components of the complement system and hemostasis system.


Increased levels of alpha-2-macroglobulin are found in nephrotic syndrome when other lower molecular weight proteins are lost and alpha-2-macroglobulin is retained because of its large size. In patients with liver cirrhosis and diabetes, the levels are found to be elevated.


Patients with acute pancreatitis exhibit low serum concentrations which correlate with the severity of the disease. In hyperfibrinolytic states, after major surgery, in septicemia and severe hepatic insufficiency, the measured levels of alpha-2-macroglobulin are often low. Acute myocardial infarction patients with low alpha-2-macroglobulin have been reported to have a significantly better prognosis with regard to the >1 year survival time.

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A noninvasive diagnostic test for amebic liver abscess is needed, because amebic and bacterial abscesses appear identical on ultrasound or computer tomography and because it is rarely possible to identify Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens from patients with amebic liver abscess. Here we report a method of detection in serum of circulating E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin to diagnose amebic liver abscess, which was used in patients from Dhaka, Bangladesh. The TechLab E. histolytica II test (which differentiates the true pathogen E. histolytica from Entamoeba dispar) detected Gal/GalNAc lectin in the sera of 22 of 23 (96%) amebic liver abscess patients tested prior to treatment with the antiamebic drug metronidazole and 0 of 70 (0%) controls. After 1 week of treatment with metronidazole, 9 of 11 (82%) patients became serum lectin antigen negative. The sensitivity of the E. histolytica II antigen detection test for intestinal infection was also evaluated. Antigen detection identified E. histolytica infection in 50 samples from 1,164 asymptomatic preschool children aged 2 to 5 years, including 16 of 16 (100%) culture-positive specimens. PCR analysis of stool specimens was used to confirm that most antigen-positive but culture-negative specimens were true-positive: PCR identified parasite DNA in 27 of 34 (79%) of the antigen-positive, culture-negative stool specimens. Antigen detection was a more sensitive test for infection than antilectin antibodies, which were detected in only 76 of 98 (78%) amebic liver abscess patients and in 26 of 50 (52%) patients with intestinal infection. We conclude that the TechLab E. histolytica II kit is a sensitive means to diagnose hepatic and intestinal amebiasis prior to the institution of metronidazole treatment.

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Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) participates in the renin cascade in response to hypovolemia. Its peptidase action on the decapeptide angiotensinogen I results in the hydrolysis of a terminal histidyl leucine dipeptide and the formation of the octapeptide angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor that increases blood pressure.


The primary source of ACE is the endothelium of the lung. ACE activity is increased in sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous disease that commonly affects the lungs. In sarcoidosis, ACE is thought to be produced by epithelioid cells and macrophages of the granuloma.


Currently, it appears that ACE activity reflects the severity of sarcoidosis: 68% positivity in those with stage I sarcoidosis, 86% in stage II sarcoidosis, and 91% in stage III sarcoidosis. Serum ACE also appears to reflect the activity of the disease; there is a dramatic decrease in enzyme activity in some patients receiving prednisone.


Other conditions such as Gaucher disease, leprosy, untreated hyperthyroidism, psoriasis, premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome, adults with amyloidosis, and histoplasmosis have been associated with increased levels of ACE.

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Angiotensin II is the primary regulator of renal aldosterone secretion and a potent vasoconstrictor. It is generated through the renin angiotensin system (RAS): circulating angiotensinogen is cleaved by renin to form angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II via angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The rate-limiting step in the RAS is renin secretion by the renal juxtaglomerular cells, modulated by renal blood flow. Low renal blood flow and low perfusion pressure increases renin secretion, stimulating angiotensin II and aldosterone production with a resulting increase in blood pressure and renal sodium retention. These changes then produce inhibition of renin secretion and complete the feedback control loop.

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Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and primary Sjögren's syndrome.

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Fatigue can be described as the lack of energy and motivation (both physical and mental). This is different than drowsiness, a term that describes the need to sleep. Often a person complains of feeling tired and it is up to the health care professional to distinguish between fatigue and drowsiness, though both can occur at the same time. Aside from drowsiness, other symptoms can be confused with fatigue including shortness of breath with activity and muscle weakness. Again, all these symptoms can occur at the same time. Also, fatigue can be a normal response to physical and mental activity; in most normal individuals it is quickly relieved (usually in hours to about a day, depending on the intensity of the activity) by reducing the activity.

Fatigue is a very common complaint and it is important to remember that it is a symptom and not a disease. Many illnesses can result in the complaint of fatigue and they can be physical, psychological, or a combination of the two.

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The test system widely used currently for the determination of anti-HCV permits the detection of anti-HCV IgG alone. The data recently published by T. G. Wreghitt et al. confirm the probability of the presence of anti-HCV of both IgG and IgM classes in sera from hepatitis C patients. Anti-HCV IgM was detected by Ortho test with some modifications using an anti-M conjugate in the last stage of the experiment. Anti-HCV IgG were detected by regular Ortho test. A total of 46 patients with different forms of HCV infection and a control group were examined. According to the preliminary data, 18 patients were positive in the routine anti-HCV Ortho test. Among 18 anti-HCV-positive patients, nine had chronic HCV infection and the other 9 acute HCV infection. The distribution of IgM and IgG anti-HCV in the acute patients was as follows: 4 patients (44.5%) had approximately equal titres of IgG and IgM, 3 (33.5%) had predominantly IgG, 2 (22.2%) mainly IgM. A similar pattern was observed in the group with chronic HCV infection. Thus, 5 subjects (55.6%) showed approximately equal ratio of IgM and IgG anti-HCV, 2 (22.2%) had mostly IgM and the rest 2 mainly IgG. No anti-HCV in the control group was found. The control group consisted of 18 patients with chronic liver diseases without markers of HBV or HDV infection, 3 with HAV infection, 2 with HBV infection and 5 healthy subjects. The specificity of anti-HCV IgM test was confirmed by Chiron Western blot analysis using the same modification.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the major etiologic agent of enterically transmiited non-A, non-B hepatitis worldwide and has a high case-fatality rate in pregnant women. Both IgM and IgG antibody to HEV (anti-HEV) are produced following infection. The titer of IgM anti-HEV declines rapidly during early convalescence; IgG anti-HEV persists and appears to provide at least short-term protection against disease.

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Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is endemic throughout the world, occurring most commonly, however, in areas of poor hygiene and low socioeconomic conditions. The virus is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route, and it is spread by close person-to-person contact and by food- and water-borne epidemics. Outbreaks frequently occur in overcrowded situations and in high-density institutions and centers, such as prisons and health care or day care centers. Viral spread by parenteral routes (eg, exposure to blood) is possible but rare, because infected individuals are viremic for a short period of time (usually <3 weeks). There is little or no evidence of transplacental transmission from mother to fetus or transmission to newborn during delivery.


Serological diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A depends on the detection of specific anti-HAV IgM. Its presence in the patient's serum indicates a recent exposure to HAV. HAV-specific IgM antibody level becomes detectable in the blood by 4 weeks after infection, persisting at elevated levels for about 2 months before declining to undetectable levels by 6 months. They rarely persist beyond 12 months after infection.

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Your thyroid is a gland located in your neck. It releases hormones that control your metabolism. It produces a number of different proteins, including thyroglobulin. Your thyroid uses thyroglobulin to make the active thyroid hormones.


If you have an autoimmune condition, it can disrupt your production of thyroglobulin. An autoimmune condition happens when your immune system creates antibodies that attack your body’s own healthy cells. When your immune system attacks the thyroid, it often targets thyroglobulin. This causes it to produce antithyroglobulin antibodies. Your doctor can order an antithyroglobulin antibody test to check the level of these antibodies in your bloodstream. A high level may indicate an autoimmune condition

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During normal cellular function, proteins are broken down into nitrogen waste products and put into the blood stream as ammonia. The urea cycle transforms this toxin into urea, which can be safely removed by the kidneys as urine. Lack of an enzyme from the urea cycle, such as arginase, can result in the buildup of toxins in the body. There are six diseases that belong in the group of urea cycle disorders . Arginase is thought to be the rarest of these disorders.


The enzyme arginase is the last step of the urea cycle, where it turns arginine into ornithine and urea. If a person is born with arginase deficiency then they build up arginine in their blood. This is called argininemia. Since earlier steps in the urea cycle are left intact, patients may or may not build up ammonia in the blood. Commonly, the build up of arginine presents as a central nervous system disease or developmental delay in young children.

