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Bloat is any abnormal gas swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain and is sometimes accompanied by increased stomach growling, or more seriously, the total lack of it.

Pains that are due to bloating will feel sharp and cause the stomach to cramp. These pains may occur anywhere in the body and can change locations quickly.They are so painful that they are sometimes mistaken for heart pains when they develop on the upper left side of the chest. Pains on the right side are often confused with problems in the appendix or the gallbladder.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex among others.Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system.This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, an irregular heart beat, liver failure, and an increase in the risk of cancer, among other diseases Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Generally women are more sensitive to alcohol's harmful physical and mental effects than men

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Cold sores, also called fever blisters, can show up anywhere on your body. They're most likely to appear on the outside of your mouth and lips, but you can also find them on your nose, cheeks, or fingers.

After the blisters form, you may notice that they break and ooze. A yellow crust or a scab builds up and eventually falls off, revealing new skin underneath.

The sores usually last 7 to 10 days and can spread to other people until they crust over completely.

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Whiplash is a relatively common injury that occurs to a person's neck following a sudden acceleration-deceleration force that causes unrestrained, rapid forward and backward movement of the head and neck, most commonly from motor vehicle accidents. The term "whiplash" was first used in 1928. The term "railway spine" was used to describe a similar condition that was common in persons involved in train accidents prior to 1928. The term "whiplash injury" describes damage to both the bone structures and soft tissues, while "whiplash associated disorders" describes a more severe and chronic condition.Fortunately, whiplash is typically not a life threatening injury, but it can lead to a prolonged period of partial disability. There are significant economic expenses related to whiplash that can reach 30 billion dollars a year in the United States, including:medical care,disability,sick leave,lost productivity, andlitigation.While most people involved in minor motor vehicle accidents recover quickly without any chronic symptoms, some continue to experience symptoms for years after the injury. This wide variation in symptoms after relatively minor injuries has led some to suggest that, in many cases, whiplash is not so much a real physiologic injury, but that symptoms are more created as a result of potential economic gain. Many clinical studies have investigated this issue. Unfortunately, while there will always be people willing to attempt to mislead the system for personal gain, whiplash is a real condition with real symptoms.


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Whipple disease is a rare bacterial infection that most often affects your gastrointestinal system. Whipple disease interferes with normal digestion by impairing the breakdown of foods, such as fats and carbohydrates, and hampering your body's ability to absorb nutrients.Whipple disease also can infect other organs, including your brain, heart, joints and eyes.Without proper treatment, Whipple disease can be serious or fatal. However, a course of antibiotics can treat Whipple disease

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White blood cells (leukocytes) orchestrate the host response to pathogens. Leukocytes are divided into myeloid (eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils) and lymphoid (B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells) elements. Monocytes and neutrophils mediate innate immune defenses and present antigens to lymphocytes, the principal effectors of the adaptive immune system. Eosinophils and basophils defend against parasitic pathogens, play important roles in inflammation, and mediate allergic reactions.Monocytes and neutrophils, as part of innate immunity, phagocytose bacteria and debris, eliminate virus-infected cells, and destroy parasites and fungi. Phagocytosis is assisted by serum complement proteins, which adhere to pathogens and promote chemotaxis and opsonization. Monocytes mature in tissue to become macrophages, where they, along with dendritic cells and B cells, serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs) to the adaptive immune system.B and T cells, as part of adaptive immunity, confer long-term protection against pathogens, especially extracellular bacterial infections. Adaptive immunity orchestrates both antibody-mediated humoral immunity and T-cell mediated cellular cytotoxicity. B cells secrete neutralizing antigen-specific antibodies (i.e. humoral) upon stimulation by the macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells. In contrast, T cells and NK cells, upon stimulation, can directly kill aberrant cells (i.e. cell-mediated). These aberrant cells include those infected with viruses, bacteria, and fungi, tumorigenic cells, and transplanted tissue.


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ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about body changes and other things that can signal a problem that may need medical care. To see other pages, use the menu.Children with a Wilms tumor may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, children with a Wilms tumor do not have any of these changes. Or, the cause of a symptom may be another medical condition that is not cancer.Usually, a Wilms tumor is found before it spreads to other parts of the body. A parent or relative may notice a large lump or feel a hard mass in the child’s belly or notice that the belly is much larger than usual. In some cases, a rapid change to a larger diaper size alerts parents to the presence of a tumor. A few children have abdominal pain. However, most of the time the tumor grows without causing pain, and the child feels and appears healthy.


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Wilson's disease is a rare inherited disorder that causes copper to accumulate in your liver, brain and other vital organs. Most people with Wilson's disease are diagnosed between the ages of 5 and 35, but it can affect younger and older people, as well.Copper plays a key role in the development of healthy nerves, bones, collagen and the skin pigment melanin. Normally, copper is absorbed from your food, and excess is excreted through a substance produced in your liver (bile).But in people with Wilson's disease, copper isn't eliminated properly and instead accumulates, possibly to a life-threatening level. When diagnosed early, Wilson's disease is treatable, and many people with the disorder live normal lives.

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In Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, an extra electrical pathway between your heart's upper and lower chambers causes a rapid heartbeat. The extra pathway is present at birth and fairly rare.The episodes of fast heartbeats usually aren't life-threatening, but serious heart problems can occur. Treatment can stop or prevent episodes of fast heartbeats. A catheter-based procedure (ablation) can permanently correct the heart rhythm problems.Most people with an extra electrical pathway experience no fast heartbeat. This condition, called Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, is discovered only by chance during a heart exam. Although WPW pattern is often harmless, doctors might recommend further evaluation before children with WPW pattern participate in high-intensity sports.

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Colic is uncontrollable crying in an otherwise healthy baby. Your baby is considered colicky if he’s younger than 5 months old and cries for more than three hours in a row on three or more days a week for at least three weeks (phew!). Colic isn't a disease and won't cause your baby any long-term harm, but it's a tough thing to go through for babies and their parents.

If your baby is colicky, find more than 20 sanity-saving tips to help you deal with it in our article about coping with colic.

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X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a condition that affects the immune system and occurs almost exclusively in males. People with XLA have very few B cells, which are specialized white blood cells that help protect the body against infection. B cells can mature into the cells that produce special proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins. Antibodies attach to specific foreign particles and germs, marking them for destruction. Individuals with XLA are more susceptible to infections because their body makes very few antibodies.Children with XLA are usually healthy for the first 1 or 2 months of life because they are protected by antibodies acquired before birth from their mother. After this time, the maternal antibodies are cleared from the body, and the affected child begins to develop recurrent infections. In children with XLA, infections generally take longer to get better and then they come back again, even with antibiotic medications. The most common bacterial infections that occur in people with XLA are lung infections (pneumonia and bronchitis), ear infections (otitis), pink eye (conjunctivitis), and sinus infections (sinusitis). Infections that cause chronic diarrhea are also common. Recurrent infections can lead to organ damage. People with XLA can develop severe, life-threatening bacterial infections; however, affected individuals are not particularly vulnerable to infections caused by viruses. With treatment to replace antibodies, infections can usually be prevented, improving the quality of life for people with XLA.


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Yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers. Illness ranges in severity from a self-limited febrile illness to severe liver disease with bleeding. Yellow fever disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings, laboratory testing, and travel history, including the possibility of exposure to infected mosquitoes. There is no specific treatment for yellow fever; care is based on symptoms. Steps to prevent yellow fever virus infection include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and getting vaccinated.


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Plague is a serious bacterial infection that's transmitted by fleas. Known as the Black Death during medieval times, today plague occurs in fewer than 5,000 people a year worldwide. It can be deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics.The organism that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, lives in small rodents found most commonly in rural and semirural areas of Africa, Asia and the United States. The organism is transmitted to humans who are bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents or by humans handling infected animals.The most common form of plague results in swollen and tender lymph nodes — called buboes — in the groin, armpits or neck. The rarest and deadliest form of plague affects the lungs, and it can be spread from person to person.


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Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare condition in which one or more tumors form in your pancreas or the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum). These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin, which causes your stomach to produce too much acid. The excess acid then leads to peptic ulcers, as well as to diarrhea and other symptoms.


Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is rare. The disease may occur at any time in life, but people are usually diagnosed between ages 20 and 50. Medications to reduce stomach acid and heal the ulcers is the usual treatment for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

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A dislocation is an injury to a joint — a place where two or more bones come together — in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. This painful injury temporarily deforms and immobilizes your joint.


Dislocation is most common in shoulders and fingers. Other sites include elbows, knees and hips. If you suspect a dislocation, seek prompt medical attention to return your bones to their proper positions.

When treated properly, most dislocations return to normal function after several weeks of rest and rehabilitation. However, some joints, such as your shoulder, may have an increased risk of repeat dislocation.

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Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased.

Some forms of colon hydrotherapy use tubes to inject water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Oral cleaning regimens use dietary fiber, herbs, dietary supplements, or laxatives. People who practice colon cleansing believe that accumulations of putrefied feces line the walls of the large intestine and that these accumulations harbor parasites or pathogenic gut flora, causing nonspecific symptoms and general ill-health. This "auto-intoxication" hypothesis is based on medical beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks and was discredited in the early 20th century.

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A double uterus is a rare congenital abnormality. In a female fetus, the uterus starts out as two small tubes. As the fetus develops, the tubes normally join to create one larger, hollow organ — the uterus.


Sometimes, however, the tubes don't join completely. Instead, each one develops into a separate structure. A double uterus may have one opening (cervix) into one vagina, or each uterine cavity may have a cervix. In many cases, a thin wall of tissue runs down the length of the vagina, dividing it into two separate openings.


Women who have a double uterus often have successful pregnancies. But the condition can increase the risk of miscarriage or premature birth.

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A drug allergy is the abnormal reaction of your immune system to a medication. Any medication — over-the-counter, prescription or herbal — is capable of inducing a drug allergy. However, a drug allergy is more likely with certain medications.


The most common signs and symptoms of drug allergy are hives, rash or fever. A drug allergy may cause serious reactions, including a life-threatening condition that affects multiple body systems (anaphylaxis).


A drug allergy is not the same as a drug side effect, a known possible reaction listed on a drug label. A drug allergy is also different from drug toxicity caused by an overdose of medication.

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Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as sneezing and runny nose. Many people with dust mite allergy also experience signs of asthma, such as wheezing and difficulty breathing.


Dust mites, close relatives of ticks and spiders, are too small to see without a microscope. Dust mites eat skin cells shed by people, and they thrive in warm, humid environments. In most homes, such items as bedding, upholstered furniture and carpeting provide an ideal environment for dust mites.


By taking steps to reduce the number of dust mites in your home, you may get control of dust mite allergy. Medications or other treatments are sometimes necessary to relieve symptoms and manage asthma.

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The cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from secretions, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex consists of three phases:
  • An inhalation
  • A forced exhalation against a closed glottis
  • A violent release of air from the lungs following the opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.
  • Cough can be either voluntary or involuntary. Frequent coughing usually indicates the presence of a disease. Coughing can be due to respiratory tract infection and can also be triggered by:
  • Choking
  • Smoking
  • Air pollution
  • Asthma
  • Gastro esophageal reflux disease(GERD)
  • Post-nasal drip
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • lung tumors
  • Heart failure and medications such as ACE inhibitors.
Types:
  • Acute cough: It begins suddenly and can be caused due to sinus, flu or sinus infection.
  • Sub acute cough: It lasts for 3-8 weeks
  • Chronic Cough: It lasts longer than 8 weeks.
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Earwax blockage occurs when earwax (cerumen) accumulates in your ear or becomes too hard to wash away naturally.

Earwax is a helpful and natural part of your body's defenses. It cleans, lubricates and protects your ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria.

If earwax blockage becomes a problem, you or your doctor can take simple steps to remove the wax safely.

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Eggs are one of the most common allergy-causing foods for children.

Egg allergy symptoms usually occur a few minutes to a few hours after eating eggs or foods containing eggs. Signs and symptoms range from mild to severe and can include skin rashes, hives, nasal congestion, and vomiting or other digestive problems. Rarely, egg allergy can cause anaphylaxis — a life-threatening reaction.

Egg allergy can occur as early as infancy. Most children, but not all, outgrow their egg allergy before adolescence.

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Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial illness transmitted by ticks that causes flu-like symptoms. The signs and symptoms of ehrlichiosis range from mild body aches to severe fever and usually appear within a week or two of a tick bite. If treated quickly with appropriate antibiotics, ehrlichiosis generally improves within a few days.

Another tick-borne infection — anaplasmosis — is closely related to ehrlichiosis. But the two have distinct differences and are caused by different microorganisms.

The best way to prevent these infections is to avoid tick bites. Tick repellents, thorough body checks after being outside and proper removal of ticks give you the best chance of avoiding ehrlichiosis.

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 Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.

The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Most CNS embryonal tumors in children are malignant. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain. When a tumor grows into or presses on an area of the brain, it may stop that part of the brain from working the way it should. Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread to other parts of the brain. Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause signs or symptoms and need treatment.

Although cancer is rare in children, brain tumors are the third most common type of childhood cancer, after leukemia and lymphoma. This summary is about the treatment of primary brain tumors (tumors that begin in the brain). The treatment of metastatic brain tumors, which begin in other parts of the body and spread to the brain, is not discussed in this summary. For information about the different types of brain and spinal cord tumors, see the PDQ summary on Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview.

Brain tumors occur in both children and adults. Treatment for adults may be different from treatment for children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults.

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Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ in women where fetal development occurs.


Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer. Other types of cancer can form in the uterus, including uterine sarcoma, but they are much less common than endometrial cancer.


Endometrial cancer is often detected at an early stage because it frequently produces abnormal vaginal bleeding, which prompts women to see their doctors. If endometrial cancer is discovered early, removing the uterus surgically often cures endometrial cancer.

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An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) isn't a disease, but rather a sign of another condition.


The term "cardiomegaly" refers to an enlarged heart seen on any imaging test, including a chest X-ray. Other tests are then needed to diagnose the condition causing your enlarged heart.


You may develop an enlarged heart temporarily because of a stress on your body, such as pregnancy, or because of a medical condition, such as the weakening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, heart valve problems or abnormal heart rhythms.


Certain conditions may cause the heart muscle to thicken or one of the chambers of the heart to dilate, making the heart larger. Depending on the condition, an enlarged heart may be temporary or permanent.


An enlarged heart may be treatable by correcting the cause. Treatment for an enlarged heart can include medications, medical procedures or surgery.


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If your doctor tells you that you've got an enlarged liver, it means it's swollen beyond its normal size. There's usually another condition that's causing it, such as hepatitis. You have a lot of treatment choices, but you first need to find out the source of the problem.


Getting treated is important. Your liver has a lot of big jobs to do. Just to name a few key ones, it helps clean your blood by getting rid of harmful chemicals that your body makes. It makes a liquid called bile, which helps you break down fat from food. And it also stores sugar, called glucose, which gives you a quick back-up energy boost when you need it.


Depending on what's causing your liver to swell, you could end up with long-term damage if you don't get treated.

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In eosinophilic esophagitis (e-o-sin-o-FILL-ik uh-sof-uh-JIE-tis), a type of white blood cell (eosinophil) builds up in the lining of the tube that connects your mouth to your stomach (esophagus). This buildup, which is a reaction to foods, allergens or acid reflux, can inflame or injure the esophageal tissue. Damaged esophageal tissue can lead to difficulty swallowing or cause food to get stuck when you swallow.


Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune system disease. It has been identified only in the past two decades, but is now considered a major cause of digestive system (gastrointestinal) illness. Research is ongoing and will likely lead to revisions in the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

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Epidermolysis bullosa (ep-ih-dur-MOL-uh-sis buhl-LOE-sah) is a group of rare diseases that cause fragile, blistering skin. The blisters may appear in response to minor injury, even from heat, rubbing, scratching or adhesive tape. In severe cases, the blisters may occur inside the body, such as the lining of the mouth or the stomach.


Most types of epidermolysis bullosa are inherited. The condition usually shows up in infancy or early childhood. Some people don't develop signs and symptoms until adolescence or early adulthood.


Epidermolysis bullosa has no cure, though mild forms may improve with age. Treatment focuses on caring for blisters and preventing new ones.

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Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) – Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) (Cardiovascular) pipeline landscape.

Heart failure is also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump out enough oxygen-rich blood. Symptoms include cough, fatigue, weakness, faintness, loss of appetite, swollen (enlarged) liver or abdomen, swollen feet and ankles and weight gain. The predisposing factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, alcohol use and irregular heartbeats. Treatment includes surgery, vasodilator, beta blockers and diuretics.

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Epiglottitis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the epiglottis — a small cartilage "lid" that covers your windpipe — swells, blocking the flow of air into your lungs.


A number of factors can cause the epiglottis to swell — burns from hot liquids, direct injury to your throat and various infections. The most common cause of epiglottitis in children in the past was infection with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), the same bacterium that causes pneumonia, meningitis and infections in the bloodstream. Epiglottitis can occur at any age.


Routine Hib vaccination for infants has made epiglottitis rare, but epiglottitis remains a concern. If you suspect that you or someone in your family has epiglottitis, seek emergency help immediately. Prompt treatment can prevent life-threatening complications.

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Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus — a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Your esophagus helps move the food you swallow from the back of your throat to your stomach to be digested.


Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus. Esophageal cancer can occur anywhere along the esophagus. More men than women get esophageal cancer.


Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Incidence rates vary within different geographic locations. In some regions, higher rates of esophageal cancer cases may be attributed to tobacco and alcohol use or particular nutritional habits and obesity.


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Normally, contractions of the esophagus camera.gif (the tube that connects the mouth and the stomach) move food from the mouth to the stomach with a regular, coordinated rhythm.


Esophageal spasm means that contractions of the esophagus are irregular, uncoordinated, and sometimes powerful. This condition may be called diffuse esophageal spasm, or DES. These spasms can prevent food from reaching the stomach. When this happens, the food gets stuck in the esophagus.


Sometimes the squeezing moves down the esophagus in a coordinated way, but it is very strong. This can be called nutcracker esophagus. These contractions move food through the esophagus but can cause severe pain.

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Esophageal varices are abnormal, enlarged veins in the tube that connects the throat and stomach (esophagus). This condition occurs most often in people with serious liver diseases.


Esophageal varices develop when normal blood flow to the liver is blocked by a clot or scar tissue in the liver. To go around the blockages, blood flows into smaller blood vessels that aren't designed to carry large volumes of blood. The vessels can leak blood or even rupture, causing life-threatening bleeding.


A number of drugs and medical procedures can help prevent and stop bleeding from esophageal varices.

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Essential tremor is a nervous system (neurological) disorder that causes involuntary and rhythmic shaking. It can affect almost any part of your body, but the trembling occurs most often in your hands — especially when you do simple tasks, such as drinking from a glass or tying shoelaces.


It's usually not a dangerous condition, but essential tremor typically worsens over time and can be severe in some people. Other conditions don't cause essential tremor, although it's sometimes confused with Parkinson's disease.

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Esthesioneuroblastoma (es-THEE-zee-o-NOO-row-blas-TOE-muh) is a rare type of cancer that begins in the upper portion of the nasal cavity.


The area where esthesioneuroblastoma begins is separated from the brain by a bone that contains tiny holes that allow the nerves that control smell (olfactory nerves) to pass through. Esthesioneuroblastoma is also called olfactory neuroblastoma.


Esthesioneuroblastoma, which can occur at any age in adults, generally begins as a tumor in the nasal cavity and may grow or extend into the sinus, eyes and brain. People with esthesioneuroblastoma can lose their sense of smell, have frequent nosebleeds and experience difficulty breathing through their nostrils as the tumor grows.


Esthesioneuroblastoma can also spread to the lymph nodes in the neck and the parotid glands. In advanced cases, esthesioneuroblastoma can spread to other parts of the brain and other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver and bones.


Esthesioneuroblastoma treatment usually includes surgery. Often, radiation and chemotherapy are recommended, as well.

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Eye floaters appear as small spots that drift through your field of vision. They may stand out when you look at something bright, like white paper or a blue sky. They might annoy you, but they shouldn’t interfere with your sight.


If you have a large floater, it can cast a slight shadow over your vision. But this tends to happen only in certain types of light.


You can learn to live with floaters and ignore them. You may notice them less as time passes. Only rarely do they get bad enough to require treatment.

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A febrile seizure is a convulsion in a child that may be caused by a spike in body temperature, often from an infection. Your child's having a febrile seizure can be alarming, and the few minutes it lasts can seem like an eternity.


Febrile seizures represent a unique response of a child's brain to fever, usually the first day of a fever. Fortunately, they're usually harmless and typically don't indicate an ongoing problem. You can help by keeping your child safe during a febrile seizure and by comforting him or her afterward.

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Fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements, causing stool (feces) to leak unexpectedly from the rectum. Also called bowel incontinence, fecal incontinence ranges from an occasional leakage of stool while passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control.


Common causes of fecal incontinence include diarrhea, constipation, and muscle or nerve damage. The muscle or nerve damage may be associated with aging or with giving birth.


Whatever the cause, fecal incontinence can be embarrassing. But don't shy away from talking to your doctor. Treatments are available that can improve fecal incontinence and your quality of life.

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Infertility is defined as trying to get pregnant (with frequent intercourse) for at least a year with no success. Female infertility, male infertility or a combination of the two affects millions of couples in the United States. An estimated 10 to 18 percent of couples have trouble getting pregnant or having a successful delivery.


Infertility results from female factors about one-third of the time and male factors about one-third of the time. The cause is either unknown or a combination of male and female factors in the remaining cases.


Female infertility causes can be difficult to diagnose. There are many available treatments, which will depend on the cause of infertility. Many infertile couples will go on to conceive a child without treatment. After trying to get pregnant for two years, about 95 percent of couples successfully conceive.

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A sexual problem, or sexual dysfunction, refers to a problem during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. The sexual response cycle has four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.


While research suggests that sexual dysfunction is common (43% of women and 31% of men report some degree of difficulty), it is a topic that many people are hesitant or embarrassed to discuss. Fortunately, most cases of sexual dysfunction are treatable, so it is important to share your concerns with your partner and doctor.

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The term "fetal macrosomia" is used to describe a newborn who's significantly larger than average.


A baby diagnosed with fetal macrosomia has a birth weight of more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams), regardless of his or her gestational age. About 9 percent of babies born worldwide weigh more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces.


However, the risks associated with fetal macrosomia increase greatly when birth weight is more than 9 pounds 15 ounces (4,500 grams).


Fetal macrosomia may complicate vaginal delivery and could put the baby at risk of injury during birth. Fetal macrosomia also puts the baby at increased risk of health problems after birth.

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Fibromuscular dysplasia is a condition that causes narrowing (stenosis) and enlargement (aneurysm) of the medium-sized arteries in your body. Reduced blood flow from narrowed arteries to the organs can affect the function of the organs.


Fibromuscular dysplasia appears most commonly in the arteries leading to the kidneys. Fibromuscular dysplasia can also affect the arteries leading to your brain, heart, abdomen, arms and legs.


Fibromuscular dysplasia can cause a number of complications, such as high blood pressure or tears of the artery (arterial dissection), if left untreated. Arterial dissection, or spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), can limit blood flow to the organ supplied by the injured artery.

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Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disorder in which scar-like (fibrous) tissue develops in place of normal bone. This irregular tissue can weaken the affected bone and cause it to deform or fracture.


In most cases, fibrous dysplasia occurs at a single site in one bone, but can occur at multiple sites in multiple bones. Single bone involvement usually occurs in adolescents and young adults. People who have more than one affected bone typically develop symptoms before the age of 10.


Although fibrous dysplasia is a genetic disorder, it's caused by a gene mutation that's not passed from parent to child. There's no cure for the disorder. Treatment, which may include surgery, focuses on relieving pain and repairing or stabilizing bones.

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You have flatfeet when the arches on the inside of your feet are flattened, allowing the entire soles of your feet to touch the floor when you stand up.


A common and usually painless condition, flatfeet can occur when the arches don't develop during childhood. In other cases, flatfeet develop after an injury or from the simple wear-and-tear stresses of age.


Flatfeet can sometimes contribute to problems in your ankles and knees because the condition can alter the alignment of your legs. If you aren't having pain, no treatment is usually necessary for flatfeet.

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Folliculitis is an inflammatory condition affecting hair follicles. It appears as a small red tender bump occasionally surmounted with dot of pus surrounding a hair. Older lesions that have lost the pus appear as red bumps surrounding the opening of the follicle absent the hair. One to hundreds of follicles can be affected anywhere that hair is present. Actually, acne vulgaris, the facial rash that teenagers develop, is a type of folliculitis.


Depending on the cause and severity of folliculitis, it may require no treatment and resolve spontaneously, or it may require treatment with powerful antibiotics or other drugs.

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Frozen shoulder is the common name for adhesive capsulitis, which is a shoulder condition that limits your range of motion. When the tissues in your shoulder joint become thicker and tighter, scar tissue develops over time. As a result, your shoulder joint doesn’t have enough space to rotate properly. Common symptoms include swelling, pain, and stiffness. You’re more likely to have the condition if you’re between the ages of 40 and 60.

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Galactorrhea (guh-lack-toe-REE-uh) is a milky nipple discharge unrelated to the normal milk production of breast-feeding. Galactorrhea itself isn't a disease, but it could be a sign of an underlying problem. It usually occurs in women, even those who have never had children or after menopause. But galactorrhea can happen in men and even in infants.


Excessive breast stimulation, medication side effects or disorders of the pituitary gland all may contribute to galactorrhea. Often, galactorrhea results from increased levels of prolactin, the hormone that stimulates milk production.

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Gallbladder cancer is cancer that begins in the gallbladder.


Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by your liver.


Gallbladder cancer is uncommon. When gallbladder cancer is discovered at its earliest stages, the chance for a cure is very good. But most gallbladder cancers are discovered at a late stage, when the prognosis is often very poor.


Gallbladder cancer is difficult to diagnose because it often causes no specific signs or symptoms. Also, the relatively hidden nature of the gallbladder makes it easier for gallbladder cancer to grow without being detected.

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Ganglion cysts are noncancerous lumps that most commonly develop along the tendons or joints of your wrists or hands. They also may occur in the ankles and feet. Ganglion cysts are typically round or oval and are filled with a jellylike fluid.


Small ganglion cysts can be pea-sized, while larger ones can be around an inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter. Ganglion cysts can be painful if they press on a nearby nerve. Their location can sometimes interfere with joint movement.


If your ganglion cyst is causing you problems, your doctor may suggest trying to drain the cyst with a needle. Removing the cyst surgically also is an option. But if you have no symptoms, no treatment is necessary. In many cases, the cysts go away on their own.

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Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a symptom of a disorder in your digestive tract. The blood often appears in stool or vomit but isn't always visible, though it may cause the stool to look black or tarry. The level of bleeding can range from mild to severe and life-threatening.


Bleeding in the stomach or colon can usually be easily identified, but finding the cause of bleeding that occurs in the small intestine can be difficult. But sophisticated imaging technology can usually locate the problem, and minimally invasive procedures often can fix it.

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Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Sexual contact is the primary way that the virus spreads. After the initial infection, the virus lies dormant in your body and can reactivate several times a year.


Genital herpes can cause pain, itching and sores in your genital area. But you may have no signs or symptoms of genital herpes. If infected, you can be contagious even if you have no visible sores.


There's no cure for genital herpes, but medications can ease symptoms and reduce the risk of infecting others. Condoms also can help prevent the spread of a genital herpes infection.

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Germ cell tumors are growths that form from reproductive cells. Tumors may be cancerous or noncancerous. Most germ cell tumors that are cancerous occur as cancer of the testicles (testicular cancer) or cancer of the ovaries (ovarian cancer).


Some germ cell tumors occur in other areas of the body, such as the abdomen, brain and chest, though it's not clear why. Germ cell tumors that occur in places other than the testicles and ovaries (extragonadal germ cell tumors) are very rare.


Germ cell tumors tend to respond to treatment and many can be cured, even when diagnosed at a late stage.

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Glioblastoma is an aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain or spinal cord. Glioblastoma forms from cells called astrocytes that support nerve cells.


Glioblastoma can occur at any age, but tends to occur more often in older adults. It can cause worsening headaches, nausea, vomiting and seizures.


Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme, can be very difficult to treat and a cure is often not possible. Treatments may slow progression of the cancer and reduce signs and symptoms.

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Glioma is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain and spinal cord. Gliomas begin in the gluey supportive cells (glial cells) that surround nerve cells and help them function.

Three types of glial cells can produce tumors. Gliomas are classified according to the type of glial cell involved in the tumor.

Types of glioma include:

Astrocytomas, including astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma

Ependymomas, including anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma

Oligodendrogliomas, including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma

Gliomas can affect your brain function and be life-threatening depending on their location and rate of growth.

Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors.

The type of glioma you have helps determine your treatment and your prognosis. In general, glioma treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and experimental clinical trials.

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Glomerulonephritis (gloe-mer-u-low-nuh-FRY-tis) is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli). Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).


Glomerulonephritis occurs on its own or as part of another disease, such as lupus or diabetes. Severe or prolonged inflammation associated with glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys. Treatment depends on the type of glomerulonephritis you have.

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Golfers elbow or medial epicondylitis is an overuse injury similar to tennis elbow (on the outside of the arm) but causing pain on the inside of the elbow instead. It is sometimes known as throwers elbow or little league elbow. We explain the symptoms, causes and treatment to return you back to full fitness in the shortest time.

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A grand mal seizure causes a loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions. It's the type of seizure most people picture when they think about seizures.


A grand mal seizure — also known as a generalized tonic-clonic seizure — is caused by abnormal electrical activity throughout the brain. Usually, a grand mal seizure is caused by epilepsy. But sometimes, this type of seizure can be triggered by other health problems, such as extremely low blood sugar, a high fever or a stroke.


Many people who have a grand mal seizure never have another one and don't need treatment. But someone who has recurrent seizures may need treatment with daily anti-seizure medications to control and prevent future grand mal seizures.


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Granuloma annulare (gran-u-LOW-muh an-u-LAR-e) is a skin condition that most commonly consists of raised, reddish or skin-colored bumps (lesions) that form ring patterns — usually on your hands and feet.


No one knows exactly what causes granuloma annulare. But it may be triggered by minor skin injuries and certain medications. Some types of granuloma annulare affect adults, and others typically affect children.


In most cases, granuloma annulare isn't itchy or painful, so no treatment is necessary. The lesions usually disappear on their own within two years. If you're bothered by how your skin looks, your doctor can prescribe medications that will speed the disappearance of the lesions.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.

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Hemifacial spasms happen when the muscles on only one side of your face twitch without warning. These types of spasms are caused by damage or irritation to the facial nerve, which is also known as the seventh cranial nerve. Facial spasms occur when the muscles contract involuntarily because of this nerve irritation.


Hemifacial spasms are also known as tic convulsif. At first, they may appear only as small, barely noticeable tics around your eyelid, cheek, or mouth. Over time, the tics may expand to other parts of your face.


Hemifacial spasms can happen to men or women, but they’re most common in women over 40. They also tend to occur more often on the left side of your face. 


Hemifacial spasms aren’t dangerous on their own. But a constant twitch in your face can be frustrating or uncomfortable. In severe cases, these spasms can limit function due to involuntary eye closing or the impact they have on speaking.


In some cases, these spasms may indicate that you have an underlying condition or an abnormality in your facial structure. Either of these causes can compress or damage your nerves and make your face muscles twitch.

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Hemophilia is not one disease but rather one of a group of inherited bleeding disorders that cause abnormal or exaggerated bleeding and poor blood clotting. The term is most commonly used to refer to two specific conditions known as hemophilia A and hemophilia B, which will be the main subjects of this article. Hemophilia A and B are distinguished by the specific gene that is mutated (altered to become defective) and codes for a defective clotting factor (protein) in each disease. Rarely, hemophilia C (a deficiency of Factor XI) is encountered, but its effect on clotting is far less pronounced than A or B.


Hemophilia A and B are inherited in an X-linked recessive genetic pattern and are therefore much more common in males. This pattern of inheritance means that a given gene on the X chromosome expresses itself only when there is no normal gene present. For example, a boy has only one X chromosome, so a boy with hemophilia has the defective gene on his sole X chromosome (and so is said to be hemizygous for hemophilia). Hemophilia is the most common X-linked genetic disease.


Although it is much rarer, a girl can have hemophilia, but she would have to have the defective gene on both of her X chromosomes or have one hemophilia gene plus a lost or defective copy of the second X chromosome that should be carrying the normal genes. If a girl has one copy of the defective gene on one of her X chromosomes and a normal second X chromosome, she does not have hemophilia but is said to be heterozygous for hemophilia (a carrier). Her male children have a 50% chance of inheriting the one mutated X gene and thus have a 50% chance of inheriting hemophilia from their carrier mother.


Hemophilia A occurs in about 1 out of every 5000 live male births. Hemophilia A and B occurs in all racial groups. Hemophilia A is about four times more common than B. B occurs in about 1 out of 20- 30,000 live male births.


Hemophilia has been called the Royal Disease because Queen Victoria, Queen of England from 1837 to 1901, was a carrier. Her daughters passed the mutated gene on to members of the royal families of Germany, Spain, and Russia. Alexandra, Queen Victoria's granddaughter, who became Tsarina of Russia in the early 20th century when she married Tsar Nicholas II, was a carrier. Their son, the Tsarevich Alexei, suffered from hemophilia.

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Hip dysplasia is the medical term for a hip socket that doesn't fully cover the ball portion of the upper thighbone. This allows the hip joint to become partially or completely dislocated. Most people with hip dysplasia are born with the condition.


Doctors will check your baby for signs of hip dysplasia shortly after birth and during well-baby visits. If hip dysplasia is diagnosed in early infancy, a soft brace can usually correct the problem.


If hip dysplasia is diagnosed after the age of 2, surgery may be necessary to move the bones into the proper positions for smooth joint movement.


Milder cases of hip dysplasia might not start causing symptoms until a person is a teenager or young adult. Hip dysplasia can damage the cartilage lining the joint, and it can also hurt the soft cartilage (labrum) that rims the socket portion of the hip joint. This is called a hip labral tear.

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Your hip is the joint where your thigh bone meets your pelvis. It is called a ball-and-socket joint, because the ball-like top of your thigh bone fits into a cup-like area within your pelvis, much like a baseball fits into a glove.


Hip


Normally, the ball glides smoothly within the socket, but a problem with the ball or socket rim can interfere with smooth motion. This problem can cause hip impingement or femoro acetabular impingement (FAI). It is believed to be a major cause of early osteoarthritis of the hip, particularly in those under age 40.

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Histoplasmosis is a type of lung infection. It is caused by inhaling Histoplasma capsulatum fungal spores. These spores are found in soil and in the droppings of bats and birds. This fungus mainly grows in the central, southeastern, and mid-Atlantic states.


Most cases of histoplasmosis don’t require treatment. However, people with weaker immune systems may experience serious problems. The disease may progress and spread to other areas of the body. Skin lesions have been reported in 10 to 15 percent of cases of histoplasmosis that has spread throughout the body.

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A hydrocele is a sac filled with fluid that forms around a testicle. Hydroceles are most common in babies.


Nearly 10 percent of males are born with a hydrocele. However, they can affect males of any age.


Hydroceles generally don’t pose any threat to the testicles. They’re usually painless and disappear without treatment. However, if you have scrotal swelling, see your doctor to rule out other causes that are more harmful such as testicular cancer.

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The term hydrocephalus is derived from the Greek words "hydro" meaning water and "cephalus" meaning head. As the name implies, it is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain. Although hydrocephalus was once known as "water on the brain," the "water" is actually cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)--a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal widening of spaces in the brain called ventricles. This widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain.


The ventricular system is made up of four ventricles connected by narrow passages.. Normally, CSF flows through the ventricles, exits into cisterns (closed spaces that serve as reservoirs) at the base of the brain, bathes the surfaces of the brain and spinal cord, and then reabsorbs into the bloodstream.


CSF has three important life-sustaining functions: 1) to keep the brain tissue buoyant, acting as a cushion or "shock absorber"; 2) to act as the vehicle for delivering nutrients to the brain and removing waste; and 3) to flow between the cranium and spine and compensate for changes in intracranial blood volume (the amount of blood within the brain).


The balance between production and absorption of CSF is critically important. Because CSF is made continuously, medical conditions that block its normal flow or absorption will result in an over-accumulation of CSF. The resulting pressure of the fluid against brain tissue is what causes hydrocephalus.

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One of the most common causes of high calcium levels (hypercalcemia), is an overproduction of parathyroid hormone, or hyperparathyroidism.


Hyperparathyroidism tends to be more common in women over 50.

It can be the result of all four parathyroid glands producing too much PTH (parathyroid hyperplasia), or one gland specifically producing an excessive amount of hormone (usually the result of a parathyroid adenoma, or benign tumor).

Hypercalcemia can occur due to other medical conditions. These conditions can vary in severity and chronicity, and may be life-threatening. Malignancy is a common cause of elevated blood calcium. Up to 20% of individuals with cancer will develop hypercalcemia at some point in their disease.

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Think of your feet as your physical base; they're what keep you up and running. So if you're like most people, and don't think your feet need consistent care, think again. Cracked heels are one of the most common foot issues that can arise if you don't pay proper attention. But don't despair, baby soft foot skin is just one article away. Read on to learn more about how to get rid of annoying cracked skin around the heels.

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Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) refers to a rare group of conditions that are associated with persistent eosinophilia with evidence of organ involvement. Signs and symptoms vary significantly based on which parts of the body are affected. Although any organ system can be involved in HES, the heart, central nervous system, skin, and respiratory tract are the most commonly affected. The condition was originally thought to be "idiopathic" or of unknown cause. However, recent advances in diagnostic testing have allowed a cause to be identified in approximately a quarter of cases. Management varies based on the severity of the condition and whether or not an underlying cause has been identified but generally includes imatinib or corticosteroids as an initial treatment.

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High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication.


It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart.

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Ichthyosis (ick-thee-OH-sis) is a group of skin diseases that causes extremely dry, thick, and scaly skin. The skin often looks like it has fish scales.


There are more than 20 different types of ichthyosis. The most common type is ichthyosis vulgaris (vul-GAR-ris). About 95% of people who develop ichthyosis get this type.


The other types are rare and include harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar type, and x-linked ichthyosis.

Of all the types, ichthyosis vulgaris is the mildest. It often begins in childhood.

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Cradle cap causes crusty or oily scaly patches on a baby's scalp. The condition isn't painful or itchy. But it can cause thick white or yellow scales that aren't easy to remove.


Cradle cap usually clears up on its own in a few months. Home-care measures include washing your baby's scalp daily with a mild shampoo. This can help loosen and remove the scales. Don't scratch cradle cap.


If cradle cap persists or seems severe, your doctor may suggest a medicated shampoo, lotion or other 

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Infant reflux occurs when food backs up (refluxes) from a baby's stomach, causing the baby to spit up. Sometimes called gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the condition is rarely serious and becomes less common as a baby gets older. It's unusual for infant reflux to continue after age 18 months.


Reflux occurs in healthy infants multiple times a day. As long as your baby is healthy, content and growing well, the reflux is not a cause for concern.


Rarely, infant reflux can be a sign of a medical problem, such as an allergy, a blockage in the digestive system or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

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You can also catch flu by touching an infected person, for instance, shaking hands. Adults are contagious 1-2 days before getting symptoms and up to 7 days after becoming ill. This means that you can spread the influenza virus before you even know you are infected.


In this article, we explain the symptoms of flu, how it is treated, how it differs from a cold, and the best ways to prevent flu occurring.

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Ingrown toenails occur when the edges or corners of your nails grow into the skin next to the nail. Your big toe is most likely to get an ingrown toenail.


You can treat ingrown toenails at home. However, they can cause complications that might require medical treatment. Your risk of complications is higher if you have diabetes or other conditions that cause poo

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An inguinal hernia occurs in the abdomen near the groin area. They develop when fatty or intestinal tissues push through a weakness in the abdominal wall near the right or left inguinal canal. Each inguinal canal resides at the base of the abdomen.


Both men and woman have inguinal canals. In men, the testes usually descend through their canal by around a few weeks before birth. In women, each canal is the location of passage for the round ligament of the uterus. If you have a hernia in or near this passageway, it results in a protruding bulge. It may be painful during movement.


Many people don’t seek treatment for this type of hernia because it may be small or not cause any symptoms. Prompt medical treatment can help prevent further protrusion and discomfort.

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Interstitial (in-tur-STISH-ul) lung disease describes a large group of disorders, most of which cause progressive scarring of lung tissue. The scarring associated with interstitial lung disease eventually affects your ability to breathe and get enough oxygen into your bloodstream.


Interstitial lung disease can be caused by long-term exposure to hazardous materials, such as asbestos. Some types of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, also can cause interstitial lung disease. In some cases, however, the causes remain unknown.


Once lung scarring occurs, it's generally irreversible. Medications may slow the damage of interstitial lung disease, but many people never regain full use of their lungs. Lung transplant is an option for some people who have interstitial lung disease.

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Intestinal ischemia (is-KEE-me-uh) describes a variety of conditions that occur when blood flow to your intestines decreases due to a blockage, usually in an artery. Intestinal ischemia can affect your small intestine, your large intestine (colon) or both.


Intestinal ischemia is a serious condition that can cause pain and make it difficult for your intestines to work. In severe cases, loss of blood flow to the intestines can damage intestinal tissue and lead to death.


Treatments are available for intestinal ischemia. To improve the chances of recovery, it's crucial to recognize the early symptoms and get medical help right away.

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Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism.

Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles.

Approximately 2% of the body's creatine is converted to creatinine every day.

Creatinine is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and dispose of it in the urine.