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Arginine vasopressin (AVP), or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a nonapeptide produced by the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary in response to extracellular fluid hyperosmolarity and hypovolemia. AVP promotes concentration of the urine by increasing water reabsorption in the kidney tubules. Inadequate AVP action causes diabetes insipidus (DI), a syndrome characterized by nonglycosuric polyuria, polydipsia, and dehydration. Central DI refers to insufficient AVP release due to diseases of the hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and pituitary gland. Nephrogenic DI is the result of impaired renal responsiveness to AVP and may be congenital or due to renal disease, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, systemic disorders (eg, multiple myeloma and amyloidosis), or drugs (eg, lithium or demeclocycline and ethanol).


DI diagnosis is based on the presence of hyperosmolar serum with inappropriately dilute urine. Central and nephrogenic DI can be differentiated by measuring the plasma AVP level and interpreting it in light of the simultaneous plasma osmolality.


The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is manifested by hyponatremia and inappropriately concentrated urine. The diagnosis is confirmed by plasma or urine AVP levels inappropriate for serum osmolality.

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Aspergillus precipitin is a laboratory test performed on your blood. It’s ordered when a doctor suspects that you have an infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus.


The test may also be called:


aspergillus fumigatus 1 precipitin level test

aspergillus antibody test

aspergillus immunodiffusion test

test for precipitating antibodies


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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic throughout the world. The infection is spread primarily through percutaneous contact with infected blood products (eg, blood transfusion, sharing of needles by intravenous drug addicts). The virus is also found in various human body fluids, and it is known to be spread through oral and genital contacts. HBV can be transmitted from mother to child during delivery through contact with blood and vaginal secretions, but it is not commonly transmitted transplacentally.

 

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the first serologic marker appearing in the serum at 6 to 16 weeks following exposure to HBV. In acute infection, HBsAg usually disappears in 1 to 2 months after the onset of symptoms. Persistence of HBsAg for more than 6 months in duration indicates development of either a chronic carrier state or chronic HBV infection.

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The quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) blood test measures the level of hCG hormone present in a sample of your blood. HCG is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. Your doctor may refer to the hCG quantitative test by another name, including:


quantitative serial beta-hCG test

repeat quantitative beta-hCG test

beta-hCG blood test

quantitative blood pregnancy test

In some cases, the hCG quantitative blood test may also be used to evaluate and manage certain types of cancer.

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Beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-M) is a small membrane protein (11,800 Dalton) associated with the heavy chains of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins and is, therefore, on the surface of all nucleated cells. The small size allows beta-2-M to pass through the glomerular membrane, but it is almost completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubules.


Serum beta-2-M levels are elevated in diseases associated with increased cell turnover. Levels are also elevated in several benign conditions such as chronic inflammation, liver disease, renal dysfunction, some acute viral infections, and a number of malignancies, especially hematologic malignancies associated with the B-lymphocyte lineage.


In multiple myeloma, beta-2-M is a powerful prognostic factor and values <4 mcg/mL are considered a good prognostic factor.


In renal tubular disease, serum levels are low and urine levels are high. Although urine beta-2-M has been used to assess tubular dysfunction, it is not stable in urine below pH 5.5.


See Laboratory Screening Tests for Suspected Multiple Myeloma in Special Instructions.

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A bleeding time test determines how quickly your blood clots to stop bleeding. The test involves making small, superficial cuts on your skin. They’re similar to light scratches.


The test is a basic assessment of how well your blood platelets work -form clots. Platelets are tiny cell fragments that circulate in your blood. They’re the first cells to react to a blood vessel injury. They seal off the wound to prevent more blood from escaping.

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A blood gas test measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. It may also be used to determine the pH of the blood, or how acidic it is. The test is commonly known as a blood gas analysis or arterial blood gas (ABG) test.


Your red blood cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout your body. These are known as blood gases. As blood passes through your lungs, oxygen flows into the blood while carbon dioxide flows out of the blood into the lungs. The blood gas test can determine how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.


Imbalances in the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels of your blood can indicate the presence of certain medical conditions. These may include:


kidney failure

heart failure

uncontrolled diabetes

hemorrhage

chemical poisoning

a drug overdose

shock

Your doctor may order a blood gas test when you’re showing symptoms of any of these conditions. The test requires the collection of a small amount of blood from an artery. It’s a safe and simple procedure that only takes a few minutes to complete.

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Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are commonly used for estimating the acid-base status, oxygenation and carbon dioxide concentration of unwell patients. However, arterial blood can be difficult to obtain due to weak pulses or patient movement. Due to thicker, muscular and innervated walls, arteries are also more painful to puncture than veins. As such, a venous blood gas (VBG) is an alternative method of estimating pH and other variables.

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Blood typing is a test that determines a person’s blood type. The test is essential if you need a blood transfusion or are planning to donate blood. Not all blood types are compatible, so it’s important to know your blood group. Receiving blood that’s incompatible with your blood type could trigger a dangerous immune response.

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A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, can provide important information about your kidney function. The main job of your kidneys is to remove waste and extra fluid from your body. If you have kidney disease, this waste material can build up in your blood and may lead to serious health problems, including high blood pressure, anemia, and heart disease.


The test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. Urea nitrogen is one of the waste products removed from your blood by your kidneys. Higher than normal BUN levels may be a sign that your kidneys aren't working efficiently.


People with early kidney disease may not have any symptoms. A BUN test can help uncover kidney problems at an early stage when treatment can be more effective.


Other names for a BUN test: Urea nitrogen test, serum BUN

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Medullary thyroid cancer can be highly aggressive, especially if the diagnosis is done in advanced stages. Early diagnosis is based on RET genetic testing, for familial forms, and on the routine measurement of calcitonin (Ct). Nevertheless, since false-positive results can be obtained with the basal measurement of Ct, a provocative test to evaluate stimulated Ct is often needed. Pentagastrin which has been widely used to stimulate basal Ct, especially in European countries, is now hardly available. Thus, the stimulation with calcium (Ca), used in the 1970s-1980s and then abandoned for around 30 years, has recently elicited more interest. In the past 3 years, studies in patients and normal controls have demonstrated that the stimulation with Ca (2.3-2.5 mg/kg of elemental Ca, corresponding to 25 mg/kg of Ca gluconate) is highly potent and accurate. Novel gender-related cut-offs have been proposed for the Ca test, though the analysis of additional large series is predicted to modify these preliminary data. Finally, Ca seems to be the test of choice to stimulate Ct for the diagnosis and follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer, also because it is widely available, has a low cost and it is associated with a low number and intensity of side effects. In the present review the different methods to stimulate Ct and the cut-offs for the identification of the hyperplastic/neoplastic transformation of the C cells will be reported and discussed.

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Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein normally found in embryonic entodermal epithelium.


Increased levels may be found in patients with primary colorectal cancer or other malignancies including medullary thyroid carcinoma and breast, gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostatic cancers.


Serial monitoring of CEA should begin prior to therapy to verify post therapy decrease in concentration and to establish a baseline for evaluating possible recurrence. Levels generally return to normal within 1 to 4 months after removal of cancerous tissue.

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Fibromyalgia: A disease characterized by chronic pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscles, tendons, and joints, without detectable inflammation. Fibromyalgia does not cause body damage or deformity. However, undue fatigue plagues 90 percent of patients with fibromyalgia. Sleep disorder is also common in patients with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia can be associated with other rheumatic conditions, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can occur with fibromyalgia. There is no definitive medical test for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia, so diagnosis is made by eliminating other possible causes of the symptoms. The most effective treatment is a combination of education, stress reduction, exercise, and medication. Formerly known as fibrositis.


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Chikungunya virus (ChikV) is a single-stranded RNA alphavirus and a member of the Togaviridae family of viruses. The name Chikungunya is derived from the language of the Makonde ethnic groups in southeast Africa and means "that which bends" or "stooped walk." This is in reference to the hunched-over appearance of infected individuals due to the characteristically painful and incapacitating arthralgia caused by the virus. ChikV is endemic throughout Africa, India, and more recently the Caribbean islands. In 2014, the first case of autochthonous or local transmission in the United States occurred in Florida. 


Humans are the primary reservoir for ChikV and Aedes species mosquitos are the primary vectors for transmission. Unlike other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue, the majority of individuals who are exposed to ChikV become symptomatic, with the most severe manifestations observed at the extremes of age and in those with suppressed immunity. Once exposed to ChikV virus, individuals develop lasting immunity and protection from reinfection.


The incubation period, prior to development of symptoms, ranges on average from 3 to 7 days. Infected patients typically present with sudden onset high fever, incapacitating joint pain, and often a maculopapular rash lasting anywhere from 3 to 10 days. Notably, symptom relapse can occur in some individuals 2 to 3 months following resolution of initial symptoms. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines and treatment is strictly supportive care.