Because the muscle mass in the body is relatively constant from day to day, the creatinine production normally remains essentially unchanged on a daily basis.

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Digested food particles must travel through 25 feet or more of intestines as part of normal digestion. These digested wastes are constantly in motion. However, intestinal obstruction can put a stop to this. An intestinal obstruction occurs when your small or large intestine is blocked. The blockage can be partial or total, and it prevents passage of fluids and digested food.


If intestinal obstruction happens, food, fluids, gastric acids, and gas build up behind the site of the blockage. If enough pressure builds up, your intestine can rupture, leaking harmful intestinal contents and bacteria into your abdominal cavity. This is a life-threatening complication.


There are many potential causes of intestinal obstruction. Often, this condition can’t be prevented. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. An untreated intestinal obstruction can be fatal.

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An intracranial hematoma is a collection of blood within the skull, most commonly caused by rupture of a blood vessel within the brain or from trauma such as a car accident or fall. The blood collection can be within the brain tissue or underneath the skull, pressing on the brain.


Although some head injuries — such as one that causes only a brief lapse of consciousness (concussion) — can be minor, an intracranial hematoma is potentially life-threatening. It usually requires immediate treatment, often surgery to remove the blood.

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Invasive lobular carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast.


Invasive cancer means the cancer cells have broken out of the lobule where they began and have the potential to spread to the lymph nodes and other areas of the body.


Invasive lobular carcinoma makes up a small portion of all breast cancers. The most common type of breast cancer begins in the breast ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma).


Invasive lobular carcinoma typically doesn't form a lump, which is common in breast cancer. Instead, there is a change in the breast that feels like a thickening or fullness in one part of the breast and is different from the surrounding breast tissue.

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Ischemic colitis occurs when blood flow to part of the large intestine (colon) is reduced, usually due to narrowed or blocked blood vessels (arteries). The diminished blood flow doesn't provide enough oxygen for the cells in your digestive system.


Ischemic colitis can cause pain and may damage your colon. Any part of the colon can be affected, but ischemic colitis usually causes pain on the left side of the belly area (abdomen).


The condition can be misdiagnosed because it can easily be confused with other digestive problems. Ischemic colitis may heal on its own. But you may need medication to treat ischemic colitis or prevent infection, or you may need surgery if your colon has been damaged.

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Islet cell cancer is a term used to describe a group of cancers that can occur in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. Islet cell cancers, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, are very rare.


Islet cells are small hormone-producing cells normally found in your pancreas. Islet cell cancer arises from these cells. Some islet cell cancer cells continue to secrete hormones, creating too much of the given hormone in your body. Examples of these types of islet cell cancers include gastrinoma and glucagonoma.

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Jellyfish are a common sea creature found in every ocean. There are many species of jellyfish, all of them with tentacles. Some carry poisonous venom in their tentacles as a method of self-defense against predators. It’s this venom that makes a jellyfish sting so painful.


Most types of jellyfish stings will cause some discomfort, but some can be life-threatening. According to the National Science Foundation, over 500,000 people are stung by jellyfish every year in North America’s Chesapeake Bay alone.

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Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study.

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Kleptomania (klep-toe-MAY-nee-uh) is the recurrent inability to resist urges to steal items that you generally don't really need and that usually have little value. Kleptomania is a rare but serious mental health disorder that can cause much emotional pain to you and your loved ones if not treated.


Kleptomania is a type of impulse control disorder — a disorder that's characterized by problems with emotional or behavioral self-control. If you have an impulse control disorder, you have difficulty resisting the temptation or drive to perform an act that's excessive or harmful to you or someone else.


Many people with kleptomania live lives of secret shame because they're afraid to seek mental health treatment. Although there's no cure for kleptomania, treatment with medication or talk therapy (psychotherapy) may help to end the cycle of compulsive stealing.

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Amblyopia, commonly known as lazy eye, is the eye condition noted by reduced vision not correctable by glasses or contact lenses and is not due to any eye disease. The brain, for some reason, does not fully acknowledge the images seen by the amblyopic eye. This almost always affects only one eye but may manifest with reduction of vision in both eyes. It is estimated that three percent of children under six have some form of amblyopia.

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Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body, often over months or years. Even small amounts of lead can cause serious health problems. Children younger than 6 years are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning, which can severely affect mental and physical development. At very high levels, lead poisoning can be fatal.


Lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust in older buildings are the most common sources of lead poisoning in children. Other sources include contaminated air, water and soil. Adults who work with batteries, do home renovations or work in auto repair shops also might be exposed to lead.


There is treatment for lead poisoning, but taking some simple precautions can help protect you and your family from lead exposure before harm is done.

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Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma. Soft tissue sarcomas can develop in muscle, fat, blood vessels, or any of the other tissues that support, surround and protect the organs of the body.


Leiomyosarcoma is one of the more common types of soft tissue sarcoma to develop in adults. We don’t yet know the exact cause.


Leiomyosarcomas are usually treated at a specialist hospital. The usual treatment for a leiomyosarcoma is surgery to remove the tumour. You may have radiotherapy after surgery, to reduce the chance of the cancer coming back. Chemotherapy is also sometimes used for a leiomyosarcomas that has come back, or that has spread.


You may be asked to take part in clinical trial looking at new ways of treating leiomyosarcomas. Your doctor or specialist nurse can talk to you about this.


After treatment, you will have regular check-ups. If you have any problems or notice any new symptoms between these check-ups, it’s important to let your doctor know as soon as possible

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Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a progressive brain disorder in which Lewy bodies (abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein) build up in areas of the brain that regulate behavior, cognition, and movement.

 

A complex disease, LBD can present with a range of symptoms including problems with thinking, memory, moving, sleep and/or changes in behavior, to name a few of the physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms.

 

LBD also affects autonomic body functions, such as blood pressure control, temperature regulation, and bladder and bowel function. Progressively debilitating, LBD can also cause people to experience visual hallucinations or act out their dreams.

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Lichen nitidus is an unusual/ rare non-infectious skin condition most commonly seen in children. It occurs in the form of hundreds and hundreds of tiny grids of bumps over the skin. They are often found in tight groups that appear like a big patch.


The arms and the folds of the skin are most commonly affected, but they can occur anywhere in the body. In fairer skinned people, these bumps are slightly reddish in color, whereas in darker skinned people, the bumps may vary between lighter or darker in color than the normal skin.

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Lichen sclerosus (LIE-kun skluh-ROW-sus) is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. But it most often involves skin of the vulva, foreskin of the penis or skin around the anus.


Anyone can get lichen sclerosus but postmenopausal women have a high risk.


Sometimes lichen sclerosus improves on its own, and you won't need any treatment. If you do need treatment, your doctor can suggest options to return a more normal appearance to your skin and decrease the tendency for scarring.

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Limited scleroderma, also known as CREST syndrome, is one subtype of scleroderma — a condition whose name means "hardened skin."


The skin changes associated with limited scleroderma typically occur only in the lower arms and legs, below the elbows and knees, and sometimes affect the face and neck. Limited scleroderma can also affect your digestive tract, heart, lungs or kidneys.


The problems caused by limited scleroderma may be minor. Sometimes, however, the disease affects the lungs or heart, with potentially serious results. Limited scleroderma has no known cure. Treatments focus on managing symptoms, preventing serious complications and improving quality of life.

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Lip cancers are abnormal cells that grow out of control and form lesions or tumors on the lips. They are the most common type of oral cancers. These cancers develop in thin, flat cells — called squamous cells — that line the lips, mouth, tongue, cheeks, sinuses, throat, and hard and soft palates.


Lip cancer and other kinds of oral cancers are types of head and neck cancers.


Certain lifestyle choices, such as smoking, drinking, sun exposure, and tanning, increase your risk of developing lip cancer. Dentists are typically the first to notice signs of lip cancers, often during a routine dental exam.


Lip cancers are highly curable when diagnosed early.

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Have you noticed a soft, rubbery bulge under your skin somewhere?


That could be a lipoma. They happen when a lump of fat starts to grow in the soft tissue of your body. Though they’re classified as tumors, they’re usually harmless.


They’re the most common tumor to form beneath your skin, with about 1 person in 1,000 getting one at some point. You usually find them in your upper body, arms, or thighs.

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A diagnosis of liposarcoma and its treatment made Mayor Rob Ford, the controversial former mayor of Toronto, decide to take his name out of the running for the election for Toronto's mayor in 2014. The disease caused his death on Tues., Mar. 22, 2016. His disease and death at age 46 has stimulated further interest in liposarcoma, especially pleomorphic liposarcoma, a relatively rare cancer that is difficult to treat because the tumors are usually found or diagnosed when the disease is advanced.

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Listeriosis is an infection caused by a gram stain-positive motile bacterium named Listeria monocytogenes. The foodborne illness produces fever, muscle aches, and, in many people, diarrhea. Severe infections can cause headaches, meningitis, convulsions, and death. Most healthy people exposed to the bacteria have minor or no symptoms, but a few people, especially the elderly, pregnant females and their fetus, newborns, and anyone with a compromised immune system are especially susceptible to these organisms. Listeria bacteria are widespread throughout the world and are often associated with farm animals that may show no signs of infection. Research shows that many animals are uninfected carriers, and they suggest that some humans carry these organisms as part of their bowel flora. Except for pregnant women and their fetus or newborn, there is no direct transfer of Listeria from human to human.


The organisms (Listeria monocytogenes) that cause listeriosis have probably been infecting humans for centuries. Listeria was first isolated from an infected WWI soldier in 1918 and had many different names until 1940, when the genus and species names were firmly established. However, the bacteria were first recognized as a food-borne (food poisoning) pathogen in 1979. The bacteria can penetrate human cells and can multiply inside them. People with altered or impaired immune systems have cells that are less able to control the spread of these organisms into the blood or into other cells. In 2010, a known species, Listeria ivanovii, thought only to infect cattle, was found to infect humans so there are two Listeria species that can infect humans.


Outbreaks of listeriosis can occur with some frequency. For example, in 2017, soft raw milk cheese was a source of an outbreak (Vulto Creamery). In this outbreak, eight people were infected and two died. Other recalls of products in 2017 include 3 tons of cheese for possible Listeria contamination (La Nica Products INC.), macadamia nuts (Simple Truth brand), Ava's Organic Cashews, and Queso Fresco cheese, for the same problem.

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Each strand of hair is made up of the medulla, cortex, and cuticle.[4] The innermost region, the medulla, is not always present and is an open, unstructured region.[5] The highly structural and organized cortex, or middle layer of the hair, is the primary source of mechanical strength and water uptake. The cortex contains melanin, which colors the fiber based on the number, distribution and types of melanin granules. The shape of the follicle determines the shape of the cortex, and the shape of the fiber is related to how straight or curly the hair is. People with straight hair have round hair fibers. Oval and other shaped fibers are generally more wavy or curly. The cuticle is the outer covering. Its complex structure slides as the hair swells and is covered with a single molecular layer of lipid that makes the hair repel water.[4] The diameter of human hair varies from 0.017 to 0.18 millimeters (0.00067 to 0.00709 in).[6] There are two million small, tubular glands and sweat glands that produce watery fluids that cool the body by evaporation. The glands at the opening of the hair produce a fatty secretion that lubricates the hair.[7]


Hair growth begins inside the hair follicle. The only "living" portion of the hair is found in the follicle. The hair that is visible is the hair shaft, which exhibits no biochemical activity and is considered "dead". The base of a hair's root (the "bulb") contains the cells that produce the hair shaft.[8] Other structures of the hair follicle include the oil producing sebaceous gland which lubricates the hair and the arrector pili muscles, which are responsible for causing hairs to stand up. In humans with little body hair, the effect results in goose bumps.

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A liver hemangioma is a tangled network of blood vessels in or on the surface of the liver. This tumor is noncancerous and usually doesn’t cause symptoms. In fact, most people don’t even know they have a liver hemangioma. It’s usually only discovered during a test or procedure for an unrelated condition. Even when they’re diagnosed, most liver hemangiomas don’t require treatment.


A liver hemangioma is noncancerous and doesn’t increase your risk of developing cancer. The tumor is usually small, measuring less than 4 centimeters in diameter. In some cases, however, it can grow much larger. A larger tumor is more likely to cause symptoms, such as abdominal pain and nausea. Pregnant women and women using estrogen replacement therapy have a higher risk of developing a large hemangioma. This is because estrogen may contribute to the growth of liver hemangiomas.


Most people only have one liver hemangioma. However, it’s possible for several hemangiomas to form on the liver at once.


A liver hemangioma typically doesn’t cause complications in adults, but it can be more dangerous when it develops in infants. In babies, the growth is called infantile hemangioendothelioma. It’s usually diagnosed before the baby is 6 months old. This is a rare condition in infants. Although the tumor isn’t cancerous, it has been linked to higher rates of heart failure.

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Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heart rhythm condition that can potentially cause fast, chaotic heartbeats. These rapid heartbeats might trigger a sudden fainting spell or seizure. In some cases, the heart can beat erratically for so long that it causes sudden death.


You can have a genetic mutation that puts you at risk of being born with congenital long QT syndrome. In addition, certain medications, imbalances of the body's salts and minerals (electrolyte abnormalities), and medical conditions might cause acquired long QT syndrome.


Long QT syndrome is treatable. You might need to take medications to prevent an erratic heart rhythm. In some cases, treatment for long QT syndrome involves surgery or an implantable device.


You'll also need to avoid certain medications that could trigger your long QT syndrome. After treatment, you likely can live and thrive, even with this condition. You may be able to continue being active in recreational — and even competitive — sports.

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Answer: Low sperm count implies that the fluids (semen) you ejaculate in the course of an orgasm consist of lesser sperm when compared with normal.


A low sperm count can be referred to as oligospermia. A total lack of sperm is known as Azoospermia. Your own sperm count is regarded as less than normal when you have less than fifteen million sperm per millilitre of semen.


Having a low sperm count reduces the chances that one of your own sperm will certainly fertilize the partner’s egg, leading to pregnancy. Nevertheless, numerous males that have a low sperm count will still be in a position to father a baby.

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Lupus nephritis is inflammation of the kidney that is caused by systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Also called lupus, SLE is an autoimmune disease. With lupus, the body's immune system targets its own body tissues. Lupus nephritis happens when lupus involves the kidneys.


Up to 60% of lupus patients will develop lupus nephritis. When the kidneys are inflamed, they can't function normally and can leak protein. If not controlled, lupus nephritis can lead to kidney failure.

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The lymphatic system is a network of specialized vessels (lymph vessels) throughout the body whose purpose is to collect excess lymph fluid with proteins, lipids, and waste products from the tissues. This fluid is then carried to the lymph nodes, which filter waste products and contain infection-fighting cells called lymphocytes. The excess fluid in the lymph vessels is eventually returned to the bloodstream. When the lymph vessels are blocked or unable to carry lymph fluid away from the tissues, localized swelling (lymphedema) is the result.

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Lynch syndrome, often called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is an inherited disorder that increases the risk of many types of cancer, particularly cancers of the colon (large intestine) and rectum, which are collectively referred to as colorectal cancer. People with Lynch syndrome also have an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, small intestine, liver, gallbladder ducts, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin. Additionally, women with this disorder have a high risk of cancer of the ovaries and lining of the uterus (the endometrium). People with Lynch syndrome may occasionally have noncancerous (benign) growths (polyps) in the colon, called colon polyps. In individuals with this disorder, colon polyps occur earlier but not in greater numbers than they do in the general population.

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Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a woman's disease, male breast cancer does occur.Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age.Men diagnosed with male breast cancerat an early stage have a good chance for a cure. Still, many men delay seeing their doctors if they notice one of the usual signs or symptoms, such as a breast lump. For this reason, many male breast cancers are diagnosed when the disease is more advanced.


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Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough testosterone — the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an impaired ability to produce sperm orboth.You may be born with male hypogonadism, or it can develop later in life, often from injury or infection. The effects — and what you can do about them — depend on the cause and at what point in your life male hypogonadism occurs. Some types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy.


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Malignant hyperthermia is a condition that triggers a severe reaction to certain drugs used as part of anesthesia for surgery. Without prompt treatment, the disease can be fatal.The genes that cause malignant hyperthermia are inherited. In most cases, no signs or symptoms of the condition exist until you are exposed to anesthesia.


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MEdulloblastoma is a cancerous tumor—also called cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)—that starts in the region of the brain at the base of the skull, called the posterior fossa. These tumors tend to spread to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord


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Mental illness refers to a wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect your mood, thinking and behavior. Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and addictive behaviors.

Many people have mental health concerns from time to time. But a mental health concern becomes a mental illness when ongoing signs and symptoms cause frequent stress and affect your ability to function.

A mental illness can make you miserable and can cause problems in your daily life, such as at school or work or in relationships. In most cases, symptoms can be managed with a combination of medications and talk therapy (psychotherapy).

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Meralgia paresthetica is a condition characterized by tingling, numbness and burning pain in your outer thigh. The cause of meralgia paresthetica is compression of the nerve that supplies sensation to the skin surface of your thigh.

Tight clothing, obesity or weight gain, and pregnancy are common causes of meralgia paresthetica. However, meralgia paresthetica can also be due to local trauma or a disease, such as diabetes.

In most cases, you can relieve meralgia paresthetica with conservative measures, such as wearing looser clothing. In severe cases, treatment may include medications to relieve discomfort or, rarely, surgery.

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MCC usually develops on sun-exposed skin (e.g., head, neck, arms) as a painless, firm bump that can be red-purple or skin-colored. Patients frequently point out a new MCC to their doctor because a bump is growing rapidly and/or does not look like anything the patient has ever had before.  Most MCCs are diagnosed when a skin biopsy
The removal of cells or tissue in order to determine the presence, characteristics, or extent of a disease by a pathologist usually using microscopic analysis. is performed to rule out another sun-induced skin cancer
A term used to describe diseases in which abnormal cells continually divide without normal regulation. Cancerous cells may invade surrounding tissues and may spread to other regions of the body via blood and the lymphatic system.
 or to remove a presumed cyst. In the vast majority of cases, both the doctor and the patient are surprised by the diagnosis of MCC. For more examples of MCC tumors beyond those presented on this page, visit 
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Lymphadenitis is a condition in which your lymph nodes become inflamed. When the condition affects the lymph nodes in the membrane that connects your bowel to the abdominal wall (mesentery), it's called mesenteric lymphadenitis (mez-un-TER-ik lim-fad-uh-NIE-tis).Mesenteric lymphadenitis, which is also called mesenteric adenitis, usually results from an intestinal infection. It mainly affects children and teens. This painful condition can mimic the warning signs of appendicitis. Unlike appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis is seldom serious and usually clears up on its own

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Malignant mesothelioma (me-zoe-thee-lee-O-muh) is a type of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of tissue that covers the majority of your internal organs (mesothelium).Mesothelioma is an aggressive and deadly form of cancer. Mesothelioma treatments are available, but for many people with mesothelioma, a cure is not possible.Doctors divide mesothelioma into different types based on what part of the mesothelium is affected. Mesothelioma most often affects the tissue that surrounds the lungs (pleura). This type is called pleural mesothelioma. Other, rarer types of mesothelioma affect tissue in the abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma), around the heart and around the testicles.Mesothelioma doesn't include a form of noncancerous (benign) tumor that occurs in the chest and is sometimes called benign mesothelioma or solitary fibrous tumor.

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Metatarsalgia (met-uh-tahr-SAL-juh) is a condition in which the ball of your foot becomes painful and inflamed. You might develop it if you participate in activities that involve running and jumping. There are other causes as well, including foot deformities and shoes that are too tight or too loose.Although generally not serious, metatarsalgia can sideline you. Fortunately, at-home treatments, such as ice and rest, often relieve symptoms. Wearing proper footwear with shock-absorbing insoles or arch supports might prevent or minimize future problems with metatarsalgia.

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Microcephaly (my-kroh-SEF-uh-lee) is a rare neurological condition in which an infant's head is significantly smaller than the heads of other children of the same age and sex. Sometimes detected at birth, microcephaly usually is the result of the brain developing abnormally in the womb or not growing as it should after birth.Microcephaly can be caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Children with microcephaly often have developmental issues. Generally there's no treatment for microcephaly, but early intervention with supportive therapies, such as speech and occupational therapies, may help enhance your child's development and improve quality of life.

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MC is an inflammatory bowel condition that presents with chronic watery diarrhea but with macroscopically normal colonoscopy findings. Histological evidence of pathology is only seen through biopsies of the colonic mucosa. This is a fairly recent disease entity that was first described in the 1970s; hence, information on incidences may be underreported. Epidemiological analyses of endoscopic biopsies performed for diarrhea in North America found an incidence of 8.6 per 100,000 from 1985 to 2001.1 However, more recent studies based on the same population from 2002 to 2010 showed that incidences of MC more than doubled over that last decade with rates of 21.0 cases per 100,000 person-years.2 This probably reflects increasing awareness of the disease among both endoscopists and pathologists, leading to higher rates of detection.

Collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC) are two subtypes of MC that have similar presentations. Histologically, however, they have distinct characteristics. It is still a controversy whether CC and LC are just really one disease under MC, or if they should be considered as two distinct diseases that share some features. A review of 226 studies on CC and LC found little to no differences in epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and response to treatment.

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Between 2 and 3 percent of children younger than 3 are allergic to milk. Although experts once believed that the vast majority of them would outgrow this allergy by the time they turned 3, recent studies contradict this theory. In one study, fewer than 20 percent of children had outgrown their allergy by age 4. Still, about 80 percent of children are likely to outgrow their milk allergy before they are 16.

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Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs when the leaflets of the mitral valve bulge (prolapse) into the heart's left upper chamber (left atrium) like a parachute during the heart's contraction.Mitral (MY-trul) valve prolapse sometimes leads to blood leaking backward into the left atrium, a condition called mitral valve regurgitation.in most people, mitral valve prolapse isn't life-threatening and doesn't require treatment or changes in lifestyle. Some people with mitral valve prolapse, however, require treatment.

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Mitral valve stenosis — or mitral stenosis — is a narrowing of the heart's mitral valve. This abnormal valve doesn't open properly, blocking blood flow into the main pumping chamber of your heart (left ventricle). Mitral valve stenosis can make you tired and short of breath, among other problems.The main cause of mitral valve stenosis is an infection called rheumatic fever, which is related to strep infections. Rheumatic fever — now rare in the United States, but still common in developing countries — can scar the mitral valve. Left untreated, mitral valve stenosis can lead to serious heart complications.

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Mittelschmerz is one-sided, lower abdominal pain associated with ovulation. German for "middle pain," mittelschmerz occurs midway through a menstrual cycle — about 14 days before your next menstrual period.In most cases, mittelschmerz doesn't require medical attention. For minor mittelschmerz discomfort, over-the-counter pain relievers and home remedies are often effective. If your mittelschmerz pain is troublesome, your doctor may prescribe an oral contraceptive to stop ovulation and prevent midcycle pain.


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  • A molar pregnancy is the result of a genetic error during the fertilization process that leads to a growth of abnormal tissue within the uterus. Molar pregnancies rarely involve a developing embryo, and the growth of this material is rapid compared to normal fetal growth. It has the appearance of a large and random collection of grape-like cell clusters. There are two types of molar pregnancies, “complete,” and “partial.”
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Mold allergies can be tough to outrun. The fungus can grow in your basement, in your bathroom, in the cabinet under your sink where a leak went undetected, in the pile of dead leaves in your backyard and in the field of uncut grass down the road.There are roughly 1,000 species of mold in the United States — many of which aren’t visible to the naked eye. As tiny mold spores become airborne, they can cause allergic reactions in people who have mold allergies.

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Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes. The fluid from the nose is usually clear. Symptom onset is often within minutes following exposure and they can affect sleep, the ability to work, and the ability to concentrate at school. Those whose symptoms are due to pollen typically develop symptoms during specific times of the year. Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, or atopic dermatitis.
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Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum virus). The result of the infection is usually a benign, mild skin disease characterized by lesions (growths) that may appear anywhere on the body. Within 6-12 months, Molluscum contagiosum typically resolves without scarring but may take as long as 4 years.The lesions, known as Mollusca, are small, raised, and usually white, pink, or flesh-colored with a dimple or pit in the center. They often have a pearly appearance. They’re usually smooth and firm. In most people, the lesions range from about the size of a pinhead to as large as a pencil eraser (2 to 5 millimeters in diameter). They may become itchy, sore, red, and/or swollen.Mollusca may occur anywhere on the body including the face, neck, arms, legs, abdomen, and genital area, alone or in groups. The lesions are rarely found on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.


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Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is often called the kissing disease. The virus that causes mono is transmitted through saliva, so you can get it through kissing, but you can also be exposed through a cough or sneeze, or by sharing a glass or food utensils with someone who has mono. However, mononucleosis isn't as contagious as some infections, such as the common cold.You're most likely to get mononucleosis with all the signs and symptoms if you're an adolescent or young adult. Young children usually have few symptoms, and the infection often goes unrecognized.If you have mononucleosis, it's important to be careful of certain complications such as an enlarged spleen. Rest and adequate fluids are key to recovery.

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Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs.Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than produce helpful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications.Treatment for multiple myeloma isn't always necessary for people who aren't experiencing any signs or symptoms. For people with multiple myeloma who require treatment, a number of treatments are available to help control the disease.

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged.Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms.There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, treatments can help speed recovery from attacks, modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.

Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.

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Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of disorders caused by poorly formed blood cells or ones that don't work properly. Myelodysplastic syndromes result from something amiss in the spongy material inside your bones where blood cells are made (bone marrow).Treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes usually focuses on reducing or preventing complications of the disease and its treatments. In some cases, treatment might involve chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant.

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Myelofibrosis is a serious bone marrow disorder that disrupts your body's normal production of blood cells. The result is extensive scarring in your bone marrow, leading to severe anemia, weakness, fatigue and often an enlarged spleen.Myelofibrosis is an uncommon type of chronic leukemia — a cancer that affects the blood-forming tissues in the body. Myelofibrosis belongs to a group of diseases called myeloproliferative disorders.Many people with myelofibrosis get progressively worse, and some may eventually develop a more serious form of leukemia. Yet it's also possible to have myelofibrosis and live symptom-free for years. Treatment for myelofibrosis, which focuses on relieving symptoms, can involve a variety of options.

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Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing it from receiving enough oxygen. The reduced blood flow is usually the result of a partial or complete blockage of your heart's arteries (coronary arteries).Myocardial ischemia, also called cardiac ischemia, can damage your heart muscle, reducing its ability to pump efficiently. A sudden, severe blockage of a coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. Myocardial ischemia might also cause serious abnormal heart rhythms.Treatment for myocardial ischemia involves improving blood flow to the heart muscle. Treatment may include medications, a procedure to open blocked arteries or bypass surgery.Making heart-healthy lifestyle choices is important in treating and preventing myocardial ischemia.


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Myoclonus refers to a sudden, brief, and involuntary muscle jerk. Healthy people can have myoclonus in the form of hiccups and “sleep starts”, which are the sudden jerky sensations that can occur as people fall asleep. Myoclonus can also occur due to underlying neurological disorders such as epilepsy, metabolic conditions, or adverse reactions to medications. Importantly, myoclonus is a symptom, not a diagnosis of a disease.Sudden positive muscle contractions are called positive myoclonus, whereas muscle relaxation is called negative myoclonus. Myoclonus can vary in frequency, and can occur alone or in a sequence. There are several underlying conditions that can give rise to myoclonus symptoms. Doctors aim to isolate and treat the underlying cause of myoclonus symptoms. When the underlying cause cannot be treated or cured, the aim of treatment is to alleviate severe myoclonus

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Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) refers to pain and presumed inflammation in the body's soft tissues or muscles. Myofascial pain is a chronic, painful condition that affects the fascia (connective tissue that covers the muscles). Myofascial pain syndrome might involve either a single muscle or a muscle group. In some cases, the area where a person experiences the pain might not be where the myofascial pain generator is located. Experts believe that the actual site of the injury or the strain prompts the development of a trigger point that, in turn, causes pain in other areas. This situation is known as referred pain.

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Naegleria (nay-GLEER-e-uh) infection is a rare and usually fatal brain infection caused by an amoeba commonly found in freshwater lakes, rivers and hot springs. Exposure occurs during swimming or other water sports.The amoeba — called Naegleria fowleri — travels up the nose to the brain, where it causes severe damage. Most people who have naegleria infection die within a week.Millions of people are exposed to the amoeba that causes naegleria infection each year, but only a handful of them ever get sick from it. Health officials don't know why some people develop naegleria infection while others don't.Avoiding warm bodies of fresh water and wearing nose clips while in the water may help prevent such infections.

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Nasal polyps are soft, painless, noncancerous growths on the lining of your nasal passages or sinuses. They hang down like teardrops or grapes. They result from chronic inflammation due to asthma, recurring infection, allergies, drug sensitivity or certain immune disorders.Small nasal polyps may not cause symptoms. Larger growths or groups of nasal polyps can block your nasal passages or lead to breathing problems, a lost sense of smell and frequent infections.Nasal polyps can affect anyone, but they're more common in adults. Medications can often shrink or eliminate nasal polyps, but surgery is sometimes needed to remove them. Even after successful treatment, nasal polyps often return.

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Even some of the most stunning women often have to resort to concealers and make-up to hide their dark circles. Not only do these under-eye circles make you look much older than what you actually are, but they also have you looking ill or unhealthy.Before we even begin this natural journey, let me tell you that dark circles take time to cure and require great discipline. A regular skin and health care program should be followed, by the book, so do not expect magic to happen overnight.


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Nasopharyngeal (nay-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul) carcinoma is cancer that occurs in the nasopharynx, which is located behind your nose and above the back of your throat.Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States. In other parts of the world — specifically Southeast Asia — nasopharyngeal carcinoma occurs much more frequently.Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is difficult to detect early. That's probably because the nasopharynx isn't easy to examine and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma mimic those of other, more-common conditions.Treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma usually involves radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of the two. You can work with your doctor to determine the exact approach depending on your particular situation

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Your doctor can usually diagnose nickel allergy based on your skin's appearance, and a recent exposure to items that may contain nickel.If the cause of your rash isn't apparent, however, your doctor may recommend a patch test (contact hypersensitivity allergy test). He or she may refer you to an allergy specialist (allergist) or a skin specialist (dermatologist) for this test.

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Have you ever noticed how the skin on your elbows and knees is often darker than the rest of the skin on your arms and legs? It's a bit funny-looking, isn't it? Some people think it's the result of dirt (and sometimes it is), but you'd be surprised to find that dirt often has nothing to do with the dark spots on your elbows and knees.

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Nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) is a clinical syndrome comprising symptoms consistent with allergic rhinitis in which an absence of atopy has been demonstrated by allergen skin testing, and nasal cytology analysis demonstrates more than 20% eosinophils. Anosmia is a prominent feature not shared with allergic rhinitis. The pathophysiology of NARES is poorly understood, but a key component involves a self-perpetuating, chronic eosinophilic nasal inflammation with development of nasal micropolyposis and polyposis. Mast cells likely play an important role as well. NARES is a risk factor for the development of nasal polyposis and aspirin sensitivity, as well as obstructive sleep apnea. Treatment consists mainly of intranasal corticosteroids with or without the addition of second-generation antihistamines and/or leukotriene-receptor antagonists.

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Nonulcer stomach pain is a term for recurring signs and symptoms of indigestion that have no obvious cause. Nonulcer stomach pain is also called functional dyspepsia (dis-PEP-see-uh) or nonulcer dyspepsia.Nonulcer stomach pain is common and can be long lasting. The condition can cause signs and symptoms that resemble those of an ulcer, such as pain or discomfort in your upper abdomen, often accompanied by bloating, belching and nausea.

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Occupational asthma is asthma that's caused or worsened by breathing in chemical fumes, gases, dust or other substances on the job. Like other types of asthma, occupational asthma can cause chest tightness, wheezing and shortness of breath.When treated early, occupational asthma may be reversible. Long-term exposure to allergy-causing substances can cause worsening symptoms and lifelong asthma.Treatment for occupational asthma is similar to treatment for other types of asthma, and it generally includes taking medications to reduce symptoms. But the only sure way to eliminate your symptoms and prevent lung damage due to occupational asthma is to avoid whatever's triggering it.

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Ocular rosacea is inflammation that causes redness, burning and itching of the eyes. It often develops in people who have rosacea, a chronic skin condition that affects the face. Sometimes ocular, or eye, rosacea is the first sign that you may later develop the facial type.Ocular rosacea (roe-ZAY-she-uh) primarily affects adults between the ages of 30 and 50. It seems to develop in people who tend to blush and flush easily.Medications and a good eye-care routine can help control the signs and symptoms. But treatment doesn't cure ocular rosacea. It often recurs after an apparent remission.

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Oligodendrogliomas are generally soft, grayish-pink tumors. They often contain mineral deposits (called calcifications), areas of hemorrhage, and/or cysts. Under the microscope, these tumor cells appear to have “short arms,” or a fried-egg shape.

Sometimes oligodendrogliomas are mixed with other cell types. These tumors may be graded using an “A to D” system, which is based on microscopic features of the individual tumor cells. The grade indicates how quickly the tumor cells reproduce and how aggressive the tumor is.

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Lichen planus is an itchy skin rash that is caused by an immune response. It can occur anywhere on your skin.oral lichen planusIn cases of oral lichen planus, the mucous membranes inside your mouth are the only area affected. Oral lichen planus presents symptoms different from other cases of lichen planus. Instead of a rash, people may experience swollen tissues, white patches, and open sores.Oral lichen planus isn’t contagious, and it can’t be spread to another person.

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Oral thrush — also called oral candidiasis (kan-dih-DIE-uh-sis) — is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth. Candida is a normal organism in your mouth, but sometimes it can overgrow and cause symptoms.Oral thrush causes creamy white lesions, usually on your tongue or inner cheeks. Sometimes oral thrush may spread to the roof of your mouth, your gums or tonsils, or the back of your throat.Although oral thrush can affect anyone, it's more likely to occur in babies and older adults because they have reduced immunity; in other people with suppressed immune systems or certain health conditions; or people who take certain medications. Oral thrush is a minor problem if you're healthy, but if you have a weakened immune system, symptoms may be more severe and difficult to control.


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To lighten your dark lips, it is essential to know first what causes dark lips. If you can identify the reasons for your dark lips, you can easily treat your lips.

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The bones of children and adolescents possess a special area where the bone is growing called the growth plate. Growth plates are areas of cartilage located near the ends of bones. When a child is fully grown, the growth plates harden into solid bone.Some growth plates serve as attachment sites for tendons, the strong tissues that connect muscles to bones. A bony bump called the tibial tubercle covers the growth plate at the end of the tibia. The group of muscles in the front of the thigh (called the quadriceps) attaches to the tibial tubercle.When a child is active, the quadriceps muscles pull on the patellar tendon which in turn, pulls on the tibial tubercle. In some children, this repetitive traction on the tubercle leads to inflammation of the growth plate. The prominence, or bump, of the tibial tubercle may become very pronounced.

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Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, a rare but serious condition. Bones can become infected in a number of ways: Infection in one part of the body may spread through the bloodstream into the bone, or an open fracture or surgery may expose the bone to infection.

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A paraganglioma is a rare tumor that begins in certain nerve cells that are dispersed throughout the body. This tumor can affect people of any age but most often shows up between the ages of 30 and 50. The tumor is often slow growing and noncancerous (benign). But it can invade nearby parts of the body, become cancerous (malignant) and spread distantly (metastasize).With about half of paraganglioma tumors, the abnormal cells produce hormones known as catecholamines or adrenaline, which is the fight-or-flight hormone. This may induce high blood pressure, a rapid heartbeat, flushed skin, sweating, headache and tremors.Surgery to remove the tumor is usually the first treatment choice for a paraganglioma, if feasible. If left untreated, a paraganglioma can result in severe or life-threatening damage and progress to the point where surgical treatment isn't an option. In people with cancerous and distantly spread (metastatic) paraganglioma, medicine and other treatments can help control the disease and symptoms and even extend survival.


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Patellar tendinitis is an injury to the tendon connecting your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. The patellar tendon works with the muscles at the front of your thigh to extend your knee so you can kick, run and jump.Patellar tendinitis, also known as jumper's knee, is most common in athletes whose sports involve frequent jumping — such as basketball and volleyball. However, even people who don't participate in jumping sports can get patellar tendinitis.For most people, treatment of patellar tendinitis begins with physical therapy to stretch and strengthen the muscles around the knee

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A foramen ovale is a hole in the heart. The small hole naturally exists in babies who are still in the womb for fetal circulation. It should close soon after birth. If it doesn’t close, the condition is called patent foramen ovale (PFO).PFOs are common. They occur in roughly one out of every four people. If you have no other heart conditions or complications, treatment for PFO is unnecessary.While a fetus develops in the womb, a small opening exists between the two upper chambers of the heart called the atria. This opening is called the foramen ovale. The purpose of the foramen ovale is to help circulate blood through the heart. A fetus doesn’t use their own lungs to oxygenate their blood. They rely on their mother’s circulation to provide oxygen to their blood from the placenta. The foramen ovale helps blood circulate more quickly in the absence of lung function.When your baby is born and their lungs begin to work, the pressure inside their heart usually causes the foramen ovale to close. Sometimes it may not happen for a year or two. In some people, the closure may never happen at all, resulting in PFO.

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Many schools have declared that they are “nut-free,” meaning that the onetime staple of kids’ lunchboxes — a peanut butter and jelly sandwich — is nowhere to be found on school grounds these days. That’s because peanuts can cause a life-threatening reaction in some people. Peanuts are one of the food allergens most commonly associated with anaphylaxis, a sudden and potentially deadly condition that requires immediate attention and treatment.In recent years, awareness about peanut allergy in children has risen, as has the number of peanut allergy cases reported. In May 2010, a study noted that the rate of peanut allergies in children, as reported in a telephone survey, had more than tripled between 1997 and 2008.There are several misconceptions about peanut allergies. A peanut is a legume (belonging to the same family as soybeans, peas and lentils), not a tree nut. And while it was previously believed that an allergy to peanuts was lifelong, research by the National Institutes of Health shows that about 20 percent of individuals with a peanut allergy eventually outgrow it.


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Penicillin allergy is an abnormal reaction of your immune system to the antibiotic drug penicillin. Penicillin is prescribed for treating various bacterial infections.


Common signs and symptoms of penicillin allergy include hives, rash and itching. Severe reactions include anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition that affects multiple body systems.


Research has shown that penicillin allergies may be over-reported — a problem that can result in the use of less appropriate and more expensive antibiotic treatments. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is needed when penicillin allergy is suspected to ensure the best treatment options in the future.


Other antibiotics, particularly those with chemical properties similar to penicillin, can also result in allergic reactions.

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An “ulcer” is an open sore. The word “peptic” means that the cause of the problem is due to acid. Most of the time when a gastroenterologist is referring to an “ulcer” the doctor means a peptic ulcer.The two most common types of peptic ulcer are called “gastric ulcers” and “duodenal ulcers”. These names refer to the location where the ulcer is found. Gastric ulcers are located in the stomach (see Figure 1). Duodenal ulcers are found at the beginning of the small intestine (also called the small bowel) known as the duodenum. A person may have both gastric and duodenal ulcers at the same time.

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Pericardial effusion (per-e-KAHR-dee-ul uh-FU-zhun) is the accumulation of too much fluid in the double-layered, sac-like structure around the heart (pericardium).The space between the layers normally contains a thin layer of fluid. But if the pericardium is diseased or injured, the resulting inflammation can lead to excess fluid. Fluid can also build up around the heart without inflammation, such as from bleeding after a chest trauma.Pericardial effusion puts pressure on the heart, affecting the heart's function. If untreated, it can lead to heart failure or death

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Peripheral artery disease (also called peripheral arterial disease) is a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs.When you develop peripheral artery disease (PAD), your extremities — usually your legs — don't receive enough blood flow to keep up with demand. This causes symptoms, most notably leg pain when walking (claudication).Peripheral artery disease is also likely to be a sign of a more widespread accumulation of fatty deposits in your arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition may be reducing blood flow to your heart and brain, as well as your legs.You often can successfully treat peripheral artery disease by quitting tobacco, exercising and eating a healthy diet

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njuries to peripheral nerves are extremely common in many types of upper limb trauma. Injury to peripheral nerves can cause extreme dysfunction in the hand for the patient disrupting their professional and leisure activities. It is therefore vital that adequate treatment is available to repair peripheral nerves to prevent permanent financial loss for the patient as well as the healthcare economy. Galen was the first to describe the concept of the nerve but it was Paulus Aegineta in the 7th century who documented the first nerve repair and wound closure as a military surgeon. Since this time immense research has taken place to understand nerve pathology and physiology. Currently surgical repair involves either reconstruction with direct end-to-end anastomosis or by the insertion of nerve grafts. Despite the long history and major microsurgical research and improvement peripheral nerve repair remains a challenge to surgeons and still has suboptimal outcomes. This review aims to discuss the pathophysiology of nerve injuries including the limitations of surgical repair at a biological level. We will subsequently describe the current techniques, problems and advances in the surgical management of nerve injuries.


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Peripheral nerve tumors are growths in or near the strands of tissue (nerves) that transmit signals from your brain to the rest of your body. These nerves control your muscles so that you can walk, blink, swallow, pick things up and do other activities.Peripheral nerve tumors can occur anywhere in the body. Most of them aren't cancerous (malignant), but they can lead to pain, nerve damage and loss of function in the affected area.Treatment of peripheral nerve tumors usually involves surgery to remove the tumor. Sometimes the tumor can't be removed without damaging nearby healthy tissue and nerves. In these cases, other treatments may be recommended.Several types of peripheral nerve tumors occur. These tumors affect nerves by growing within them (intraneural tumors) or by pressing against them (extraneural tumors).