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Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the neuroendocrine cells. It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II.

Chromogranin A can be either measured in the serum or detected by immunohistochemistry in a tissue specimen.

Although it varies widely with the techniques used, the reference ranges for serum chromogranin A are as follows:

Less than 36.4 ng/mL (conventional unit) [1]

Less than 36.4 µg/L (system international)

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When pregnancy screening tests are abnormal; whenever signs of a chromosomal abnormality-associated disorder are present; as indicated to detect chromosomal abnormalities in a person and/or detect a specific abnormality in family members; sometimes when a person has leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, myelodysplasia or another cancer and an acquired chromosome abnormality is suspected

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When you get a cut, your body jumps into action to keep things from getting out of hand. Cells called platelets get there first to slow the bleeding. Then, a bunch of proteins, called clotting factors, show up. They all fit together to form a solid mass -- a blood clot -- to stop the bleeding so you can start healing.


That’s what typically happens. But if you tend to bleed easily or you get clots when you shouldn’t, then you may have a problem with your clotting factors.


That’s when you might need a prothrombin time test, which measures how quickly your blood clots. It’s also called a PT, pro time, or INR test.

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Blood typing is a screening test to determine blood groups and Rh antigen for blood transfusion and pregnancy. The four blood groups A, B, O, and AB are determined by the presence of antigens A and B or their absence (O) on a patient's red blood cells. In addition to ABO grouping, most immunohematology testing includes evaluation of Rh typing tests for Rh(D) antigen. Blood cells that express Rh(D) antigen are Rh positive. Red blood cells found lacking Rh(D) are considered Rh negative. Rh typing is also important during pregnancy because of the potential for mother and fetus Rh incompatiblity. If the mother is Rh negative but the father is Rh positive, the fetus may be positive for the Rh antigen. As a result, the mother’s body could develop antibodies against the Rh antigen. These antibodies may cross the placenta and cause destruction of the baby’s red blood cells, resulting in a condition known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.


Blood typing is performed by agglutination testing. The patient's red cells are tested with anti-A and anti-B antibodies for the presence or absence of agglutination (forward type, aka cell type), and patient's serum or plasma is tested against known A and B cells (reverse type, aka serum type, aka back type). Rh typing is done by testing patient red blood cells with anti-D antibody.


Transfusion of blood components of the correct blood type is necessary in order to prevent an adverse immunologic reaction. These reactions can range from very mild and sub-clinical to very severe or fatal, depending upon the components involved and condition of the recipient. Therefore, accurate assessment of both blood component and recipient ABO and Rh status is mandatory. The results of this testing will determine what blood group types a recipient may receive safely. For plasma components such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets, it is important that the plasma be compatible with the recipient's red blood cells. This is always true for FFP which must be transfused in adequate volume to replace essential components in the recipient. For platelets, they can be concentrated if the ABO types are incompatible such that the amount of plasma given to the recipient is reduced to a minimum and the resulting hemolysis, if any, is reduced accordingly.

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Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene. It is an alpha-globulin.

This gene encodes an alpha-globulin protein with corticosteroid-binding properties. This is the major transport protein for glucocorticoids and progestins in the blood of most vertebrates. The gene localizes to a chromosomal region containing several closely related serine protease inhibitors (serpins) which have evolved by duplication events.


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Reflexology, also known as zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a pseudoscientific[1] system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.


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Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii. C. neoformans has been isolated from several sites in nature, particularly weathered pigeon droppings. C. gatti was previously only associated with tropical and subtropical regions; however, more recently this organism has also been found to be endemic in British Columbia and among the pacific northwest United States, and is associated with several different trees species.


Infection is usually acquired via the pulmonary route. Patients are often unaware of any exposure history. Approximately half of the patients with symptomatic disease have a predisposing immunosuppressive condition such as AIDS, steroid therapy, lymphoma, or sarcoidosis. Symptoms may include fever, headache, dizziness, ataxia, somnolence, and cough. While the majority of C. neoformans infections occur in immunocompromised patient populations, C.gattii is has a higher predilection for infection of healthy hosts.(1,2)


In addition to the lungs, cryptococcal infections frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in patients infected with HIV. Mortality among patients with CNS cryptococcosis may approach 25% despite antibiotic therapy. Untreated CNS cryptococcosis is invariably fatal. Disseminated disease may affect any organ system and usually occurs in immunosuppressed individuals.

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Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition that mainly affects the lungs, pancreas, and sweat glands. It causes the production of thick, sticky mucus that leads to recurrent respiratory infections and blocks the release of pancreatic enzymes, inhibiting the digestion of protein and fat.


CF is one of the most common recessive genetic disorders in the U.S. A recessive disorder occurs when each of the two copies of a gene (one inherited from each parent) is abnormal. According to Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, it is estimated that 30,000 Americans are living with CF and approximately 1,000 new cases are diagnosed every year. Most people with CF are diagnosed in early childhood.


CF is caused by mutations (disease-causing variations in the DNA) in a gene called CFTR located on chromosome seven. More than 2,000 different CF mutations have been identified so far, but only a few are common. The majority of cystic fibrosis cases in the U.S. are caused by a mutation called deltaF508 (F508).


The CFTR gene is responsible for the normal production of a protein called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In CF, the CFTR protein may be dysfunctional or totally absent. With dysfunctional or absent CFTR, chloride does not move out of the ducts into surrounding fluid, resulting in the production of thick, sticky mucus. Since CFTR levels are usually highest in the epithelial cells lining the internal surfaces of the bronchi of the lungs, pancreas, sweat glands, salivary glands, intestine, and reproductive organs, these are the areas most affected by CF.


Most people with CF develop respiratory and pancreatic symptoms early in life, although the severity of signs and symptoms varies from person to person, even in those carrying the exact same mutations. The majority of adult men with CF are also infertile due to missing or underdeveloped vas deferens, the tubules that transport sperm from the testicles.


An individual with one normal CFTR gene copy and one abnormal gene copy is a CF carrier. Carriers do not generally have symptoms, but they may pass a copy of their abnormal gene on to their children. Both biological parents must either be carriers or have CF in order for their child to have CF.


The risk associated with carrying an abnormal CF gene can be generally associated with a person's ethnic background. Caucasians from Northern Europe and Ashkenazi Jews have the highest incidence of CF with about 1 in 25 individuals being CF carriers.

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Cysticercosis is caused by infection with the larval form (cysticercus) of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis most commonly result from the lodging of cysticerci in brain and neural tissue. Common symptoms of neurocysticercosis include seizures and convulsions. Antibodies from other parasitic infections, particularly echinococcosis, may crossreact in the cysticercus IgG ELISA. Confirmation of positive ELISA results by the Cysticercosis IgG antibody western blot (test code 34279X) is recommended.



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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that occurs widely throughout the population but rarely causes symptoms. In the United States, as many as 50-85% of adults have been infected with CMV. Most people are infected as children or as young adults and do not experience any significant symptoms or health problems.


CMV testing involves either a measurement of CMV antibodies, immune proteins produced in response to CMV exposure, or the detection of the virus itself. The virus can be identified during an active infection by culturing CMV or by detecting the virus's genetic material (its DNA) in a fluid or tissue sample.


CMV is found in many body fluids during an active infection, including saliva, urine, blood, breast milk, semen, vaginal secretions, and cerebrospinal fluid. It is easily transmitted to others through close physical contact or by contact with infected objects, such as diapers or toys. After the initial "primary" infection has resolved, CMV becomes dormant or latent, like other members of the herpes family. Cytomegalovirus remains in a person for the rest of the person's life without causing any symptoms unless the person's immune system is significantly weakened. If this happens, the virus can reactivate.


CMV can cause notable health problems in three situations:


In young adults, primary CMV infection may cause a flu-like or mononucleosis-type illness. This condition, which causes symptoms such as extreme fatigue, fever, chills, body aches and/or headaches, usually resolves within a few weeks. 

In infants, primary CMV infection may cause serious physical and developmental problems. This occurs when a woman is infected for the first time (primary infection) during pregnancy and then passes the infection to her developing baby across the placenta. Most newborns (about 90%) who are infected appear healthy at birth but may develop hearing or vision problems, pneumonia, seizures, and/or delayed mental development a few months later. A few babies may be stillborn, while others may have symptoms at birth such as jaundice, anemia, an enlarged spleen or liver, and a small head.

In those with weakened immune systems, CMV could cause serious illness and death. This includes those with HIV/AIDS, those who have had organ or bone marrow transplants, and those undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer. People with compromised immune systems who become infected for the first time (primary infection) might experience the most severe symptoms and their CMV infection may remain active. Those who have been exposed to CMV previously may reactivate their infection. This could affect their eyes (causing inflammation of the retina, which can lead to blindness), digestive tract (causing bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain), lungs (causing pneumonia with a non-productive cough and shortness of breath), and brain (causing encephalitis). There can also be spleen and liver involvement, and those who have had organ or bone marrow transplants may experience some degree of rejection. Active CMV also further depresses the immune system, allowing other secondary infections such as fungal infections, to occur.

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Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted to humans by mosquitoes that live in tropical and subtropical climates and carry the virus. Blood testing detects the dengue virus or antibodies produced in response to dengue infection.


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), dengue infections have been reported in more than 100 countries from parts of Africa, the Americas, the Caribbean, the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. It is a fast emerging infectious disease, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), with an increasing number of cases and countries affected throughout the world. The actual number is not known because about 75% of cases are asymptomatic, but a recent estimate put the number of annual dengue infections as high as 390 million. Approximately 50 to 100 million symptomatic cases occur annually worldwide.


In the U.S., the majority of dengue cases occur in travelers returning from areas where dengue is endemic. Most dengue cases in U.S. citizens occur in people who live in Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Samoa and Guam. Outbreaks where a large number of cases occur in a defined area are rare in the U.S. In recent years, there have been small outbreaks in Texas and Hawaii and a few cases diagnosed in southern Florida.

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Drugs of abuse testing is the detection of one or more illegal and/or prescribed substances in the urine, blood, saliva, hair, or sweat. Testing detects substances not normally found in the body, with the exception of some hormones and steroids measured as part of sports testing.


Drug abuse testing usually involves an initial screening test followed by a second test that identifies and/or confirms the presence of a drug or drugs. Most laboratories use commercially available tests that have been developed and optimized to screen urine for the "major drugs of abuse."


For most drugs of abuse testing, laboratories compare results of initial screening with a predetermined cut-off. Anything below that cut-off is considered negative; anything above is considered a positive screening result. In addition, labs might perform testing for masking agents (adulterants). These may either interfere with testing or dilute a urine sample.


Among drugs of abuse, each class of drug may contain a variety of chemically similar substances. Legal substances that are chemically similar to illegal ones can produce a positive screening result. Positive screening tests are considered presumptive. Therefore, screening tests that are positive for one or more classes of drugs are frequently confirmed with a secondary test that identifies the exact substance present using a very sensitive and specific method, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

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The pemphigus   Pemphigus foliaceus  and pemphigoid   Skin: bullous pemphigoid  autoimmune skin diseases   Immune-mediated disease: overview   are mediated by autoantibodies that target antigens within the interkeratinocyte desmosomes (pemphigus) or the basement membrane zone hemidesmosomes (pemphigoid).

A range of laboratory methods may be used to demonstrate the presence of these autoantibodies. These tests have not been used widely in equine pemphigus or pemphigoid diseases and, in those report available, have shown variable sensitivity and specifity.

Autoantibodies may be detected either in situ(within lesional skin biopsies), or circulating with the serum of affected animals.

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Receptors are specialized proteins on the surface of or within cells that recognize and bind to other substances. The binding typically has a specific effect on the cells. Many, but not all, breast cancer cells have receptors that bind to the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Breast cancer tumors with estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) depend on the hormones to grow and divide. ER and PR testing of breast tumor tissue determines if one or both types of receptors are present.


Knowing if a tumor depends on hormones to grow helps a health practitioner determine a person's risk of breast cancer recurrence and whether it can be treated with hormone therapy to block estrogen and progesterone. About two-thirds of breast cancer tissues are positive for both ER and PR.


In 2010, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) jointly published guidelines that recommend that all tumors from individuals with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer be evaluated for estrogen and progesterone receptors. The guidelines also state that all recurrent breast cancers should be tested and that the option of testing should be provided for patients who have non-invasive breast cancer.

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The estrogen test measures the total amounts of the estrogen in the blood. Estrogens are the hormones responsible for female sexual development and function. Estrogens are secreted by the gonads, adrenal glands, and placenta.


Normal estrogen results depend upon the sex and age of the person being tested. With women, it also depends upon their menstrual cycle or whether they are pregnant.

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Histopathology (or histology) involves the examination of sampled whole tissues under the microscope. Three main types of specimen are received by the pathology laboratory.


Specimens received by the pathology laboratory require tissue preparation then are treated and analysed using techniques appropriate to the type of tissue and the investigation required. For immediate diagnosis during a surgical procedure a frozen section is performed


Larger specimens include whole organs or parts thereof, which are removed during surgical operations. Examples include a uterus after a hysterectomy, the large bowel after a colectomy or tonsils after a tonsillectomy.


Pieces of tissue rather than whole organs are removed as biopsies, which often require smaller surgical procedures that can be performed whilst the patient is still awake but sedated. Biopsies include excision biopsies, in which tissue is removed with a scalpel (e.g. a skin excision for a suspicious mole) or a core biopsy, in which a needle is inserted into a suspicious mass to remove a slither or core of tissue that can be examined under the microscope (e.g. to investigate a breast lump).


Fluid and very small pieces of tissue (individual cells rather than groups of cells, e.g. within fluid from around the lung) can be obtained via a fine needle aspiration (FNA). This is performed using a thinner needle than that used in a core biopsy, but with a similar technique. This type of material is usually liquid rather than solid, and is submitted for cytology rather than histology (see Cytopathology).

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Fibrin degradation products (FDP) are substances that remain in your bloodstream after your body dissolves a blood clot. Your fibrinolytic (clot-busting) system manages and regulates clot dissolving.


When you cut yourself, the injured blood vessel constricts to stop bleeding and promote healing. This process is called hemostasis. Platelets in your blood gather together and stick to the injury site to form a plug or clot. The formation of the plug or clot is called the clotting cascade.


Fibrin is a protein that aids in clotting. Clotting, also called coagulation, at the wound site produces a mass of fibrin threads called a net. The net remains in place until the cut is healed. As the cut heals, the clotting slows down. Eventually the clot breaks down and dissolves.


When the clot and fibrin net dissolve, fragments of protein are released into the body. These fragments are fibrin degradation products (FDPs). If your body is unable to dissolve a clot, you may have abnormal levels of FDPs.


Blood tests can measure your level of FDPs to see if you have a clotting disorder. The fibrin degradation products test is a specific test that determines the amount of FDPs in your blood. The test is also known as the fibrin split products (FSPs) test, or the fibrin breakdown products test.

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A fetal hemoglobin test is a blood test that checks the amount of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) in the blood. Fetal hemoglobin is one of many types of hemoglobin. It is present in high levels in fetuses, but usually drops to trace amounts about six months after birth. If Hb F is at higher than normal levels, it can mean you have thalassemia, myeloid leukemia, or sickle cell anemia.

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Fibrinogen is a protein, a coagulation factor (factor I) that is essential for blood clot formation. Two types of tests are available to evaluate fibrinogen: a fibrinogen activity test evaluates how well fibrinogen functions in helping to form a blood clot while a fibrinogen antigen test measures the amount of fibrinogen in the blood.


Fibrinogen is produced by the liver and released into circulation along with several other coagulation factor proteins. Normally, when a body tissue or blood vessel wall is injured, a process called hemostasis begins to help stop the bleeding by forming a plug at the injury site. Small cell fragments called platelets adhere to and aggregate at the site, a coagulation cascade begins, and clotting factors are activated one after the other.


As the cascade nears completion, soluble fibrinogen is converted into insoluble fibrin threads. These threads crosslink together to form a fibrin net that stabilizes at the injury site. The fibrin net adheres to the site of injury along with the platelets to form a stable blood clot. This barrier prevents additional blood loss and remains in place until the injured area has healed.


For a stable clot to form there must be enough normally functioning platelets and coagulation factors. If there are dysfunctional factors or platelets, or too little or too much of them, it can lead to bleeding episodes and/or to formation of an in appropriate blood clot (thrombosis). Several laboratory tests, including fibrinogen tests, can be used to evaluate hemostasis.

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Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused by nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori) whose preferred habitats are the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes which induce the development of disfiguring and debilitating clinical symptoms. The infection, which is transmitted by various genera of mosquitoes (Sasa 1976), is considered to be one of the health problems of greatest social and economic impact in endemic areas (Ottesen et al. 1997).