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Peripheral neuropathy, a result of damage to your peripheral nerves, often causes weakness, numbness and pain, usually in your hands and feet. It can also affect other areas of your body.

Your peripheral nervous system sends information from your brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) to the rest of your body. Peripheral neuropathy can result from traumatic injuries, infections, metabolic problems, inherited causes and exposure to toxins. One of the most common causes is diabetes mellitus.

People with peripheral neuropathy generally describe the pain as stabbing, burning or tingling. In many cases, symptoms improve, especially if caused by a treatable condition. Medications can reduce the pain of peripheral neuropathy.


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Personality is the way of thinking, feeling and behaving that makes a person different from other people. An individual’s personality is influenced by experiences, environment (surroundings, life situations) and inherited characteristics. A personality disorder is a way of thinking, feeling and behaving that deviates from the expectations of the culture, causes distress or problems functioning, and lasts over time.1There are 10 specific types of personality disorders (such as borderline personality disorder). Common to all personality disorders is a long-term pattern of behavior and inner experience that differs significantly from what is expected. The pattern of experience and behavior begins by late adolescence or early adulthood, and causes distress or problems in functioning. Without treatment, the behavior and experience is inflexible and usually long-lasting. The pattern is seen in at least two of these areas:

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If your nose runs and your eyes water or you start sneezing and wheezing after petting or playing with a cat, you likely have a cat allergy. A cat allergy can contribute to constant allergy symptoms, as exposure can occur at work, school, day care or in other indoor environments, even if a cat is not present.

Cats produce multiple allergens (proteins that can cause allergy). These allergens are found on the fur and skin and in saliva. All cats produce allergens; studies have not shown that cats can be hypoallergenic (meaning that they don’t cause allergy). Homes with more than one cat have higher levels of cat allergens. Characteristics such as the length of a cat’s hair, its sex and the amount of time a cat spends indoors are not associated with cat allergen levels.Dust and pollen in a cat’s coat can also cause allergy symptoms. In those cases, the allergy is to the dust or pollen, not to the cat.

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Phenylketonuria (commonly known as PKU) is an inherited disorder that increases the levels of a substance called phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet. It is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. If PKU is not treated, phenylalanine can build up to harmful levels in the body, causing intellectual disability and other serious health problems.The signs and symptoms of PKU vary from mild to severe. The most severe form of this disorder is known as classic PKU. Infants with classic PKU appear normal until they are a few months old. Without treatment, these children develop permanent intellectual disability. Seizures, delayed development, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders are also common. Untreated individuals may have a musty or mouse-like odor as a side effect of excess phenylalanine in the body. Children with classic PKU tend to have lighter skin and hair than unaffected family members and are also likely to have skin disorders such as eczema.


Less severe forms of this condition, sometimes called variant PKU and non-PKU hyperphenylalaninemia, have a smaller risk of brain damage. People with very mild cases may not require treatment with a low-phenylalanine diet.Babies born to mothers who have PKU and uncontrolled phenylalanine levels (women who no longer follow a low-phenylalanine diet) have a significant risk of intellectual disability because they are exposed to very high levels of phenylalanine before birth. These infants may also have a low birth weight and grow more slowly than other children. Other characteristic medical problems include heart defects or other heart problems, an abnormally small head size (microcephaly), and behavioral problems. Women with PKU and uncontrolled phenylalanine levels also have an increased risk of pregnancy loss.


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A pilonidal (pie-low-NIE-dul) cyst is an abnormal pocket in the skin that usually contains hair and skin debris. A pilonidal cyst is almost always located near the tailbone at the top of the cleft of the buttocks.Pilonidal cysts usually occur when hair punctures the skin and then becomes embedded. If a pilonidal cyst becomes infected, the resulting abscess is often extremely painful. The cyst can be drained through a small incision or removed surgically.Pilonidal cysts most commonly occur in young men, and the problem has a tendency to recur. People who sit for prolonged periods of time, such as truck drivers, are at higher risk of developing a pilonidal cyst.

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Pineoblastoma is one of several different types of tumors that arise in the area of the pineal gland, requiring different therapies. The exact diagnosis is critical for choosing the correct therapy. Pineal tumors typically present with hydrocephalus, a buildup of fluid pressure within the brain

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Placentaaccreta happens when the placenta attaches too firmly to the uterine wall. Normally the placenta attaches to the uterine wall during pregnancy but detaches easily during childbirth. When accreta occurs, the blood vessels andother tissue from the placenta grow more deeply into the tissue of the uterus,which can cause bleeding during the third trimester and possibly dangerous hemorrhaging (blood loss) during delivery. If the placenta penetrates even further into the uterine wall, reaching the muscle, it is called placenta increta. If it grows all the way through the uterine wall, it is called placenta percreta.


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If you have placenta previa, it means that your placenta is lying unusually low in your uterus, next to or covering your cervix. The placenta is the pancake-shaped organ – normally located near the top of the uterus – that supplies your baby with nutrients through the umbilical cord.If you're found to have placenta previa early in pregnancy, it's not usually considered a problem. But if the placenta is still close to the cervix later in pregnancy, it can cause bleeding, which can lead to other complications and may mean that you'll need to deliver early. If you have placenta previa when it's time to deliver your baby, you'll need to have a cesarean section.


If the placenta covers the cervix completely, it's called a complete or total previa. If it's right on the border of the cervix, it's called a marginal previa. (You may also hear the term "partial previa," which refers to a placenta that covers part of the cervical opening once the cervix starts to dilate.) If the edge of the placenta is within two centimeters of the cervix but not bordering it, it's called a low-lying placenta.The location of your placenta will be checked during your mid-pregnancy ultrasound exam (usually done between 16 to 20 weeks) and again later if necessary.


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A placental abruption is a serious condition in which the placenta partially or completely separates from your uterus before your baby's born.The condition can deprive your baby of oxygen and nutrients, and cause severe bleeding that can be dangerous to you both. A placental abruption also increases the risk that your baby will have growth problems (if the abruption is small and goes unnoticed), be born prematurely, or be stillborn.Placental abruption happens in about one in 150 pregnancies. It's most common in the third trimester but can happen any time after 20 weeks.


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When you breathe, the thin tissues that line your lungs and chest wall, called the pleura, rub together. Typically this isn’t a problem, because the tissue is satiny and generates no friction. However, when this tissue is inflamed or infected, it becomes irritated and swollen, causing significant pain. This condition is known as pleurisy or pleuritis.This condition has a grim fame. It caused the death of a number of historical figures, including Catherine de Medici and Benjamin Franklin.Pleurisy is no longer a common condition. Over the years, antibiotics have been extremely successful in treating and preventing the bacterial infections that historically were the main causes of pleurisy. Nowadays, most cases of pleurisy are the result of a viral infection and deaths from this illness are quite rare.


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Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes nerve injury leading to paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death.


In the U.S., the last case of naturally occurring polio was in 1979. Today, despite a worldwide effort to wipe out polio, poliovirus continues to affect children and adults in parts of Asia and Africa.


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises taking precautions to protect yourself from polio if you're traveling anywhere there's a risk of polio.


Adults who have been vaccinated who plan to travel to an area where polio is occurring should receive a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Immunity after a booster lasts a lifetime.

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Polycythemia vera (pol-e-sy-THEE-me-uh VEER-uh) is a slow-growing blood cancer in which your bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. These excess cells thicken your blood, slowing its flow. They also cause complications, such as blood clots, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.


Polycythemia vera isn't common. It usually develops slowly, and you might have it for years without knowing. Often the condition is found during a blood test done for another reason.


Without treatment, polycythemia vera can be life-threatening. But proper medical care can help ease signs, symptoms and complications of this disease. Over time, in some cases there's a risk of progressing to more-serious blood cancers, such as myelofibrosis or acute leukemia.

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Polyhydramnios is where there is too much amniotic fluid around the baby during pregnancy. Amniotic fluid is the fluid that surrounds your baby in the womb.


Too much amniotic fluid is normally spotted during a check-up in the later stages of pregnancy.


It isn't usually a sign of anything serious, but you'll probably have some extra check-ups and will be advised to give birth in hospital.

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Polymyalgia rheumatica (sometimes referred to as PMR) is a common cause of widespread aching and stiffness that affects adults over the age of 50, especially Caucasians. Because polymyalgia rheumatica does not often cause swollen joints, it may be hard to recognize. It may occur with another health problem, giant cell arteritis.


The average age when symptoms start is 70, so people who have PMR may be in their 80s or even older. The disease affects women somewhat more often than men. It is more frequent in whites than nonwhites, but all races can get PMR.

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Polymyositis is a disease of muscle featuring inflammation of the muscle fibers. The cause of the disease is not known. It begins when white blood cells, the immune cells of inflammation, spontaneously invade muscles. The muscles affected are typically those closest to the trunk or torso. This results in weakness that can be severe. Polymyositis is a chronic illness featuring progressive muscle weakness with periods of increased symptoms, called flares or relapses, and minimal or no symptoms, known as remissions.


Polymyositis is slightly more common in females. It affects all age groups, although its onset is most common in middle childhood and in the 20s. Polymyositis occurs throughout the world. Polymyositis can be associated with a characteristic skin rash and is then referred to as "dermatomyositis." Dermatomyositis in children is referred to as juvenile dermatomyositis. "Amyopathic dermatomyositis" is the term used to describe people who have skin changes compatible with dermatomyositis but do not have diseased muscle involvement.


Polymyositis can also affect other areas of the body and is, therefore, referred to as a systemic illness. Occasionally, it is associated with cancer or with other diseases of connective tissue (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis). Depending on which other diseases it is associated with, it may be referred to as an "overlap syndrome" or "mixed connective tissue disease."

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Poor or deficient color vision is an inability to see the difference between certain colors, but color is still seen. Many people commonly use the term "colorblind" for this condition. But true colorblindness — in which everything is seen in shades of black and white — is rare.


Poor color vision is usually inherited. Men are more likely to be born with poor color vision. Most people with poor color vision can't distinguish between certain shades of red and green. Less commonly, people with poor color vision can't distinguish between shades of blue and yellow.


Certain eye diseases and some medications also can cause poor color vision.


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Postherpetic neuralgia (also termed PHN) is a condition of recurring or persistent pain in an area of the body that has undergone an outbreak of herpes zoster virus (HZ), also known as the varicella zoster virus, commonly termed shingles. It usually begins after shingles lesions (blisters) begin to crust over and heal but may occur in some patients who do not produce lesions. Some investigators suggest the pain has to be present for three months to be termed PHN.


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Postpartum preeclampsia is a rare condition that can develop soon after birth (usually within the first 48 to 72 hours after delivery) and is marked by high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine. In rare cases, preeclampsia onset can be delayed up to about one month postpartum; it is usually called late postpartum preeclampsia if the onset is more than 48 hours postpartum. "It takes time for the uterus to shed its lining after birth, so this process may be behind the delay that's sometimes seen in late onset preeclampsia after delivery," says James N. Martin, M.D., past president of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. It's also possible this condition begins during pregnancy but doesn't show signs or symptoms until after the baby has arrived.


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The literature lacks consensus regarding the nomenclature applicable to the development of new health problems in persons who previously had acute paralytic poliomyelitis, with frequently used terms including "late effects of polio" (LEoP), "postpolio syndrome" (PPS) and "postpolio muscular atrophy." PPS is typically characterized as a sub-category of LEoP. [1]


PPS is a neurologic disorder characterized by new and progressive muscular weakness, pain, and fatigue many years after the acute paralytic polio. Halstead introduced the term "post-polio syndrome" in 1986, and he published revised criteria for diagnosing PPS in 1991, in which new muscle weakness was introduced as an obligatory criterion.

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What Is an Allergy?

This article explains the basics of an allergic reaction. Learn what happens when your immune system goes on high alert.

Who Gets Allergies?

Anyone can get them, at any age. You could develop them as a child, or you might not have any symptoms until you’re an adult.

What Causes an Allergic Reaction?

While your problem may seem to start in the nose or the eyes, allergies actually come from an immune system run wild.

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People with Prader-Willi syndrome typically have mild to moderate intellectual impairment and learning disabilities. Behavioral problems are common, including temper outbursts, stubbornness, and compulsive behavior such as picking at the skin. Sleep abnormalities can also occur. Additional features of this condition include distinctive facial features such as a narrow forehead, almond-shaped eyes, and a triangular mouth; short stature; and small hands and feet. Some people with Prader-Willi syndrome have unusually fair skin and light-colored hair. Both affected males and affected females have underdeveloped genitals. Puberty is delayed or incomplete, and most affected individuals are unable to have children (infertile).

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Premature ejaculation is uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration. It happens with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes. It may result in unsatisfactory sex for both partners. This can increase the anxiety that may add to the problem. It is one of the most common forms of male sexual dysfunction. It has probably affected every man at some point in his life.


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Premature ovarian failure — also known as primary ovarian insufficiency — is a loss of normal function of your ovaries before age 40. If your ovaries fail, they don't produce normal amounts of the hormone estrogen or release eggs regularly. Infertility is a common result.


Premature ovarian failure is sometimes referred to as premature menopause, but the two conditions aren't the same. Women with premature ovarian failure can have irregular or occasional periods for years and might even become pregnant. Women with premature menopause stop having periods and can't become pregnant.


Restoring estrogen levels in women with premature ovarian failure helps prevent some complications, such as osteoporosis, that occur as a result of low estrogen.

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Premature labor is also called preterm labor. It’s when your body starts getting ready for birth too early in your pregnancy. Labor is premature if it starts more than three weeks before your due date.

Premature labor can lead to an early birth. But the good news is that doctors can do a lot to delay an early delivery. The longer your baby gets to grow inside you -- right up to your due date -- the less likely he or she is to have problems after birth.


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Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child. It does not progress at the same rate and each stage is affected by the preceding developmental experiences. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation,[1] or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment.


There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending. Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (ages 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6 years); school-aged child (ages 6–12 years); adolescent (ages 13–18).[2]


Promoting child development through parental training, among other factors, promotes excellent rates of child development.[3] Parents play a large role in a child's life, socialization, and development. Having multiple parents can add stability to the child's life and therefore encourage healthy development.[4] Another influential factor in a child's development is the quality of their care. Child care programs present a critical opportunity for the promotion of child development.


The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. There are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child developmen

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A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (called an adenoma) of the pituitary gland. A prolactinoma produces an excessive amount of the hormone prolactin. Prolactin is a natural hormone which supports a woman's normal lactation, which is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands of the breast. Prolactinomas are the most common type of pituitary tumor. Symptoms of prolactinoma are caused by pressure of the tumor on surrounding tissues or by excessive release of prolactin from the tumor into the blood (causing a condition known as hyperprolactinemia).

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Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a condition that’s characterized by episodes of sudden uncontrollable and inappropriate laughing or crying. Pseudobulbar affect typically occurs in people with certain neurological conditions or injuries, which might affect the way the brain controls emotion.

If you have pseudobulbar affect you'll experience emotions normally, but you'll sometimes express them in an exaggerated or inappropriate way. As a result, the condition can be embarrassing and disruptive to your daily life.

Pseudobulbar affect often goes undiagnosed or is mistaken for mood disorders. Once diagnosed, however, pseudobulbar affect can be managed with medication.

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Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is inflammation in your colon that happens when there's too much of certain bacteria in your system. The most common bacterium that causes PMC isClostridium difficile, or C. diff.

PMC is also called antibiotic-associated colitis or C. difficilecolitis. Most of the time, it's a side effect of taking antibiotics.

People in hospitals or nursing homes also can get PMC, especially if they've just had surgery or are receiving treatment for cancer.

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Pulmonary atresia is a form of heart disease in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly. It is present from birth (congenital heart disease). The pulmonary valve is an opening on the right side of the heart that regulates blood flow from the right ventricle (right side pumping chamber) to the lungs.


In pulmonary atresia, a solid sheet of tissue forms where the valve opening should be, and the valve stays closed. Because of this defect, blood from the right side of the heart cannot go to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

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Edema, in general, means swelling. This typically occurs when fluid from inside blood vessels seeps outside the blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, causing swelling. This can happen either because of too much pressure in the blood vessels or not enough proteins in the bloodstream to hold on to the fluid in the plasma (the part of the blood that does not contain any blood cells).


Pulmonary edema is the term used when edema happens in the lungs. The immediate area outside of the small blood vessels in the lungs is occupied by very tiny air sacs called the alveoli. This is where oxygen from the air is picked up by the blood passing by, and carbon dioxide in the blood is passed into the alveoli to be exhaled out. Alveoli normally have a thin wall that allows for this air exchange, and fluids are usually kept out of the alveoli unless these walls lose their integrity.

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Pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs. In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs from the legs or, rarely, other parts of the body (deep vein thrombosis).


Because the clots block blood flow to the lungs, pulmonary embolism can be life-threatening. However, prompt treatment greatly reduces the risk of death. Taking measures to prevent blood clots in your legs will help protect you against pulmonary embolism.


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The pulmonic valve is one of two valves that allow blood to leave the heart via the arteries. It is a one-way valve, meaning that blood cannot flow back into the heart through it. The valve is opened by the increased blood pressure of the ventricular systole (contraction of the muscular tissue), pushing blood out of the heart and into the artery. It closes when the pressure drops inside the heart. It is located in the right ventricle of the heart. The pulmonic valve opens into the pulmonary artery. The frequency of this cycle depends upon the heart rate. Pulmonary stenosis is a condition where the blood flow out of the heart is obstructed at the pulmonic valve. The most common cause of this is congenital heart disease, although rheumatic heart disease and a malignant carcinoid tumor can also initiate the problem. The condition is treated by surgical repair or replacement of the pulmonic valve.

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Pulmonary valve stenosis is a condition in which a deformity on or near your pulmonary valve narrows the pulmonary valve opening and slows the blood flow. The pulmonary valve is located between the lower right heart chamber (right ventricle) and the pulmonary arteries. Adults occasionally have pulmonary valve stenosis as a complication of another illness, but mostly, pulmonary valve stenosis develops before birth as a congenital heart defect.


Pulmonary valve stenosis ranges from mild and without symptoms to severe. Mild pulmonary stenosis doesn't usually worsen over time, but moderate and severe cases may worsen and require surgery. Fortunately, treatment is generally highly successful, and most people with pulmonary valve stenosis can expect to lead normal lives.

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Pyloric stenosis is an uncommon condition in infants that blocks food from entering the small intestine.Normally, a muscular valve (pylorus) between the stomach and small intestine holds food in the stomach until it is ready for the next stage in the digestive process. In pyloric stenosis, the pylorus muscles thicken and become abnormally large, blocking food from reaching the small intestine.Pyloric stenosis can lead to forceful vomiting, dehydration and weight loss. Babies with pyloric stenosis may seem to be hungry all the time.


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The rectum is the last several inches of the large intestine. It starts at the end of the final segment of your colon and ends when it reaches the short, narrow passage leading to the anus.Cancer inside the rectum (rectal cancer) and cancer inside the colon (colon cancer) are often referred to together as "colorectal cancer."While rectal and colon cancers are similar in many ways, their treatments are quite different. This is mainly because the rectum sits in a tight space, barely separated from other organs and structures in the pelvic cavity. As a result, complete surgical removal of rectal cancer is challenging and highly complex. Additional treatment is often needed before or after surgery — or both — to reduce the chance that the cancer will return.In the past, long-term survival was uncommon for people with rectal cancer, even after extensive treatment. Thanks to treatment advances over the past 30 years, rectal cancer can now, in many cases, be cured.


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This patient education piece is designed to help improve patients’ understanding regarding rectal prolapse, specifically its presentation, evaluation and treatment. This information may also be useful to the friends, families, and caregivers of patients dealing with rectal prolapse. Treatment of this condition may often require surgery, and this patient education material is intended for patients with rectal prolapse who are considering or have been recommended surgery. It will address why surgery may have been recommended, what the various treatment options are, what it involves and how it may help patients.


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A rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is an epithelial-lined tract between the rectum and vagina. For thousands of years, women simply tolerated the distressing symptoms generated by RVFs. Today, there is no need for such tolerance, because most RVFs can be surgically corrected via a number of approaches. [1] A small percentage, however, cannot be corrected, because of patient comorbidity or disease-related factors; in these cases, patients can be helped only by fecal diversion. [2]  This article discusses only acquired RVFs. Most RVFs are located at or just above the dentate line. Fistulas below the dentate line are not true RVFs but, rather, anovaginal fistulas; the treatment required for these differs from that required for RVFs.

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Renal refers to anything related to the kidneys. Renal arteries carry blood from the heart to the kidneys. They branch directly from the aorta (the main artery coming off the heart) on either side and extend to each kidney. These arteries take a very large volume of blood to the kidneys to be filtered The heart pumps out approximately 5 liters of blood per minute, and about 1-1.5 liters (25%) of the total volume of blood pumped by the heart passes through the kidneys every minute.

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Retinal diseases vary widely, but most of them cause visual symptoms. Retinal diseases can affect any part of your retina, a thin layer of tissue on the inside back wall of your eye.The retina contains millions of light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) and other nerve cells that receive and organize visual information. Your retina sends this information to your brain through your optic nerve, enabling you to see.Treatment is available for some retinal diseases. Depending on your condition, treatment goals may be to stop or slow the disease and preserve, improve or restore your vision. Untreated, some retinal diseases can cause severe vision loss or blindness.
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Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? For information about the differences between childhood cancers and adult cancers, see Cancer in Children. Retinoblastoma is a cancer that starts in the retina, the very back part of the eye. It is the most common type of eye cancer in children. Rarely, children can have other kinds of eye cancer, such as medulloepithelioma, which is described briefly below, or melanoma.To understand retinoblastoma, it helps to know about the parts of the eye and how they work.


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A retractile testicle is a testicle that may move back and forth between the scrotum and the groin. When the retractile testicle is residing in the groin, it might be easily guided by hand into its proper position in the scrotum — the bag of skin hanging behind the penis — during a physical exam.For most boys, the problem of a retractile testicle goes away sometime before or during puberty. The testicle moves to its correct location in the scrotum and stays there permanently.In fewer than 5 percent of cases, the retractile testicle remains in the groin and is no longer movable. When this happens, the condition is called an ascending testicle or an acquired undescended testicle.


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Ejaculation is the ejection of semen out of the urethra (passageway inside the penis) when a man has an orgasm. Under normal circumstances, ejaculation propels semen forward through a man's urethra and out the tip of his penis. This is because a tiny sphincter (circular muscle) at the entrance to the bladder shuts the opening to the bladder and prevents semen from entering. Retrograde ejaculation is when the semen travels backwards into the bladder.


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Ringworm is a common skin disorder otherwise known as “tinea” or “dermatophytosis.” It is caused by a fungus that can live on skin, surfaces like locker room floors, and household items like towels, bedding, and clothes. While there are multiple forms of ringworm, the most common forms affect:


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Roseola is a generally mild infection that usually affects children by age 2. It occasionally affects adults. Roseola is so common that most children have been infected with roseola by the time they enter kindergarten.Two common strains of herpes virus cause roseola. The condition typically causes several days of fever, followed by a rash.Some children develop only a very mild case of roseola and never show any clear indication of illness, while others experience the full range of signs and symptoms.Roseola typically isn't serious. Rarely, a very high fever can result in complications. Treatment of roseola includes bed rest, fluids and medications to reduce fever.


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Rubella is an acute, contagious viral infection. While rubella virus infection usually causes a mild fever and rash illness in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or infants with congenital malformations, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The rubella virus is transmitted by airborne droplets when infected people sneeze or cough. Humans are the only known host.


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The spleen is an organ of the lymphatic system located on the left side of your stomach (abdomen) under the rib cage and diaphragm in a region that is referred to as the left upper quadrant. In humans the spleen is about the size of a fist and its primary roles are filtering the body’s blood and helps to fight infection. It also serves a role in storing and releasing certain types of immune cells that mediate tissue inflammation. [1]Rupturing a spleen describes an emergency situation in which your spleen has developed a disruption in its surface or blood supply. This is serious condition that can occur during a direct blow or trauma and without emergency treatment a ruptured spleen can cause life threatening internal bleeding. [2]


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A sacral dimple is a small, usually shallow indentation in the small of the back, just above or within the crease of the buttocks.


About 3 to 8 percent of the population has a sacral dimple. A very small percentage of people with a sacral dimple can have spinal abnormalities.


In most cases, a sacral dimple causes no problems and isn’t associated with any health risks.

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Sacroiliitis (say-kroe-il-e-I-tis) is an inflammation of one or both of your sacroiliac joints — situated where your lower spine and pelvis connect. Sacroiliitis can cause pain in your buttocks or lower back, and can extend down one or both legs. Prolonged standing or stair climbing can worsen the pain.


Sacroiliitis can be difficult to diagnose, because it can be mistaken for other causes of low back pain. It's been linked to a group of diseases that cause inflammatory arthritis of the spine. Treatment might involve physical therapy and medications.

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Salivary gland tumors are rare types of tumors that begin in the salivary glands.


Salivary gland tumors can begin in any of the salivary glands in your mouth, neck or throat. Salivary glands make saliva, which aids in digestion, keeps your mouth moist and supports healthy teeth.


You have three pairs of major salivary glands under and behind your jaw — parotid, sublingual and submandibular. Many other tiny salivary glands are in your lips, inside your cheeks, and throughout your mouth and throat.


Salivary gland tumors most commonly occur in the parotid gland, accounting for nearly 85 percent of all salivary gland tumors. Approximately 25 percent of parotid tumors are cancerous (malignant).


Treatment for salivary gland tumors often involves surgery. Treatments for salivary gland tumors may also include radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

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Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food.


Typically, people with salmonella infection have no symptoms. Others develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within eight to 72 hours. Most healthy people recover within a few days without specific treatment.


In some cases, the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection can be so dehydrating as to require prompt medical attention. Life-threatening complications also may develop if the infection spreads beyond your intestines. Your risk of acquiring salmonella infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

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Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria. This illness usually occurs in a few people (about 10%) who have strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis) and occasionally streptococcal skin infections or even wound infections. Scarlet fever is also known as scarlatina in the older articles; group A Streptococcus (for example, Streptococcus pyogenes) is often shortened to read as "group A strep" or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS). Scarlet fever is mainly known for its sunburned-skin-colored sandpaper-like skin rash that is associated with fever.


Outbreaks occur. England reported a 50-year high number of individuals diagnosed with the disease (over 19,206) in 2016

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Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid social activities and consistently shy away from interaction with others. They also have a limited range of emotional expression.


If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may be seen as a loner or dismissive of others, and you may lack the desire or skill to form close personal relationships. Because you don't tend to show emotion, you may appear as though you don't care about others or what's going on around you.


The cause of schizoid personality disorder is unknown. Talk therapy, and in some cases medications, can help.

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People with schizotypal personality disorder are often described as odd or eccentric and usually have few, if any, close relationships. They generally don't understand how relationships form or the impact of their behavior on others. They may also misinterpret others' motivations and behaviors and develop significant distrust of others.


These problems may lead to severe anxiety and a tendency to turn inward in social situations, as the person with schizotypal personality disorder responds inappropriately to social cues and holds peculiar beliefs.


Schizotypal personality disorder typically is diagnosed in early adulthood and is likely to endure, though treatment, such as medications and therapy, can improve symptoms.

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Sclerosing mesenteritis, also called mesenteric panniculitis, occurs when the tissue (mesentery) that holds the small intestines in place becomes inflamed and forms scar tissue. Sclerosing mesenteritis is rare, and it's not clear what causes it.


Sclerosing mesenteritis can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea and fever. But some people experience no signs and symptoms and may never need treatment.


In rare cases, scar tissue formed by sclerosing mesenteritis can block food from moving through your digestive tract. In this case, you may need surgery.

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Scoliosis is a disorder that causes an abnormal curve of the spine, or backbone. The spine has normal curves when looking from the side, but it should appear straight when looking from the front. Kyphosis is a curve in the spine seen from the side in which the spine is bent forward. There is a normal kyphosis in the middle (thoracic) spine. Lordosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent backward. There is a normal lordosis in the upper (cervical) spine and the lower (lumbar) spine. People with scoliosis develop additional curves to either side of the body, and the bones of the spine twist on each other, forming a "C" or an "S" shape in the spine.


Scoliosis is about two times more common in girls than boys. It can be seen at any age, but it is most common in those over about 10 years of age. Scoliosis is hereditary in that people with scoliosis are more likely to have children with scoliosis; however, there is no correlation between the severity of the curves from one generation to the next.

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The scrotum contains the male testes, the two male sex organs that produce and store semen as well as the hormone testosterone. A scrotal mass is a lump or bulge that can be felt in the scrotum, and may result from a variety of factors There are several kinds of scrotal masses:


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The best way to understand the way that skin discoloration occurs is to understand how the skin gets and maintains its color. The epidermis, the outer layer of your skin, contains a bunch of cells called melanocytes. These cells have many functions, but one of their main jobs is to protect the skin. When it comes to protecting the skin from the sun, the melanocytes do so by darkening it with a pigment called melanin.


Melanin is responsible for making the skin look darker when you are exposed to the sun, but the body, for some reason, will either stop producing melanin in specific areas of the skin, or put its production into overdrive. Sometimes the skin discoloration can affect the entire body, a specific part of the body, or it can occur in just a few random places on the skin

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Selective IgA deficiency is one of the most common types of PI. These individuals lack IgA, but usually have normal amounts of other immunoglobulins (antibodies). Many people go undiagnosed because they are never sick enough to be seen by a doctor, while others may develop a variety of severe problems.


Selective IgA Deficiency

IgA protects the body at surfaces that come in contact with the environment. These sites are the mucosal surfaces—mouth, ears, sinuses, nose, throat, airways within the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and genitals.


IgA antibodies are transported in secretions to these mucosal surfaces and play a role in protecting them from infection, which is why IgA is known as a secretory antibody. Because the area of a person's mucosal surfaces is equal to 1.5 tennis courts, the importance of IgA in protecting these surfaces cannot be overstated.


Although people with selective IgA deficiency do not produce IgA, they do produce all the other immunoglobulins. In addition, the other aspects of their immune systems function properly.


The causes of selective IgA deficiency remain unknown. It is likely there are a variety of causes that vary from person to person.


Low serum IgA, like absent serum IgA, is relatively common. Most people with low serum IgA have no apparent illness; others have symptoms similar to 


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Nonsuicidal self-injury, often simply called self-injury, is the act of deliberately harming the surface of your own body, such as cutting or burning yourself. It's typically not meant as a suicide attempt. Rather, this type of self-injury is an unhealthy way to cope with emotional pain, intense anger and frustration. While self-injury may bring a momentary sense of calm and a release of tension, it's usually followed by guilt and shame and the return of painful emotions. Although life-threatening injuries are usually not intended, with self-injury comes the possibility of more serious and even fatal self-aggressive actions.


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A separated shoulder is an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments might just be stretched. In severe injuries, ligaments might be torn. In most people, a separated shoulder doesn't usually require surgery. Instead, conservative treatment — such as rest, ice and pain relievers — is often enough to relieve the pain. Most people regain full shoulder function within a few weeks after having a separated shoulder.


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Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella (shih-GEHL-uh). Most who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5 to 7 days. Some people who are infected may have no symptoms at all, but may still pass the Shigella bacteria to others. The spread of Shigella can be stopped by frequent and careful handwashing with soap and taking other hygiene measures.


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The colon is a long tube-like structure approximately 6 feet in length that stores and then eliminates waste material left over after digestion of food in the small intestine takes place. It is thought that pressure within the colon causes bulging pockets of tissue (sacs) that push out from the colonic walls as a person ages. A small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall is called a diverticulum. More than one bulging sac is referred to in the plural as diverticula. Diverticula can occur throughout the colon but are most common near the end of the left colon, referred to as the sigmoid colon, in Western countries. In Asia, the diverticula occur mostly on the right side of the colon. The condition of having these diverticula in the colon is called diverticulosis.


Diverticula are common in the Western world but are rare in areas such as Asia and Africa. Diverticula increase with age. They are uncommon before the age of 40, but are seen in more than 74% of people over the age of 80 years in the U.S. A person with diverticulosis usually has few or no symptoms. The most common symptoms associated with diverticulosis are abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. In some of these patients the symptoms may be due to the concomitant presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or abnormalities in the function of the muscles of the sigmoid colon (in which case it is referred to as diverticular disease); simple diverticula should cause no symptoms. Occasionally, bleeding originates from a diverticulum, and it is referred to as diverticular bleeding.

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Shin splints (medial tibial stress syndrome) is an inflammation of the muscles, tendons, and bone tissue around your tibia. Pain typically occurs along the inner border of the tibia, where muscles attach to the bone.


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Your bowels are made up of two parts -- the large intestine, also called the colon, and the small intestine. Short bowel syndrome usually affects people who’ve had a lot of their small intestine removed. Without this part, your body can’t get enough nutrients and water from the food you eat. This causes bowel troubles, like diarrhea, which can be dangerous if you go without treatment.If you learn you have short bowel syndrome, know that doctors can do a lot of things to ease your symptoms and make sure you get the right nutrition. People who have the disease can lead active lives.Over time, your body may adjust to having a shorter small intestine, and you may be able to take fewer medicines. The key is to stick to your treatment plan and get the support you need.


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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia — a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. Normally, your red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through your blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells become rigid and sticky and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body. There's no cure for most people with sickle cell anemia. But treatments can relieve pain and help prevent problems associated with the disease.

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Central sleep apnea is a disorder in which your breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.Central sleep apnea occurs because your brain doesn't send proper signals to the muscles that control your breathing. This condition is different from obstructive sleep apnea, in which you can't breathe normally because of upper airway obstruction. Central sleep apnea is less common than obstructive sleep apnea. Central sleep apnea may occur as a result of other conditions, such as heart failure and stroke. Sleeping at a high altitude also may cause central sleep apnea. Treatments for central sleep apnea may involve treating existing conditions, using a device to assist breathing or using supplemental oxygen.


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Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder. It causes breathing to repeatedly stop and start during sleep.There are several types of sleep apnea, but the most common is obstructive sleep apnea. This type of apnea occurs when your throat muscles intermittently relax and block your airway during sleep. A noticeable sign of obstructive sleep apnea is snoring. Treatments for obstructive sleep apnea are available. One treatment involves using a device that keep your airway open while you sleep. Another option is a mouthpiece to thrust your jaw forward during sleep. In more severe cases, surgery may be an option too


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Sleep terrors are episodes of screaming, intense fear and flailing while still asleep. Also known as night terrors, sleep terrors often are paired with sleepwalking. Like sleepwalking, sleep terrors are considered a parasomnia — an undesired occurrence during sleep. A sleep terror episode usually lasts from seconds to a few minutes, but episodes may last longer. Sleep terrors affect almost 40 percent of children and a much smaller percentage of adults. However frightening, sleep terrors aren't usually a cause for concern. Most children outgrow sleep terrors by their teenage yearsSleep terrors may require treatment if they cause problems getting enough sleep or they pose a safety risk.

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Sleepwalking, formally known as somnambulism, is a behavior disorder that originates during deep sleep and results in walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep. It is much more common in children than adults and is more likely to occur if a person is sleep deprived. Because a sleepwalker typically remains in deep sleep throughout the episode, he or she may be difficult to awaken and will probably not remember the sleepwalking incident.

Sleepwalking usually involves more than just walking during sleep; it is a series of complex behaviors that are carried out while sleeping, the most obvious of which is walking. Symptoms of sleepwalking disorder range from simply sitting up in bed and looking around, to walking around the room or house, to leaving the house and even driving long distances. It is a common misconception that a sleepwalker should not be awakened. In fact, it can be quite dangerous not to wake a sleepwalker.

The prevalence of sleepwalking in the general population is estimated to be between 1% and 15%. The onset or persistence of sleepwalking in adulthood is common, and is usually not associated with any significant underlying psychiatric or psychological problems. Common triggers for sleepwalking include sleep deprivation, sedative agents (including alcohol), febrile illnesses, and certain medications.

The prevalence of sleepwalking is much higher for children, especially those between the ages of three and seven, and occurs more often in children with sleep apnea. There is also a higher instance of sleepwalking among children who experience bedwetting. Sleep terrors are a related disorder and both tend to run in families.


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The small bowel makes up most of the digestive tract. Cancers of the small bowel are rare. Cancers that have spread to the small bowel from another part of the body, are called secondary cancers. Look at the information about where the cancer started (the primary cancer) because the treatment is the same. 


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Small vessel disease is a condition in which the walls of the small arteries in the heart are damaged. The condition causes signs and symptoms of heart disease, such as chest pain (angina).Small vessel disease is sometimes called coronary microvascular disease or small vessel heart disease. It's often diagnosed after a doctor finds little or no narrowing in the main arteries of your heart, despite your having symptoms that suggest heart disease.Small vessel disease is more common in women and in people who have diabetes or high blood pressure. The condition is treatable but can be difficult to detect.

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Before smallpox was eradicated, it was a serious infectious disease caused by the variola virus. It was contagious—meaning, it spread from one person to another. People who had smallpox had a fever and a distinctive, progressive skin rash.Most people with smallpox recovered, but about 3 out of every 10 people with the disease died. Many smallpox survivors have permanent scars over large areas of their body, especially their faces. Some are left blind. Thanks to the success of vaccination, smallpox was eradicated, and no cases of naturally occurring smallpox have happened since 1977. The last natural outbreak of smallpox in the United States occurred in 1949.


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It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on a date or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause significant anxiety, fear, self-consciousness and embarrassment because you fear being scrutinized or judged by others In social anxiety disorder, fear and anxiety lead to avoidance that can disrupt your life. Severe stress can affect your daily routine, work, school or other activities.Social anxiety disorder is a chronic mental health condition, but learning coping skills in psychotherapy and taking medications can help you gain confidence and improve your ability to interact with others




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The palate is commonly called the roof of the mouth. It is divided into two parts: the bony hard palate in the front, and the fleshy soft palate (called the velum) in the back of the mouth. The hard palate is part of the oral cavity and the soft palate is part of the oropharynx.The hard palate creates a barrier between the mouth and the nasal cavity. A natural opening in the palate for nerves and blood vessels (near the third molar) can create a passageway for a tumor to spread into the nasal cavity.The soft palate closes the nasal passage during swallowing so food does not enter the nose. It also helps create speech sounds. If the palate does not function correctly during speech, air escapes through the nose, and the speech has a nasal sound. During a sneeze, the soft palate closes the nasal passage to protect it. Substances in the sneeze are thrown out into mouth.


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Solitary fibrous tumors are rare growths of soft tissue cells that can form nearly anywhere in the body.Solitary fibrous tumors most often occur in the lining around the outside of the lungs (pleural solitary fibrous tumors). Solitary fibrous tumors have also been found in the head and neck, breast, kidney, prostate, spinal cord, and other sites.Most solitary fibrous tumors are noncancerous (benign), but in rare cases, solitary fibrous tumors can be cancerous (malignant). Solitary fibrous tumors tend to grow slowly and may not cause signs and symptoms until they become very large.

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Allergy to soy, a product of soybeans, is a common food allergy. Often, soy allergy starts in infancy with reaction to soy-based infant formula. Although most children outgrow soy allergy, some carry the allergy into adulthood.Mild signs and symptoms of soy allergy include hives or itching in and around the mouth. In rare cases, soy allergy can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).If you or your child has a reaction to soy, let your doctor know. Tests can help confirm a soy allergy.Having a soy allergy means avoiding products that contain soy, which can be difficult. Many foods, such as meat products, bakery goods, chocolate and breakfast cereals, may contain soy.

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A spermatocele is an often pain-free benign cyst that occurs close to a testicle. It may also be known as a spermatic or epididymal cyst.The cyst forms in the epididymis. The epididymis is a coiled tube behind each testicle. The cyst is filled with fluid and may contain dead sperm. Read on to learn more about identifying and treating this condition

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare group of neurological diseases that mainly involve the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement. Voluntary muscles produce movements like chewing, walking, breathing and talking. The disease is progressive, meaning the symptoms get worse over time. Currently, there is no cure for ALS and no effective treatment to halt, or reverse, the progression of the disease.


ALS belongs to a wider group of disorders known as motor neuron diseases, which are caused by gradual deterioration (degeneration) and death of motor neurons. Motor neurons are nerve cells that extend from the brain to the spinal cord and to muscles throughout the body. These motor neurons initiate and provide vital communication links between the brain and the voluntary muscles.


Messages from motor neurons in the brain (called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to motor neurons in the spinal cord and to motor nuclei of brain (called lower motor neurons) and from the spinal cord and motor nuclei of brain to a particular muscle or muscles.


In ALS, both the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons degenerate or die, and stop sending messages to the muscles. Unable to function, the muscles gradually weaken, start to twitch (called fasciculations), and waste away (atrophy). Eventually, the brain loses its ability to initiate and control voluntary movements.


Early symptoms of ALS usually include muscle weakness or stiffness. Gradually all muscles under voluntary control are affected, and individuals lose their strength and the ability to speak, eat, move, and even breathe.


Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure, usually within 3 to 5 years from when the symptoms first appear. However, about 10 percent of people with ALS survive for 10 or more years.


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A fold of fat that some people have under their chin and that looks like a second chin

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A spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord. It’s an extremely serious type of physical trauma that’s likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life.The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves and other tissue that the vertebrae of the spine contains and protects. The vertebrae are the bones stacked on top of each other that make up the spine. The spine contains many nerves, and extends from the brain’s base down the back, ending close to the buttocks.The spinal cord is responsible for sending messages from the brain to all parts of the body. It also sends messages from the body to the brain. We’re able to perceive pain and move our limbs because of messages sent through the spinal cord.If the spinal cord sustains an injury, some or all of these impulses may not be able to “get through.” The result is a complete or total loss of sensation and mobility below the injury. A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout a larger part of the body than one in the lower back area.