Until the 1980s, the only direct way to confirm a diagnosis of infection by W. bancrofti was via the identification of microfilariae (MF) in peripheral blood using camera counting, polycarbonate membrane filtration, the thick smear method or Knott's technique (Knott 1939, Denham et al. 1971, Dennis & Kaen 1971, Eberhard & Lammie 1991). Apart from the low sensitivities of these methods arising from the fact that they only identify filarial infection by way of microfilaremia, they are also inconvenient in terms of the time of day the blood must be collected, namely when the MF are at a peak in peripheral blood, a parameter that varies from one endemic area to another. In Brazil, the peak for microfilaremia occurs between 11 pm-1 am (Dreyer et al. 1996).


In the 1990s, significant advances were made in the diagnosis of LF with the emergence of new diagnostic tools: (i) use of recombinant antigens to detect specific antibodies (Chandrasherkar et al. 1994); (ii) a PCR for the detection of filarial DNA (Zhong et al. 1996, Rocha et al. 2002); (iii) the visualisation of live adult worms (AW) using ultrasound (US) and (iv) circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detection (More & Copeman 1990, Weil et al. 1997). At present, the standard diagnostic tools are US (Amaral et al. 1994) and CFA detection, with the latter using the monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) Og4C3 and AD12. The CFA detection techniques are commercially available in the form of kits and have the advantage of allowing for diagnosis to be carried out using blood samples collected at any time of day (More & Copeman 1990, Amaral et al. 1994, Weil et al. 1997, Rocha 2002, 2004)

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For a palpable breast lump, a fine needle is inserted through the skin and directed towards the suspicious area. When this needle reaches the mass, the doctor suctions out a sample with the help of syringe, which is then sent to the laboratory for further analysis.

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Fungi are microbes that exist in nature as one-celled yeasts or as branching filamentous molds (also may be spelled "moulds"). Only about 20 to 25 species of fungi are common causes of infection. Fungal tests detect infections and sometimes identify the fungus and help guide treatment. 


Fungal infections range from superficial skin infections to serious deep tissue, blood, lung, or systemic diseases.


Superficial fungal infections are very common. They may cause nail infections or itchy, red, scaly skin infections such as those commonly known as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm, or yeast infections that cause white patches in the mouth (thrush) or vaginal itching and discharge. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), almost 75% of women will have at least one yeast infection in their lifetime.

Lung, blood, and systemic infections: less commonly, fungi cause serious lung infections, blood infections (septicemia), or systemic infections that can affect any organ in the body. Fungal lung infections typically start with the accidental inhalation of microscopic fungal spores. While anyone can get a serious lung or systemic fungal infection, most affected people will only experience mild to moderate flu-like symptoms. However, people who are immunocompromised, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and people with an underlying condition such as diabetes or lung disease are at an increased risk of having a severe fungal infection, a systemic infection, and/or recurrent infections.

Fungal tests are used to detect and identify fungi in order to diagnose infections and help guide treatment. Fungal testing typically includes a microscopic examination of the sample on a slide, sometimes using a preparation or stain to aid in detection of fungal elements. This may be sufficient to determine that the infection is due to a fungus and, with superficial infections, no further testing may be required.


However, in cases of persistent, deep, or systemic infections when a more definitive diagnosis is needed, the microscopic exam may be followed by additional tests, such as culture and susceptibility testing, antigen or antibody tests, or molecular tests that detect fungal genetic material.

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Fungal Smear test is performed on a sample of skin to measure the level of Fungal Smear (Skin) in the skin.It is performed to confirm Fungal Infection of Skin and also during the treatment and after the treatment of Fungal Infection of Skin and Immunosuppressive Condition.

No special preparation is needed for Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin. Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin. Your doctor depending on your condition will give specific instructions.

The normal result for Fungal Smear Koh Test Skin for Fungal Smear (Skin) is A normal KOH test result shows no Fungi. A stained slide fluoresce is observed if positive for fungus. A positive test indicates Fungal infection but it cannot identify the organism. If KOH test is positive then, specimen is inoculated into culture media. for Unisex gender and for All age groups.


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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme involved in energy production. It is found in all cells, including red blood cells (RBCs) and helps protect them from certain toxic by-products of cellular metabolism. A deficiency in G6PD causes RBCs to become more vulnerable to breaking apart (hemolysis) under certain conditions. This test measures the amount of G6PD in RBCs to help diagnose a deficiency.


G6PD deficiency is a genetic disorder. When individuals who have inherited this condition are exposed to a trigger such as stress, an infection, certain drugs or other substance(s), significant changes occur in the structure of the outer layer (cell membrane) of their red blood cells. Hemoglobin, the life-sustaining, oxygen-transporting protein within RBCs, forms deposits (precipitates) called Heinz bodies. Some individuals may experience these reactions when exposed to fava beans, a condition called "favism." With these changes, RBCs can break apart more readily, causing a decrease in the number of RBCs. When the body cannot produce sufficient RBCs to replace those destroyed, hemolytic anemia results and the individual may develop jaundice, weakness, fatigue, and/or shortness of breath.


G6PD deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in the world, affecting more than 400 million people. It may be seen in up to 10% of African-American males and 20% of African males. It is also commonly found in people from the Mediterranean and Southeast Asia.


G6PD deficiency is inherited, passed from parent to child, due to mutations or changes in the G6PD gene that cause decreased enzyme activity. There are over 440 variants of G6PD deficiency. The G6PD gene is located on the sex-linked X chromosome. Since men have one X and one Y sex chromosome, their single X chromosome carries the G6PD gene. This may result in a G6PD deficiency if a male inherits the single X chromosome with an altered gene.


Since women have two X sex chromosomes, they inherit two copies of the G6PD gene. Women with only one mutated gene (heterozygous) produce enough G6PD that they usually do not experience any symptoms (i.e., asymptomatic), but under situations of stress, they may demonstrate a mild form of the deficiency. In addition, a mother may pass the single mutated gene to any male children. Rarely do women have two mutated gene copies (homozygous), which could result in G6PD deficiency.

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Galactose is a sugar that is part of the lactose found in milk and milk products. A galactosemia test is a blood or urine test that checks for enzymes that are needed to change galactose into glucose, a sugar that your body uses for energy. A person with galactosemia doesn't have one of these enzymes, so high levels of galactose build up in the blood or urine.


When galactose builds up in a baby's blood, it can cause liver damage, problems with eating, and intellectual disabilities. The damage caused by galactosemia can begin within weeks after the baby has started drinking breast milk or formula. Babies with galactosemia need foods low in galactose in order to gain weight and to prevent brain damage, liver problems, infection, and cataracts.


Galactosemia is a rare disease that is passed from parents to children (inherited genetic disorder). A galactosemia test is usually done to determine whether a newborn has the disease. In a family with a member who has galactosemia, a genetic test can be done on adults to find out whether they have an increased chance of having a child with the disease.

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A ganglioside is a molecule of a glycosphingolipid with one other sialic salts  sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of gangliosides anionic at pH 7, which distinguishes them from globosides.


The name ganglioside was first applied by the German scientist Ernst Klenk in 1942 to lipids newly isolated from ganglion cells of the brain. More than 60 gangliosides are known, which differ from each other mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events, and appears to concentrate in lipid rafts

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Gastrin is a hormone produced by "G-cells" in the part of the stomach called the antrum. It regulates the production of acid in the body of the stomach during the digestive process. This test measures the amount of gastrin in the blood to help evaluate an individual with recurrent peptic ulcers and/or other serious abdominal symptoms.


When food is eaten, the antrum of the stomach becomes distended and the presence of food stimulates the release of gastrin. Gastrin in turn stimulates parietal cells to produce gastric acid. Acidity helps to digest food and the rise in acidity eventually suppresses gastrin release. This feedback system normally results in low concentrations of gastrin in the blood, especially in the fasting state. Rare conditions such as G-cell hyperplasia and gastrinomas, including Zollinger-Ellison (ZE) syndrome, can cause an overproduction of gastrin and gastric acid. This can lead to aggressive peptic ulcers that can be difficult to treat.


Gastrinomas are gastrin-producing tumors. ZE syndrome is a condition caused by the presence of one or more gastrinomas and is characterized by high gastrin levels, greatly increased gastric acid production, and by peptic ulcers. Gastrinomas usually form in the pancreas, even though the endocrine cells of the pancreas do not normally make gastrin. More than half of them are malignant, causing cancer that can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver. Even tiny tumors can produce large quantities of gastrin.

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GCT test is used to help diagnose gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes. A glucose tolerance test measures how well your body’s cells are able to absorb glucose, or sugar, after you ingest a given amount of sugar.

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Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme that is found in many organs throughout the body, with the highest concentrations found in the liver. GGT is elevated in the blood in most diseases that cause damage to the liver or bile ducts. This test measures the level of GGT in a blood sample.