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A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your spinal canal or within the bones of your spine. A spinal cord tumor, also called an intradural tumor, is a spinal tumor that that begins within the spinal cord or the covering of the spinal cord (dura). A tumor that affects the bones of the spine (vertebrae) is called a vertebral tumor.Spinal cord tumors may be classified as one of three different types depending on where they occur relative to the protective membranes of the spinal cord.

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A spinal headache, also known as a postdural puncture headache, is a complication of needle insertion into the subarachnoid space through the dural sac. The dural sac encases the spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid.This is a pressurized system that extends from the intracranial cavity down to the sacrum. Fluctuation in pressure can result in headache. This commonly occurs after diagnostic lumbar puncture. It is a less common complication of spinal anesthesia and spinal interventional pain injections.

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In the medical field, stenosis means the abnormal narrowing of a body channel. When combined with the word spinal, it defines a narrowing of the bone channel occupied by the spinal nerves or the spinal cord.Some people are born with a congenital form, but most develop spinal stenosis as part of the degenerative cascade. A few do not feel any effects of the narrowing, but as part of the aging process, most people will eventually notice radiating pain, weakness, and/or numbness secondary to the compression of the nerves or spinal cord.While the narrowing may occur at different parts of the spine, the symptoms of nerve compression are often similar. That is why specialists often will perform testing to determine the cause and location of the narrowing.

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Stickler syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes that are responsible for forming collagen, proteins which add strength and elasticity to connective tissue. Stickler syndrome affects connective tissue throughout the body, but most notably in the eyes (it is the most common cause of retinal detachment in children), ears, face, and joints.Stickler syndrome affects 1 out of every 7,500 people, but experts believe that it is widely under-diagnosed. While there is no medical cure for Stickler syndrome, when it is identified early, there is a lot that people can do to treat the problems it causes.

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Stomach polyps — also called gastric polyps — are masses of cells that form on the lining inside your stomach. These polyps are rare and usually don't cause any signs or symptoms. Stomach polyps are most often discovered when your doctor is examining you for some other reason.Most stomach polyps don't become cancerous. But certain types can increase your risk of stomach cancer in the future. Depending on the type of stomach polyp you have, treatment might involve removing the polyp or monitoring it for changes.

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Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that's been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is polymorphic light eruption, also known as sun poisoning.Some people have a hereditary type of sun allergy, while others develop signs and symptoms only when triggered by another factor — such as certain types of medications or skin exposure to plants such as limes or wild parsnip.Mild cases of sun allergy may resolve without treatment. More severe cases may require steroid creams or pills. People who have a severe sun allergy may need to take preventative measures and wear sun-protective clothing.

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An arrhythmia is an abnormality in the timing or pattern of the heartbeat. Arrhythmias may cause the heart to beat too rapidly, too slowly, or irregularly. They are common and may cause a wide variety of symptoms, such as a racing, skipping or fluttering sensation (called palpitations) in your chest.Cardiac arrhythmias also may cause light-headedness, fainting, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue or no symptoms at all. Many types of arrhythmia are merely nuisances, other types may be serious problems because they cause the patient to develop heart failure, pass out or even die suddenly when the heart beats too slowly or too rapidly to pump blood to the body.Supraventricular tachycardia is a series of rapid heartbeats that begin in or involve the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. SVT can cause the heart to beat very rapidly or erratically. As a result, the heart may beat inefficiently, and the body may receive an inadequate blood supply. There are three major types of SVT including:

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Tachycardia is a common type of heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) in which the heart beats faster than normal while at rest.It's normal for your heart rate to rise during exercise or as a physiological response to stress, trauma or illness (sinus tachycardia). But in tachycardia (tak-ih-KAHR-dee-uh), the heart beats faster than normal in the upper or lower chambers of the heart or both while at rest.Your heart rate is controlled by electrical signals sent across heart tissues. Tachycardia occurs when an abnormality in the heart produces rapid electrical signals that quicken the heart rate, which is normally about 60 to 100 beats a minute at rest.In some cases, tachycardia may cause no symptoms or complications. But if left untreated, tachycardia can disrupt normal heart function and lead to serious complications, including:


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Swollen lymph nodes usually occur as a result of exposure to bacteria or viruses. When swollen lymph nodes are caused by an infection, this is known as lymphadenitis (lim-fad-uh-NIE-tis). Rarely, swollen lymph nodes are caused by cancer.Your lymph nodes, also called lymph glands, play a vital role in your body's ability to fight off infections. They function as filters, trapping viruses, bacteria and other causes of illnesses before they can infect other parts of your body. Common areas where you might notice swollen lymph nodes include your neck, under your chin, in your armpits and in your groin.In some cases, the passage of time and warm compresses may be all you need to treat swollen lymph nodes. Treatment of lymphadenitis depends on the cause.

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Synovial sarcoma is a type of soft-tissue sarcoma. It is a rare cancer. Only about 1 to 3 individuals in a million people are diagnosed with this disease each year. It can occur at any age, but it is more common among teenagers and young adults. Synovial sarcoma seems to have a slight preference for males, with 12 male patients for every 10 female patients. Despite its name, synovial sarcoma is not related to the synovial tissues that are a part of the joints. The disease starts most commonly in the legs or arms, but it can appear in any part of the body. On a pathology report, synovial sarcoma may be classified in different subtypes depending on what it looks like under the microscope or what specific gene mutation is involved. Synovial sarcoma is a high grade tumor. It spreads to distant sites in up to 50% of cases.


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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a type of bacteria known as Treponema pallidum. In 2016, more than 88,000 cases of syphilis were reported in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The rate of women with syphilis has been declining in the United States, but the rate among men, particularly men who have sex with men, has been rising. The first sign of syphilis is a small, painless sore. It can appear on the sexual organs, rectum, or inside the mouth. This sore is called a chancre. People often fail to notice it right away.Syphilis can be challenging to diagnose. Someone can have it without showing any symptoms for years. However, the earlier syphilis is discovered, the better. Syphilis that remains untreated for a long time can cause major damage to important organs, like the heart and brain.Syphilis is only spread through direct contact with syphilitic chancres. It can’t be transmitted by sharing a toilet with another person, wearing another person’s clothing, or using another person’s eating utensils

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Syringomyelia is a rare disorder in which a cyst forms within your spinal cord. As this fluid-filled cyst, or syrinx, expands and lengthens over time, it compresses and damages part of your spinal cord from its center outward.Damage to the spinal cord caused by a syrinx can lead to symptoms such as progressive pain, stiffness, and weakness in the:back shoulders arms legs People with the disorder might lose the ability to feel cold and pain normally. Some people with this disorder won’t have any symptoms and won’t need treatment. For others, syringomyelia will cause symptoms and complications that worsen as the syrinx expands.Treatment aims to relieve the pressure on your spinal cord. The treatment your doctor suggests for you will depend on the cause of your syringomyelia. Follow-up care after surgery is important because syringomyelia can reoccur.

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The features of seizures beginning in the temporal lobe can be extremely varied, but certain patterns are common. There may be a mixture of different feelings, emotions, thoughts, and experiences, which may be familiar or completely foreign. In some cases, a series of old memories resurfaces. In others, the person may feel as if everything – including home and family – appears strange. Hallucinations of voices, music, people, smells, or tastes may occur. These features are called “auras” or “warnings.” They may last for just a few seconds or may continue as long as a minute or two.Experiences during temporal lobe seizures vary in intensity and quality. Sometimes the seizures are so mild that the person barely notices. In other cases, the person may be consumed with fright, intellectual fascination, or even pleasure.The experiences and sensations that accompany these seizures are often impossible to describe, even for the most eloquent adult. And of course it is even more difficult to get an accurate picture of what people are feeling.

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The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the joint that connects your mandible (lower jaw) to your skull. The joint can be found on both sides of your head in front of your ears. It allows your jaw to open and close, enabling you to speak and eat.This abbreviation is also used to refer to a group of health problems related to your jaw. These disorders can cause tenderness at the joint, facial pain, and difficulty moving the joint. According to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, as many as 10 million Americans suffer from TMJ. TMJ is more common among women than men. These disorders are treatable, but there are many different possible causes. This can make diagnosis difficult.Keep reading to learn more about TMJ. You should discuss any concerns with your doctor.

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The Achilles tendon attaches your calf muscles to your heel bone, or calcaneus. You use this tendon to jump, walk, run, and stand on the balls of your feet. Continuous, intense physical activity, such as running and jumping, can cause painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon, known as Achilles tendonitis (or tendinitis).


There are two types of Achilles tendonitis: insertional Achilles tendinitis and noninsertional Achilles tendonitis. Insertional Achilles tendonitis affects the lower portion of your tendon where it attaches to your heel bone. Noninsertional Achilles tendonitis involves fibers in the middle portion of the tendon and tends to affect younger people who are active.


Simple home treatments can help Achilles tendonitis. However, if home treatment doesn’t work, it’s important to see a doctor. If your tendonitis gets worse, your tendon can tear. You may need medication or surgery to ease the pain.


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The cause of the majority of cases is the bell clapper deformity, an anatomic abnormality that is present in some males. This anatomical condition allows the spermatic cord to twist more easily, resulting in compromise of the blood supply to the testicle. This can occur spontaneously or may be associated with trauma. There is no way to detect this deformity. In significant number of men who have this anatomical abnormality will have it in both testicles.

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Tetralogy of Fallot (teh-TRAL-uh-jee of fuh-LOW) is a rare condition caused by a combination of four heart defects that are present at birth (congenital).These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause oxygen-poor blood to flow out of the heart and to the rest of the body. Infants and children with tetralogy of Fallot usually have blue-tinged skin because their blood doesn't carry enough oxygen.Tetralogy of Fallot is often diagnosed during infancy or soon after. However, tetralogy of Fallot might not be detected until later in life in some adults, depending on the severity of the defects and symptoms.With early diagnosis followed by appropriate surgical treatment, most children and adults who have tetralogy of Fallot live relatively normal lives, though they'll need regular medical care throughout life and might have restrictions on exercise

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The term tetraplegia refers to a condition that causes total or partial paralysis in all four limbs, including the whole of the body. Tetraplegia can be caused by injury or illness, both  of which can damage the spinal cord permanently between the levels of  C1 - 7. The term tetraplegic refers to an individual who suffers from tetraplegia. Quadriplegic is the American terminology for tetraplegic.

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Transient global amnesia is a sudden, temporary episode of memory loss that can't be attributed to a more common neurological condition, such as epilepsy or stroke.During an episode of transient global amnesia, your recall of recent events simply vanishes, so you can't remember where you are or how you got there. In addition, you may not remember anything about what's happening in the here and now. Consequently, you may keep repeating the same questions because you don't remember the answers you've just been given. You may also draw a blank when asked to remember things that happened a day, a month or even a year ago.With transient global amnesia, you do remember who you are, and recognize the people you know well. But that doesn't make your memory loss less disturbing.Fortunately, transient global amnesia is rare, seemingly harmless and unlikely to happen again. Episodes are usually short-lived, and afterward your memory is fine.

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Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen.The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia. Anemia is a condition in which your body doesn’t have enough normal, healthy red blood cells.Thalassemia is inherited, meaning that at least one of your parents must be a carrier of the disease. It’s caused by either a genetic mutation or a deletion of certain key gene fragments.Thalassemia minor is a less serious form of the disorder. There are two main forms of thalassemia that are more serious. In alpha thalassemia, at least one of the alpha globin genes has a mutation or abnormality. In beta thalassemia, the beta globin genes are affected.Each of these forms of thalassemia has different subtypes. The exact form you have will affect the severity of your symptoms and your outlook.

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The term ‘thoracic outlet syndrome’ describes compression of the neurovascular structures as they exit through the thoracic outlet (cervicothoracobrachial region). The thoracic outlet is marked by the anterior scalene muscle anteriorly, the middle scalene posteriorly, and the first rib inferiorly. This condition has emerged as one of the most controversial topics in musculoskeletal medicine and rehabilitation [2]. This controversy extends to almost every aspect of the pathology including the definition, incidence, pathoanatomical contributions, diagnosis, and treatment.The term ‘TOS’ does not specify the structure being compressed. Investigators namely identify two main categories of TOS: the vascular form (arterial or venous), which raises few diagnostic problems, and the neurological form, which occurs in more than 95-99% of all cases of TOS. Therefore the syndrome should be differentiated by using the terms arterial TOS (ATOS), venous TOS (VTOS) or neurogenic 

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Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), an inflammatory vasculopathy also known as Buerger disease, is characterized by an inflammatory endarteritis that causes a prothrombotic state and subsequent vaso-occlusive phenomena. The inflammatory process is initiated within the tunica intima. It characteristically affects small and medium-sized arteries as well as veins of the upper and lower extremities. The condition is strongly associated with heavy tobacco use, and disease progression is closely linked to continued use. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.)Patients often present with moderate-to-severe claudication that can quickly progress to critical limb ischemia featuring rest pain or tissue loss. Features of acute limb ischemia (eg, pain, paresthesia, palor, mottling, poikilothermia, paresis, and pulselessness) are common signs and symptoms encountered in the emergency setting. [1, 2, 3, 4] (See Presentation.)Pharmacologic therapy is generally ineffective; abstinence from tobacco is the only measure known to prevent disease progression. (See Treatment.) Given the arteritis of the small and medium-sized vessels, surgical or endovascular revascularization may not be possible, because of the absence of a distal target for revascularization. As the disease evolves, amputation may be the only viable option.


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Thrombophlebitis is inflammation of a vein caused by a blood clot. It typically occurs in the legs. A blood clot is a solid formation of blood cells that clump together. Blood clots can interfere with normal blood flow throughout your body, and are considered dangerous. Thrombophlebitis can occur in veins near the surface of your skin or deeper, down in between your muscle layers.


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A thunderclap headache is a severe headache that starts suddenly. This type of headache pain doesn’t gradually build in intensity. Instead, it’s an intense and very painful headache as soon as it starts. In fact, it’s frequently described as the worse headache of one’s life.A thunderclap headache may be a sign of a condition that can be life-threatening. It may be connected to some sort of bleeding in your brain. It’s important that you seek medical attention if you think you may be experiencing one. It may also have a benign cause that’s not life-threatening but should still be checked immediately to find out what’s causing it.


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Tonsils come in a pair located at the back of your throat in an area known as the oropharynx. Their role is to help fight infection. Cancer can develop in your tonsils. Tonsil cancer is classified as head and neck cancer, throat cancer, and oropharynx cancer.Tonsil cancer can develop even in people who’ve had their tonsils removed because a small piece of tonsil tissue may be left behind.

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Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder affecting cellular differentiation, proliferation, and migration early in development, resulting in a variety of hamartomatous lesions that may affect virtually every organ system of the body.The best-known cutaneous manifestation of TSC is adenoma sebaceum, which often does not appear until late childhood or early adolescence. This lesion is an angiofibroma (ie, cutaneous hamartoma) and is not related to excessive sebum or acne. Flat, reddish macular lesions develop first, which can be mistaken for freckles early on. See the image below.

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Tricuspid valve disease affects the valve that connects the upper and lower chambers (atrium and ventricle) on the right side of your heart.Aurora Health Care’s teams are the region’s leaders in diagnosing and treating heart valve diseases. We offer customized treatment using the most advanced, minimally invasive procedures, whether the condition is congenital (a birth defect) or develops later in life.

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Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body, despite trying to stop.Hair pulling from the scalp often leaves patchy bald spots, which causes significant distress and can interfere with social or work functioning. People with trichotillomania may go to great lengths to disguise the loss of hair.For some people, trichotillomania may be mild and generally manageable. For others, the compulsive urge to pull hair is overwhelming. Some treatment options have helped many people reduce their hair pulling or stop entirely.

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Transverse myelitis is an inflammation of the spinal cord, a major part of the central nervous system.  The spinal cord carries nerve signals to and from the brain through nerves that extend from each side of the spinal cord and connect to nerves elsewhere in the body.  The term myelitis refers to inflammation of the spinal cord; transverse refers to the pattern of changes in sensation—there is often a band-like sensation across the trunk of the body, with sensory changes below.Causes of transverse myelitis include infections, immune system disorders, and other disorders that may damage or destroy myelin, the fatty white insulating substance that covers nerve cell fibers.  Inflammation within the spinal cord interrupts communications between nerve fibers in the spinal cord and the rest of the body, affecting sensation and nerve signaling below the injury.  Symptoms include pain, sensory problems, weakness in the legs and possibly the arms, and bladder and bowel problems.  The symptoms may develop suddenly (over a period of hours) or over days or weeks.Transverse myelitis can affect people of any age, gender, or race.  It does not appear to be genetic or run in families.  A peak in incidence rates (the number of new cases per year) appears to occur between 10 and 19 years and 30 and 39 years.  It is estimated that about 1,400 new cases of transverse myelitis are diagnosed each year in the United States.Although some people recover from transverse myelitis with minor or no residual problems, the healing process may take months to years.  Others may suffer permanent impairments that affect their ability to perform ordinary tasks of daily living.  Some individuals will have only one episode of transverse myelitis; other individuals may have a recurrence, especially if an underlying illness caused the disorder.There is no cure for transverse myelitis.  Treatments to prevent or minimize permanent neurological deficits include corticosteroid and other medications that suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis (removal of proteins from the blood), or antiviral medications.

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Uterine polyps are soft red outgrowths from the lining of the womb (the endometrium), usually less than 1 cm in diameter, which often flatten to fit the cavity of the uterus.The stalk of the polyp (or pedicle) is usually short, but sometimes it grows long enough for the polyp to project from the cervix (the lower opening of the womb). Polyps are prone to bleeding, and a uterine polyp that develops near the fallopian tubes may obstruct the opening of the tubes, possibly leading to difficulty with becoming pregnant. Uterine polyps can develop in pre- or post-menopausal women. Very rarely, polyps can be cancerous.


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The uterus (the womb, in which a fetus develops) is normally held in place inside the pelvis with various muscles and ligaments. Sometimes, because of childbirth or difficult labor and vaginal delivery, these tissues are weakened. As a woman ages and with age-related decrease in the concentration of the hormone estrogen, her uterus can move downward into the vaginal canal, causing the condition known as a prolapsed uterus.Muscle weakness or relaxation may allow the uterus to sag or come completely out of the body. Prolapsed uterus can be described in the following stages

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Although it is a relatively rare disease, primarily found in the Caucasian population, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults with a mean age-adjusted incidence of 5.1 cases per million per year. Tumors are located either in iris (4%), ciliary body (6%), or choroid (90%). The host susceptibility factors for uveal melanoma include fair skin, light eye color, inability to tan, ocular or oculodermal melanocytosis, cutaneous or iris or choroidal nevus, and BRCA1-associated protein 1 mutation. Currently, the most widely used first-line treatment options for this malignancy are resection, radiation therapy, and enucleation. There are two main types of radiation therapy: plaque brachytherapy (iodine-125, ruthenium-106, or palladium-103, or cobalt-60) and teletherapy (proton beam, helium ion, or stereotactic radiosurgery using cyber knife, gamma knife, or linear accelerator). The alternative to radiation is enucleation. Although these therapies achieve satisfactory local disease control, long-term survival rate for patients with uveal melanoma remains guarded, with risk for liver metastasis. There have been advances in early diagnosis over the past few years, and with the hope survival rates could improve as smaller tumors are treated. As in many other cancer indications, both early detection and early treatment could be critical for a positive long-term survival outcome in uveal melanoma. These observations call attention to an unmet medical need for the early treatment of small melanocytic lesions or small melanomas in the eye to achieve local disease control and vision preservation with the possibility to prevent metastases and improve overall patient survival.

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An umbilical hernia creates a soft swelling or bulge near the navel (umbilicus). If your baby has an umbilical hernia, you may notice the bulge only when he or she cries, coughs or strains. The bulge may disappear when your baby is calm or lies on his or her back.Umbilical hernias in children are usually painless. Umbilical hernias that appear during adulthood may cause abdominal discomfort.

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Unstable angina belongs to the spectrum of clinical presentations referred to collectively as acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), which also includes ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI). [1, 2] Unstable angina is considered to be an ACS in which there is myocardial ischemia without detectable myocardial necrosis (ie, cardiac biomarkers of myocardial necrosis —such as creatine kinase MB isozyme, troponin, myoglobin—are not released into the circulation). See the image below.

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Cancer of the ureter (ureteral cancer) is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line the inside of the tubes (ureters) that connect your kidneys to your bladder. Ureters are part of the urinary tract, and they carry urine produced by the kidneys to the bladder.Ureteral cancer is uncommon. It occurs most often in older adults and in people who have previously been treated for bladder cancer.Ureteral cancer is closely related to bladder cancer. The cells that line the ureters are the same type of cells that line the inside of the bladder. People diagnosed with ureteral cancer have a greatly increased risk of bladder cancer, so your doctor will recommend tests to look for signs of bladder cancer.Treatment for ureteral cancer typically involves surgery. In certain cases, chemotherapy may be recommended.