Normally, GGT is present in low levels, but when the liver is injured, the GGT level can rise. GGT is usually the first liver enzyme to rise in the blood when any of the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver to the intestines become obstructed, for example, by tumors or stones. This makes it the most sensitive liver enzyme test for detecting bile duct problems.


However, the GGT test is not very specific and is not useful in differentiating between various causes of liver damage because it can be elevated with many types of liver diseases, such as liver cancer and viral hepatitis, as well as other non-hepatic conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome. For this reason, the GGT test is not recommended for routine use by itself. However, it can be useful in conjunction with other tests and in determining the cause of a high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level, another enzyme found in the liver.


Both GGT and ALP are increased in liver diseases, but only ALP will be increased with diseases affecting bone tissue. Therefore, GGT can be used as a follow up to an elevated ALP to help determine if the high ALP result is due to liver or bone disease.


GGT levels are sometimes increased with consumption of even small amounts of alcohol. Higher levels are found more commonly in chronic heavy drinkers than in people who consume less than 2 to 3 drinks per day or who only drink heavily on occasion (binge drinkers). The GGT test may be used in evaluating someone for acute or chronic alcohol abuse.

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A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon in your blood. Glucagon is produced by cells in the pancreas. It helps control your blood sugar level by increasing blood sugar when it is too low.

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C-peptide is a substance, a short chain of amino acids, that is released into the blood as a byproduct of the formation of insulin by the pancreas. This test measures the amount of C-peptide in a blood or urine sample.


In the pancreas, within specialized cells called beta cells, proinsulin, a biologically inactive molecule, splits apart to form one molecule of C-peptide and one molecule of insulin. Insulin is vital for the transport of glucose into the body's cells and is required on a daily basis. When insulin is required and released from the beta cells into the blood in response to increased levels of glucose, equal amounts of C-peptide are also released. Since C-peptide is produced at the same rate as insulin, it is useful as a marker of insulin production.


In particular, C-peptide testing can be used to help evaluate the production of insulin made by the body (endogenous) and to help differentiate it from insulin that is not produced by the body but is taken in as diabetic medication (exogenous) and so does not generate C-peptide. This test may be done in conjunction with an insulin test.

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Blood sugar (glucose) is usually present in the urine at very low levels or not at all. Abnormally high amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are usually the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated. It serves as the main source of energy used by the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body's cells to use the glucose. Excess or shortage of insulin in the body causes an imbalance of the blood glucose in the body, leading to its severe drop or drastic increase in the blood. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. Chronic low glucose levels can lead to brain and nerve damage.


Fasting blood sugar is a test for glucose content in a person’s blood that, as the name suggests, is conducted after fasting. The test is generally carried out in the morning, after an overnight fasting. As a part of the test, a sample of the patient’s blood is collected and then sent to the lab for testing.


A fasting blood sugar test offers information about how the body is managing the blood sugar levels. Normally, the range of glucose in a person’s blood is between 70 to 100 mg/dl. Fasting blood sugar levels between 100 to 126 mg/dl are considered as pre-diabetic or impaired fasting glucose and blood sugar levels of 126 mg/dl or higher are diagnosed as diabetes.

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This is a blood test to check for diabetes. If you have diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin to keep your blood sugar in check. This means your blood sugar levels are too high, and over time this can lead to serious health problems including nerve and eye damage.


This test is done to see how your body responds to sugar and starch after you eat a meal. As you digest the food in your stomach, blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels rise sharply. In response, your pancreas releases insulin to help move these sugars from the blood into the cells of muscles and other tissues to be used for fuel. Within two hours of eating, your insulin and blood glucose levels should return to normal. If your blood glucose levels remain high, you may have diabetes.

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Blood sugar (glucose) is usually present in the urine at very low levels or not at all. Abnormally high amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are usually the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated. It serves as the main source of energy used by the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body's cells to use the glucose. Excess or shortage of insulin in the body causes an imbalance of the blood glucose in the body, leading to its severe drop or drastic increase in the blood. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. Chronic low glucose levels can lead to brain and nerve damage.

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The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming 'glycated'.


By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months.


For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications. 


HbA1c is also referred to as haemoglobin A1c or simply A1c.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test is the gold standard to identify central precocious puberty (CPP). This test requires multiple blood samples at different time points to measure gonadotropin levels, and is therefore expensive, time-consuming, and uncomfortable for patients. We aimed to simplify the GnRH stimulation test to require fewer blood samples.

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A growth hormone (GH) test measures the amount of human growth hormone (GH) in the blood. GH is made by the pituitary gland and is needed for growth. It plays an important role in how the body uses food for energy (metabolism). The amount of GH in the blood changes during the day and is affected by exercise, sleep, emotional stress, and diet.


Too much GH during childhood can cause a child to grow taller than normal (gigantism). Too little GH during childhood can cause a child to grow less than normal (dwarfism). Both conditions can be treated if found early.


In adults, too much GH is caused by a noncancerous tumor of the pituitary gland (adenoma). Too much GH can cause bones of the face, jaw, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal (acromegaly).


Growth hormone can cause the release of other substances (factors) that affect growth and metabolism. One of these is insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). When the GH level is very high, the IGF-1 level is also very high. A test for IGF-1 may also be done to confirm high GH levels.

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Growth hormone (GH) is a hormone that is essential for normal growth and development in children. It promotes proper linear bone growth from birth through puberty. In both children and adults, growth hormone helps regulate the rate at which the body both produces energy from food (metabolism) and makes lipids, proteins, and glucose (sugar). It also helps regulate the production of red blood cells and muscle mass.


Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland, a grape-sized gland located at the base of the brain behind the bridge of the nose. It is normally released into the bloodstream in pulses throughout the day and night with peaks that occur mostly during the night. Because of this, a single measurement of the level of GH in blood is difficult to interpret and not usually clinically useful. The value will be higher if the sample is taken during a pulse and lower if it is taken during a period between pulses. GH stimulation and suppression tests are therefore often used to diagnose GH abnormalities. (See the "How is it used?" section.)


GH deficiency


Children with insufficient GH production grow more slowly and are smaller in size for their age. Some children have GH deficiency at birth (congenital), but some may develop a deficiency later due, for example, to a brain injury or tumor. These conditions can affect the pituitary gland, causing a decrease in pituitary function, resulting in a lowered production of pituitary hormones (hypopituitarism). Sometimes, the cause of the deficiency is not known.


In adults, growth hormone plays a role in regulating bone density, muscle mass, and glucose and lipid metabolism. It can also affect heart and kidney function. Deficiencies may have begun in childhood or develop in adulthood. A deficiency can develop, for example, because of damage to the pituitary gland caused by a head injury, brain tumor, or surgery or radiation treatment. This can result in a decrease in pituitary hormones (hypopituitarism). The deficiency in GH can lead to decreased bone density, less muscle mass, and altered lipid levels. However, testing for GH deficiency is not routine in adults who have decreased bone density and/or muscle strength or increased lipids. GH deficiency is a very rare cause of these disorders.

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Growth hormone promotes development from birth to puberty. It is also essential for the maintenance of metabolism, skeletal muscle, and bone tissue throughout one’s life

The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, releases growth hormone in periodic bursts. Most growth hormone is released during deep sleep

They hypothalamus of the brain in turn releases hormones that control growth hormone release by the pituitary gland. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) and growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH) stimulate and depress growth hormone secretion, respectively

Growth hormone affects nearly every cell in the body. It causes cells to increase their protein production and their fatty acid metabolism

The growth-inducing effects of growth hormone are important for adaptation to strenuous demands, such as exercise. Growth hormone also stimulates the replenishment of tissues during everyday wear and tear. The hormone is especially important during childhood development

Problems with the pituitary gland or GH-RH may cause growth hormone underproduction. This results in stunted growth, abnormal fat distribution, and difficulty regulating blood sugar

Excessive production of growth hormone, caused by tumors or problems with the regulatory mechanisms, may cause excessive growth. The resulting conditions, though similar, differ depending on the stage in life that a growth hormone overproduction occurred:

Growth hormone overproduction before puberty results in gigantism. This is marked by extreme lengthening of the skeleton, sometimes causing heights in excess of 8 feet

Growth hormone overproduction during adulthood results in acromegaly. Because the bones have already reached their maximum length, acromegaly is marked by bone thickening but not lengthening

The Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Blood Test helps measure the levels of growth hormone-releasing hormone in blood. It is used to differentiate between a pituitary tumor and an ectopic secretion of GH-RH

If GH-RH levels are normal, the result of excessive growth hormone is likely a tumor of the pituitary gland that releases growth hormone without the need for stimulation by GH-RH

If GH-RH levels are increased, there may be an ectopic tumor of the hypothalamus that secretes GH-RH

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Growth hormone (GH) is secreted in a pulsatile manner and is cleared rapidly, resulting in dramatic fluctuations in GH levels.1-3 For this reason, random GH levels are generally not useful in establishing GH deficiency. A number of physiologic and pharmacologic stimuli can be used to provoke GH release. Several growth hormone stimulation protocols are described below. These tests are best performed in the morning after an overnight fast.3 Patients should be confirmed as euthyroid before these protocols are initiated.

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At least 3 blood samples are taken.


The test is done in the following way:


The first blood sample is collected between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m before you eat or drink anything.

You then drink a solution containing glucose (sugar). You may be told to drink slowly to avoid becoming nauseated. But you must drink the solution within 5 minutes to ensure the test result is accurate.

The next blood samples are usually collected for 1 to 2 hours after you finish drinking the glucose solution. Sometimes they are taken every 30 or 60 minutes.

Each sample is sent to the laboratory right away. The lab measures the glucose and growth hormone (GH) levels in each sample.

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A glucose tolerance test measures how well your body’s cells are able to absorb glucose, or sugar, after you ingest a given amount of sugar. Doctors use fasting blood sugar levels and hemoglobin A1c values to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and prediabetes. A glucose tolerance test can also be used. Doctors primarily use a glucose tolerance test to diagnose gestational diabetes.


Doctors often diagnose type 1 diabetes quickly because it usually develops quickly and involves high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, often develops over years. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, and it usually develops during adulthood.


Gestational diabetes occurs when a pregnant woman who doesn’t have diabetes before pregnancy has high blood sugar levels as a result of the pregnancy. The American Diabetes Association estimates that gestational diabetes occurs in 9.2 percent of pregnancies.

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Helicobacter pylori is a type of bacteria that is known to be a major cause of peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori testing detects an infection of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract caused by the bacteria.


H. pylori is very common, especially in developing countries. The bacteria are present in (colonize) the stomachs and intestines of as many as 50% of the world's population. Most of those affected will never have any symptoms, but the presence of H. pylori increases the risk of developing ulcers (peptic ulcer disease), chronic gastritis, and gastric (stomach) cancer. The bacteria decrease the stomach's ability to produce mucus, making the stomach prone to acid damage and peptic ulcers.


There are several different types of H. pylori testing that can be performed. Some are less invasive than others.


Noninvasive


Stool antigen test – detection of H. pylori in a stool sample

Urea breath test – detection of labeled carbon dioxide in the breath after drinking a solution 


An antibody test using a blood sample is not recommended for routine diagnosis or for evaluation of treatment effectiveness. This test detects antibodies to the bacteria and will not distinguish between a present and previous infection. If the antibody test is negative, then it is unlikely that a person has had an H. pylori infection. If ordered and positive, results should be confirmed using a stool antigen or breath test.


Invasive


Invasive tests using an endoscopy procedure are less frequently performed than noninvasive tests because they require a tissue biopsy collection. Tests include:


Histology – examination of tissue under a microscope

Rapid urease testing – detects urease, an enzyme produced by H. pylori

Culture – growing H. pylori in/on a nutrient solution

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Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein found in all red blood cells (RBCs) that gives the cells their characteristic red color. Hemoglobin enables RBCs to bind to oxygen in the lungs and carry it to tissues and organs throughout the body. It also helps transport a small portion of carbon dioxide, a product of cell metabolism, from tissues and organs to the lungs, where it is exhaled.


The hemoglobin test measures the amount of hemoglobin in a person's sample of blood. A hemoglobin level can be performed alone or with a hematocrit, a test that measures the proportion of blood that is made up of RBCs, to quickly evaluate an individual's red blood cells. Red blood cells, which make up about 40% (ranging 37-49%) of the blood's volume, are produced in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when they are, or nearly are, mature. The typical lifespan of an RBC is 120 days, and the bone marrow must continually produce new RBCs to replace those that age and degrade or are lost through bleeding.


Several diseases and conditions can affect RBCs and consequently the level of hemoglobin in the blood. In general, the hemoglobin level and hematocrit rise when the number of red blood cells increases. The hemoglobin level and hematocrit fall to less than normal when there is a drop in production of RBCs by the bone marrow, an increase in the destruction of RBCs, or if blood is lost due to bleeding. A drop in the RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit can result in anemia, a condition in which tissues and organs in the body do not get enough oxygen, causing fatigue and weakness. If too many RBCs are produced, polycythemia results and the blood can become thickened, causing sluggish blood flow and related problems.

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The absolute hemoglobin A2 concentration in mg. per 100 ml. of blood was calculated from the hemoglobin level in Gm. per 100 ml. and hemoglobin A2 percentage for 38 patients with documented iron deficiency, 37 patients with proven beta-thalassemia minor, 26 patients with simple chronic anemia and 40 normal control laboratory workers. The mean hemoglobin A2 concentration (mg. per 100 ml.) in the control group was 459 plus or minus 60 (2 S.D.) and that in the beta-thalassemia group, 766 plus or minus 99. However, in the iron deficiency group it was 229 plus or minus 58, while in the simple chronic anemia group it was 315 plus or minus 39. The mean corpuscular volume (M.C.V.) in cu. mu was 90 plus or minus 8 (2 S.D.) in the normal controls, 68 plus or minus 10 in beta-thalassemia, 69 plus or minus 9 in iron deficiency, and 90 plus or minus 15 in secondary anemia. It is proposed that the absolute hemoglobin A2 level in mg. per 100 ml. of blood taken in conjunction with the M.C.V. is of value in establishing the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

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Fungal infections of the skin are very common and include athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, and yeast infections.

Athlete's Foot:-

Picture of Ringworm of the Foot (Tinea Pedis)Athlete's foot, also called tinea pedis, is a fungal infection of the foot. It causes peeling, redness, itching, burning, and sometimes blisters and sores.

Athlete's foot is a very common infection. The fungus grows best in a warm, moist environment such as shoes, socks, swimming pools, locker rooms, and the floors of public showers. It is most common in the summer and in warm, humid climates. It occurs more often in people who wear tight shoes and who use community baths and pools.
 

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A hemoglobin electrophoresis test is a blood test used to measure and identify the different types of hemoglobin in your bloodstream. Hemoglobin is the protein inside red blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen to your tissues and organs.


Genetic mutations can cause your body to produce hemoglobin that is formed incorrectly. This abnormal hemoglobin can cause too little oxygen to reach your tissues and organs.


There are hundreds of different types of hemoglobin. They include:


Hemoglobin F: This is also known as fetal hemoglobin. It’s the type found in growing fetuses and newborns. It’s replaced with hemoglobin A soon after birth.

Hemoglobin A: This is also known as adult hemoglobin. It’s the most common type of hemoglobin. It’s found in healthy children and adults.

Hemoglobin C, D, E, M, and S: These are rare types of abnormal hemoglobin caused by genetic mutations.

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A Complete Blood Count (cbc) or a Heamogram is the one of the most commonly ordered test. A complete blood count gives info in to components of blood i.e. White Blood Cells, Red Blood Cells and Platelet Count. The CBC also gives you information on Haemoglobin, the oxygen carrying component of your blood.


Why is Cbc Test is Performed?

A complete blood count (CBC) is a commonly performed pathology  lab test. It can be used to detect or monitor many different health conditions. It is a part of a routine check-up, if you are having symptoms, such as fatigue, weight loss, fever or other signs of an infection, weakness, bruising, bleeding, or any signs of cancer

When you are receiving treatments (medicines or radiation) that may change your blood count results

This test helps to monitor a chronic health problem that may change your blood count results, such as chronic kidney disease.


Advantage of  Complete Blood Count test: It can record any abnormality in the above components and give information of any underlying medial cause, especially in the case of Anaemia, Leukaemia and infection.


CBC is also ordered when you are suffering from fever or an infection. The test results can give multiple insights in to your infection.

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Haptoglobin is a protein produced by the liver that the body uses to clear free hemoglobin (found outside of red blood cells) from circulation. This test measures the amount of haptoglobin in the blood.


Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein complex that transports oxygen throughout the body. It is normally found within red blood cells (RBCs) and very little is found free circulating in the blood. Haptoglobin binds to free hemoglobin in the blood. This forms a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex that is rapidly cleared out of circulation for degradation and iron recycling.