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Ureteral obstructions are blockages in your urinary tract, which includes your kidneys, bladder, the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder (ureters), and the tube that connects your bladder to the outside of your body (urethra). Blockages can develop for many reasons, including gastrointestinal problems. Ureteral obstructions are more common in men, especially as they get older and their prostate gland enlarges.Obstructions can be cured with surgery, but they need to be treated promptly. If they’re not, they can lead to severe illness, kidney damage and life-threatening infections.

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Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the eye and visual system. The eye, its surrounding structures and the visual system can be affected by a number of clinical conditions. Ophthalmology involves diagnosis and therapy of such conditions, along with microsurgery. Eye health services are becoming more and more important as the UK population ages. An ageing population means there are more and more incidences of age-related diseases of the eye, such as age-related macular degeneration. These eye diseases can be successfully treated if caught early, and can be managed effectively with existing treatments and medicines. Cataracts are the main cause of impaired vision worldwide, and in England and Wales it is estimated that around 2.5 million people aged 65 or older have some degree of visual impairment caused by cataracts. Cataract surgery is the second most common operation performed in the NHS in England – over 300,000 procedures are performed each year. Patients and members of the general public can view more information about eye conditions and treatments in our ‘For Patients‘ section.


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Pilates aims to strengthen the body in an even way, with particular emphasis on core strength to improve general fitness and wellbeing. Pilates exercises are done on a mat or using special equipment, such as the Reformer, the Cadillac and Wunda Chair. With its system of pulleys and springs, handles and straps, the apparatus can provide either resistance or support, depending on your needs.Pilates was developed by German-born Joseph Pilates, who believed mental and physical health were closely connected. His method was influenced by western forms of exercise, including gymnastics, boxing and Greco-Roman wrestling. Pilates immigrated to the US in the 1920s and opened a studio in New York, where he taught his method – which he called contrology – for several decades.


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The idea behind functional training is that each exercise should be more natural and carry over into daily life. Functional training exercises tend to activate more muscles and therefore consume more energy. These multidimensional exercises also tend to improve your natural movement skills and enhance your general mobility.See how many of the below functional training exercises you can incorporate into your workouts for a more practical and fat burning workout.


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An exercise ball, also known as a Swiss Ball, is a ball constructed of soft elastic with a diameter of approximately 35 to 85 centimeters (14 to 34 inches) and filled with air. The air pressure is changed by removing a valve stem and either filling with air or letting the ball deflate. It is most often used in physical therapy, athletic training and exercise. It can also be used for weight training. The ball, while often referred to as a Swiss ball, is also known by a number of different names, including balance ball, birth ball, body ball, ball, fitness ball, gym ball, gymnastic ball, physio ball, pilates ball, Pezzi ball, stability ball, Swedish ball, therapy ball, or yoga ball


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If you are bored of lifting heavy weights, doing yoga and other regular stretching exercises then AEROBICS is the right option for you. You will not only enjoy doing it but also reap several health benefits out of it. Aerobics is a kind of cardio workout that causes you to breathe harder, makes you sweat and gets your heart pumping faster than at rest. Dance moves you perform in this, makes the heart and lungs work harder as the body’s need for oxygen is increased. So, get your heart pumping with Bong beauty Bipasha Basu, performing aerobics dance workout.


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An ECG (electrocardiogram) records the electrical activity of your heart at rest. It provides information about your heart rate and rhythm, and shows if there is enlargement of the heart due to high blood pressure (hypertension) or evidence of a previous heart attack (myocardial infarction). However, it does not show whether you have asymptomatic blockages in your heart arteries or predict your risk of a future heart attack. The resting ECG is different from a stress or exercise ECG or cardiac imaging test. You may need an ECG test if you have risk factors for heart disease such as high blood pressure, or symptoms such as palpitations or chest pain. Or you may need it if you already have heart disease. But in other cases, you may think twice about having this test.

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An echocardiogram (echo) is a graphic outline of the heart's movement. During an echo test, ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) from a hand-held wand placed on your chest provides pictures of the heart's valves and chambers and helps the sonographer evaluate the pumping action of the heart. Echo is often combined with Doppler ultrasound and color Doppler to evaluate blood flow across the heart's valves.

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Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions. At first, someone with Alzheimer's disease may notice mild confusion and difficulty remembering. Eventually, people with the disease may even forget important people in their lives and undergo dramatic personality changes.


Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia — a group of brain disorders that cause the loss of intellectual and social skills. In Alzheimer's disease, the brain cells degenerate and die, causing a steady decline in memory and mental function.


Current Alzheimer's disease medications and management strategies may temporarily improve symptoms. This can sometimes help people with Alzheimer's disease maximize function and maintain independence for a little while longer. But because there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease, it's important to seek supportive services and tap into your support network as early as possible.

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Fetal echocardiography is a test similar to an ultrasound. This exam allows your doctor to better see the structure and function of your unborn child’s heart. It’s typically done in the second trimester, between weeks 18 to 24.


The exam uses sound waves that “echo” off of the structures of the fetus’ heart. A machine analyzes these sound waves and creates a picture, or echocardiogram, of their heart’s interior. This image provides information on how your baby’s heart has formed and whether it’s working properly.


It also allows your doctor to see the blood flow through their heart. This in-depth look allows your doctor to find any defects or abnormalities in the baby’s blood flow or heartbeat.

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The child will lie down tilted slightly on his / her side on a hospital bed in our child-friendly examination room, not an operating room. Many exam rooms are equipped with a television to keep a child entertained and alleviate boredom. The child must be undressed from the waist up and can choose to wear a short gown.


To improve the quality of the pictures, a colorless, warm gel is applied to the skin on the area of the chest where the heart is located. A transducer, a small microphone-like device, is placed on top of the gel and against the skin. The transducer uses sound waves, which bounce off the different parts of a child's heart, creating a picture.


The transducer is moved over the chest, abdominal area, and neck in order to obtain the images.


The sounds you may hear from the echo machine are the sounds of the blood flowing from one chamber to another and the valves opening or closing as the blood moves through the heart.


The colors you see on the screen are not the colors of the blood. The colors tell us what direction the blood is flowing. The red color shows the blood is flowing towards the transducer and the blue color shows blood is flowing away. A child may feel some discomfort from the pressure of the transducer. Pediatric echosonographers are trained to complete scans in as pain-free and patient-sensitive manner as possible. 


A computer interprets the information from the transducer to make an image of the heart appear on the screen. This image is recorded into a digital storage system for the cardiologist to measure and review. 

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A stress echocardiography, also called an echocardiography stress test or stress echo, is a procedure that determines how well your heart and blood vessels are working.


During a stress echocardiography, you’ll exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike while your doctor monitors your blood pressure and heart rhythm. When your heart rate reaches peak levels, your doctor will take ultrasound images of your heart to determine whether your heart muscles are getting enough blood and oxygen while you exercise.


Your doctor may order a stress echocardiography test if you have chest pain that they think is due to coronary artery disease or a myocardial infarction, which is a heart attack. This test also determines how much exercise you can safely tolerate if you’re in cardiac rehabilitation. The test can also tell your doctor how well treatments such as bypass grafting, angioplasty, and anti-anginal or antiarrhythmic medications are working.

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This test is the same as a treadmill exercise test. This test checks the function of the heart during and after physical activity. In addition, an IV will be started and, at the peak of exercise, the patient will be injected with a mild isotope. The patient will then be escorted to the scanning room adjacent to the stress lab for approximately 30 minutes. From there, the patient will be free to leave and will return 3 hours later for a repeat scan.


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TMT Laboratories (a.k.a. Tension Member Technology or simply TMT) is primarily a large-scale mechanical test facility. Our 24,000-square-foot laboratory houses several large test machines with load frames, cylinders, and load cells that range in capacity from a few pounds to several million. These machines and their auxiliary equipment can be configured in various combinations to simulate a wide variety of mechanical service situations. To compliment the mechanical testing, TMT also keeps a large suite of electrical and optical test equipment that can be used to monitor various test parameters during mechanical or stand-alone tests. Since we opened our doors in 1976, we have worked with the oil & gas, telecommunication, military & defense, space & aviation, oceanographic, shipping, automotive, construction, and recreation industries. During this time, we have developed world-renowned expertise in the testing and optimizing of rope and cable systems. Despite our attraction to ropes and cables, we are always looking for new areas to apply our resources. Our test machines, diverse instrumentation, data acquisition equipment, and experienced engineers are ready to tackle a wide range of testing needs.


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A brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test measures how your brain processes the sounds you hear. The BAER test records your brainwaves in response to clicks or other audio tones that are played for you. The test is also called a brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) or auditory brainstem response (ABR) test.


A BAER test can help to diagnose hearing loss and nervous system disorders, especially in newborns, young children, and others who may not be able to participate in a standard hearing test.


BAER tests are often administered to canines and are the only scientifically reliable way to test a dog’s ability to hear with one or both ears.

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An electromyogram (EMG) measures the electrical activity of muscles when they're at rest and when they're being used. Nerve conduction studies measure how well and how fast the nerves can send electrical signals.


Nerves control the muscles in the body with electrical signals called impulses. These impulses make the muscles react in certain ways. Nerve and muscle problems cause the muscles to react in ways that aren't normal.


If you have leg pain or numbness, you may have these tests to find out which nerves are being affected and how much they are affected. These tests check how well your spinal nerves are working. They also check the nerves in your arms and legs.

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We reviewed the records of 52 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients examined between 1995 and 2000 who had needle electromyography (EMG) of their respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, at or near the time of their diagnosis. With respiratory function testing, patients with abnormal diaphragmatic EMG at diagnosis (Group 1, n=23) had significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC), lower daytime arterial PO(2) and higher PCO(2) measurements (p<0.05) than patients with normal diaphragmatic EMG (Group 2, n=29). Twenty-eight percent of the patients without symptoms or signs of respiratory insufficiency at the time they were examined had an abnormal diaphragm EMG. Mean survival of Groups 1 and 2 were similar. However, sub-analysis of patients within each group, comparing those treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with those not treated, showed that treated patients in Group 1 (abnormal diaphragm EMG) survived significantly longer (p<0.05) than untreated patients. They also started NIPPV earlier than treated patients in Group 2. We conclude that respiratory muscle EMG was simply and safely performed on ALS patients at or around the time of diagnosis. The procedure can detect sub-clinical respiratory muscle dysfunction. The technique used for EMG of the respiratory muscles, its pitfalls and contraindications are also reviewed.

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Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure that evaluates the health condition of muscles and the nerve cells that control them. These nerve cells are known as motor neurons. They transmit electrical signals that cause muscles to contract and relax. An EMG translates these signals into graphs or numbers, helping doctors to make a diagnosis.


A doctor will usually order an EMG when someone is showing symptoms of a muscle or nerve disorder. These symptoms may include tingling, numbness, or unexplained weakness in the limbs. EMG results can help the doctor diagnose muscle disorders, nerve disorders, and disorders affecting the connection between nerves and muscles.


There are two components to an EMG test: the nerve conduction study and needle EMG. The nerve conduction study is the first part of the procedure. It involves placing small sensors called surface electrodes on the skin to assess the ability of the motor neurons to send electrical signals. The second part of the EMG procedure, known as needle EMG, also uses sensors to evaluate electrical signals. The sensors are called needle electrodes, and they are directly inserted into muscle tissue to evaluate muscle activity when at rest and when contracted.


During each part of the EMG procedure, one electrode releases a very mild electrical signal while the other electrodes measure how long it takes for the signal to reach them. This mimics the natural electrical signals sent by the nerves to the muscles. The distance between the electrodes and time it takes for a signal to reach them is used to determine the speed at which the nerves are able to send and receive signals. An abnormal speed usually indicates a muscle or nerve disorder.

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This course shows you videos of the commonly studied muscles in the upper extremity, insertional activity and muscle activation and motor unit analysis techniques to help you gain a working understanding of the technical skills you need to perform needle EMG examinations. The video will focus on muscle localization and needle insertion techniques, what results you should expect, how to study the shape, amplitude and duration of motor unit waveforms, pitfalls and common errors you should watch for. Muscles studied include the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI), the Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB), the Flexor Carpi Radialis (FCR) the Brachio-Radialis (BR), the Triceps (TRI), the Deltoid (DEL) and the Cervical Paraspinals.

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This test measures the integrity of nerve tracts which conduct the electric impulses. It is used to assess the nature, severity and duration of the nerve lesion and in combination with EMG helps in predicting the chances of recovery after a nerve lesion.The nerves of interest are stimulated with a very low voltage electric current which causes mild tingling over the area stimulated. The test takes 20 min to 1 hour depending upon the number of nerves to be tested. It is very useful, in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, traumatic neuropathy, plexopathy, varius vitamin deficiencies.

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This test is used to test the nerves and muscles in your entire lower extremity. Your doctor will usually order this test when he suspects that there may be some type of problem with the nerve supply to your foot and leg. Commonly the EMG/NCV test is used to diagnosis one of the following: Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome, Peripheral Neuropathy, Neuromuscular disorders, Nerve palsy or Paralysis, and Radioculopathy. Your doctor typically will refer you to either a hospital or a neurologist to have the test preformed.

The EMG portion of the test is used to record the electrical activity in your muscles. It can diagnose diseases of the nerves and muscles. It can detect conditions such as tarsal tunnel syndrome, inflamed muscles and pinched nerves. A tiny needle, called an electrode, is inserted directly into a specific muscle belly. The electrode then records the activity during the insertion, while the muscle is at rest, and while the muscle contracts. Nerve and muscle diseases alter the pattern of electrical activity in these muscles, which is record both audibly and on a computer screen. After the first muscle is tested, the electrode may be inserted into another muscle. Muscles chosen for the testing vary with the patient's symptoms and may be modified, depending on the results from the first muscles tested. Total testing time may range from just a few minutes to more than an hour, depending upon how many muscles are tested. After the exam, you may feel tenderness in the tested muscles. There is a slight risk of minor, localized inflammation in muscles during the test. This usually lasts only a few hours. Other common patient complaints are pain with insertion of the electrode.

Most of the time the Nerve Conduction Velocity Test will accompany the EMG Test. The NCV evaluates the health of the peripheral nerve by recording how fast electrical impulse travels through it. A peripheral nerve transmits information between the spinal cord and the muscles. You will be resting on a cart or bed and electrodes will be taped to your skin. A stimulator will be held against your skin, which sends out a small electrical charge along the nerve. You may feel a tingle or your muscles may twitch but this shock is not harmful. Each test will take only a few minutes. After the exam the electrodes will be removed and your skin cleaned. The time between the stimulation and response will be recorded to determine how quickly and thoroughly that the impulse is sent. A number of nervous system diseases may reduce the speed of this impulse. Each nerve test takes just a few minutes to an hour, depending upon how many nerves are being tested.

While the hospital or neurologist's office will give you instructions for the day of the examination, a few general preparations will help. Eat normally and take medication as you usually would. If you are taking a blood thinner, make sure you inform the testing facility and ask the ordering physician about the use of the medication and the timing of the test. Bath or shower the morning of the examination. Avoid bath oils or any skin lotions or emollients the day of the examination.


A typical EMG/NCV of the lower extremity takes approximately 45 minutes. This test is an important tool for diagnosing diseases of the nervous system, you can help ensure the best results if you relax and cooperate with the technicians. Make sure that you ask any questions that you have about the test before it is performed. Your physician will discuss the results with you. If you have any further questions regarding why this test was ordered for you, please ask your physician.



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A nerve conduction study (NCS) involves activating nerves electrically with small safe pulses over several points on the skin, usually on the limbs, and measuring the responses obtained. Usually, the response or signal is measured from the nerve itself or from a muscle supplied by the nerve being activated. This gives information about the state of health of the nerve, muscle and neuromuscular junction (the portion responsible for communication between the nerve and muscle). A commercial device is normally employed to measure the signals.

Electromyography (also known as needle EMG) involves the measuring of electrical activity within muscles by way of a needle electrode. It is rather similar to having an electrical microphone at the tip of the needle. Muscles are electrically active organs, and the signals and patterns of signals can lend additional information regarding the state of the muscle as well as the nerve supplying it.

In Australia, the person responsible for these tests is a neurologist, who frequently has had further training in the subspecialty of clinical neurophysiology.
A doctor may recommend that you undergo this test. There are a wide variety of conditions that are assessed with this technique. Quite frequently, the examination is requested because the patient is experiencing symptoms that suggest some problem with the nerves (numbness, tingling, weakness or pain) or muscles (weakness or pain), even though the physical examination is normal. Indeed, in many cases, there is no abnormality seen and the test can then be reassuring, but it cannot detect all conditions. In general terms, the test is useful for detecting if there is a significant abnormality, but this is also often easier when there is a definite clinical abnormality. In such cases, the test can help clarify what the problem is, although usually, unless the nerve problem is a common entrapment (site of compression), other tests may be required to ascertain the exact nature of the problem.
There are several types of nerves but generally speaking, the two major types are motor and sensory nerves. Motor nerves carry signals from the brain to the muscle to enable contraction and movement, and sensory nerves relay information to the brain. When the nerve is stimulated with metal electrodes (metallic patch/es that can conduct signals), a response can be measured by surface (on the skin) electrodes some distance away in sensory nerves overlying the nerve itself. For the motor nerves, the response is usually detected over the muscle that is activated by that nerve. In this fashion, results can reveal information about the size and speed of the electrically conducted impulse. The size usually reveals the number of nerve fibres present and the speed, the integrity of the myelin (insulating membrane around the nerve ‘axon’ or cable). This is why the word ‘conduction’ is used.
You will be given instructions on how to prepare for the test. You should not use creams or emollients on your hands and feet (the most common sites of your nerve tests) on the day of the test, and preferably since your last shower or bath. Generally speaking, there are no other preparations of note.

Please advise the neurologist performing the test if you have a pacemaker or other similar devices. If you are taking warfarin, heparin or some other medication to thin your blood, and if you are having a needle EMG test, you should advise both your GP and the neurologist. A measurement of how thin your blood is may be important before that test can be performed.
The NCS procedure is usually very safe and is non-invasive. Firstly, you will be told how to position yourself and the skin area will be prepared. Then some electrodes will be attached to your skin and you will be forewarned when to expect the stimulation. Many people are understandably anxious about the intensities of the small safe electrical pulses that are passed via the skin, but usually relax quickly when they know what to expect. It is faily important that you remain relaxed for the recordings to minimise the ‘noise’ (interference) in the recordings from excessive muscular activity.
Here, a small needle is inserted through the skin into a muscle belly. Sterilisation of the skin and a local anaesthetic is not generally required. Usually the consultation and procedure takes about 30-45 minutes in all. More complicated assessments may demand more time.
Following the test, you will be allowed to put on your garments and shoes. It should be noted that the final interpretation of the clinical meaning of the test rests with the clinician who ordered the test. This is because they can put together the whole picture. For this reason, the neurologist performing the test can only give you limited information about the meaning of the results, and may not even be able to provide any information on the next step or any possible treatments because they are unaware of all the other clinical information.


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Proximal conduction studies by F-wave technique, with conventional distal motor and sensory conduction were performed along the ulnar nerves of 20 patients each with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy and with classical motor neurone disease (MND). Such F-wave parameters as shortest F-latency, F-conduction velocity, conduction time and F-ratio were calculated. Twenty-five age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers acted as controls. Proximal slowing associated with sensory conduction abnormalities and normal distal motor conduction favored cervical spondylosis (CS). Distal slowing with a normal proximal motor and sensory conduction was associated with motor neurone disease.


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A nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test is used to assess nerve damage and dysfunction. Also known as a nerve conduction study, the procedure measures how quickly electrical signals move through your peripheral nerves.Your peripheral nerves are located outside of your brain and along your spinal cord. These nerves help you control your muscles and experience the senses. Healthy nerves send electrical signals more quickly and with greater strength than damaged nerves.The NVC test helps your doctor differentiate between an injury to the nerve fiber and an injury to the myelin sheath, the protective covering surrounding the nerve. It can also help your doctor tell the difference between a nerve disorder and a condition where a nerve injury has affected the muscles.Making these distinctions is important for proper diagnosis and determining your course of treatment.

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A nerve conduction velocity test (NCV) is an electrical test that is used to determine the adequacy of the conduction of the nerve impulse as it courses down a nerve. This test is used to detect signs of nerve injury. In this test, the nerve is electrically stimulated, and the electrical impulse 'down stream' from the stimulus is measured. This is usually done with surface patch electrodes (they are similar to those used for an electrocardiogram) that are placed on the skin over the nerve at various locations. One electrode stimulates the nerve with a very mild electrical impulse. The resulting electrical activity is recorded by the other electrodes. The distance between electrodes and the time it takes for electrical impulses to travel between electrodes are used to calculate the speed of impulse transmission (nerve conduction velocity). A decreased speed of transmission indicates nerve disease or abnormal pressure on the nerve. A nerve conduction velocity test is often done at the same time as an electromyogram (EMG). An EMG is carried out in order to exclude or detect muscle conditions which may be present due to muscular or neurologic disease.


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