However, when an increased number of RBCs are damaged and/or break apart (hemolysis), they release their hemoglobin into the blood, increasing the amount of free hemoglobin in circulation. When large numbers of RBCs are destroyed, haptoglobin concentrations in the blood will temporarily decrease as the haptoglobin is used up faster than the liver can produce it. A decrease in the amount of haptoglobin may be a sign that a person has a condition that is causing red blood cells to be destroyed or break apart. When the binding capacity of haptoglobin is exceeded, free hemoglobin level in circulation goes up and may cause tissue damage and organ dysfunction.


Increased RBC destruction may be due to inherited or acquired conditions. Some examples include transfusion reactions, certain drugs, and mechanical breakage, such as may be seen with some prosthetic heart valves. The destruction may be mild or severe, occurring suddenly (acute) or developing and lasting over a long period of time (chronic), and it can lead to hemolytic anemia. People with hemolytic anemia may experience symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath and their skin may be pale or jaundiced. (For additional details, read the article on Hemolytic Anemia.)


Liver disease may also result in decreased haptoglobin concentrations as liver damage may inhibit both the production of haptoglobin and the clearing of the haptoglobin-free hemoglobin complexes.



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Hepatitis B tests detect substances that reflect a current or previous infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Some tests detect viral proteins (antigens) or the antibodies that are produced in response to an infection, while other types of tests detect or evaluate the genetic material (DNA) of the virus. The pattern of test results can identify a person who has a current active infection or one who has immunity as a result of previous exposure.


For details on the various tests, see the table under "How is it used?"


Hepatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. It has several various causes, one of which is infection by a virus. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far that are known to mainly infect the liver. The other four are hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E.


HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Rarely, mothers can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth. The virus is not spread through casual contact such as holding hands, coughing or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood, and can be passed by sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person.

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Gallstones vary in size and chemical structure. A gallstone may be as tiny as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Eighty percent of gallstones are composed of cholesterol. They are formed when the liver produces more cholesterol than digestive juices can liquefy. The remaining 20% of gallstones are composed of calcium and an orange-yellow waste product called bilirubin. Bilirubin gives urine its characteristic color and sometimes causes jaundice.

Gallstones are the most common of all gallbladder problems. They are responsible for 90% of gallbladder and bile duct disease, and are the fifth most common reason for hospitalization of adults in the United States. Gallstones usually develop in adults between the ages of 20 and 50; about 20% of patients with gallstones are over 40. The risk of developing gallstones increases with age-at least 20% of people over 60 have a single large stone or as many as several thousand smaller ones. The gender ratio of gallstone patients changes with age. Young women are between two and six times more likely to develop gallstones than men in the same age group. In patients over 50, the condition affects men and women with equal frequency. Native Americans develop gallstones more often than any other segment of the population; Mexican-Americans have the second-highest incidence of this disease.

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Often used as a marker of ability to spread the virus to other people (infectivity); it may also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. However, there are some types (strains) of HBV that do not make e-antigen; these are especially common in the Middle East and Asia. In areas where these strains of HBV are common, testing for HBeAg is not very useful to determine whether the virus can be spread to others.

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This assay is useful for diagnosis of Acute Hepatitis B infection. It identifies Acute HBV infection in the core window period when HBsAg and Anti HBs are negative. It also differentiates between acute and chronic HBV infection in the presence of positive Anti HBc

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Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.[1] It may occur as a short episode or may be of a long duration.[1] There may be no symptoms but, when symptoms are present, the most common is upper abdominal pain.[1] Other possible symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating, loss of appetite and heartburn.[1][2] Complications may include bleeding, stomach ulcers, and stomach tumors.[1] When due to autoimmune problems, low red blood cells due to not enough vitamin B12 may occur, a condition known as pernicious anemia.[3]

Common causes include infection with Helicobacter pylori and use of NSAIDs.[1] Less common causes include alcohol, smoking, cocaine, severe illness, autoimmune problems, radiation therapy and Crohn's disease.[1][6] Endoscopy, a type of X-ray known as an upper gastrointestinal series, blood tests, and stool tests may help with diagnosis.[1] The symptoms of gastritis may be a presentation of a myocardial infarction.[2] Other conditions with similar symptoms include inflammation of the pancreas, gallbladder problems, and peptic ulcer disease.[2]

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Gas – Everyone has it, no matter how small or big we are. We eliminate it by burping or passing it on the other end.  Passing gas 14 to 23 times a day is normal for both adults and children. Even though it is entirely natural and unavoidable, it can be embarrassing.  Furthermore, when gas does not pass easily, pain often results…upset stomach, bloating and cramping.

Children are particularly susceptible to discomfort caused by gas as their delicate digestive systems develop and learn to move gas through their digestive tracts effectively.  Understanding causes, ways to reduce symptoms and treatment will help most find relief. If a child has persistently painful or extreme gassiness, it should be brought to the attention of your doctor, as it could be the sign of a more serious medical problem.


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Despite the morbidity associated with anogenital condylomas and the mortality associated with anal, penile, and cervical carcinoma as a direct consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently does not recommend routine screening for HPV in immuno competent men. However, findings of emerging research focusing on the high-risk populations of men who have sex with men and men who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus, in whom HPV infection is pervasive and persistent, suggest that these populations may benefit from screening. Therefore, HPV screening, including anal cytology, should be considered for these men in settings where appropriate follow-up, including high-resolution anoscopy, is available.

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There are several serological tests used to diagnose Hydatiddisease.Routine tests include indirect hemagglutination (IHA)andImmunoelectrophoresis (IEP). The sensitivity of IHA in calcified or lunglesions is 60%, and 88% in peritoneal or liver disease, with a specificityof 90-95% (1-2).IEP is regarded as an highly specific test, but crossreactivity could be with other infections such as Taenia SoliumCysticercosis )or rarely in liver cirrhosis or cancer (cross reactivitywith P1 antigen)(3).Our practice is to combine the tests, because of itslow sensitivity. IEP test will be positive for Antigen 5 (arc 5)usualywith a titer of 1:512 in IHA test. Inlower titer, IEP will be positiveonly in 13% of patients (3).Recently, more advanced serological tests are used. ELISA test withsensitivity and specificity of 84% and 96.6% respectively,or Westernblotting (IB-Immunoblot). There are several diagnostic antigens in IBtest. The first antigen was of 8 kDa , with a described sensitivity andspecificity of 91% and 100% respectively (4). Since this report, manyother antigens were described using the IB test. Basicly, the two majorantigens are the thermolabile Antigen A ( antigen 5)which is composed oftwo subunits of 38-40 and 20 kDa, and the thermostable Antigen B whichis composed of 3 antigens of 8-12, 16 and 23-24 kDa (5). The cellularImuune response can also be tested by a lymphoproliferative assay (blasttransformation) which is a very sensitive test used to diagnose thedisease in seronegative patients (5).


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This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins A, G, and M in the blood and, in certain circumstances, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) . There are numerous conditions and diseases that can cause increased or decreased production of immunoglobulins (Igs).Immunoglobulins play a key role in the body's immune system. They are proteins produced by specific immune cells (plasma cells and B-cells) in response to bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms as well as substances that are recognized as "non-self" and harmful antigens. The first time a person is infected or otherwise exposed to a foreign substance (antigen), their immune system recognises the microorganism or substance as "non-self" and stimulates cells to produce specific immunoglobulin(s) or antibodies that can bind to and neutralise the threat. With subsequent exposures, the immune system "remembers" the antigen that was encountered, which allows for the rapid production of more antibodies and helps prevent re-infection.There are five classes of immunoglobulins and several subclasses. Each class represents a group of antibodies and has a slightly different role. Classes of immunoglobulins include:


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An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common antibodies in the body. Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to fight bacteria, viruses, and toxins.IgA is found in high concentrations in the body's mucous membranes, particularly the respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears. IgA also plays a role in allergic reactions. IgA levels also may be high in autoimmune conditions, disorders in which the body mistakenly makes antibodies against healthy tissues.

 

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This test measures the amount of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood.   Immunoglobulin E is a type of antibody produced by the body during an allergic reaction.  IgE levels are normally very low.  During exposure to an allergen, the immune system of the allergic person creates IgE which triggers typical allergy symptoms such as red itchy skin, runny nose, itchy eyes and difficulty breathing.  Measuring IgE levels can help determine if a person may have an allergic disease including asthma although it cannot identify a specific allergen.  IgE can also be elevated when a person has a parasitic infection.   


A Total IgE test is typically ordered when a person is experiencing symptoms associated with a parasitic infection or allergic reaction, especially if they do not know what they may be allergic to.  The test is usually taken shortly after or while someone is experiencing symptoms such as persistent itching, hives, itchy eyes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneezing, coughing, congestion or difficulty breathing.  This test is usually accompanied by or followed with testing for specific allergens. 

 

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